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Topic: London Millennium Bridge

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  Millennium Bridge (London) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The London Millennium Footbridge is a pedestrian-only steel suspension bridge crossing the River Thames in London between the existing Southwark Bridge and Blackfriars Bridge, linking Bankside with the City.
The bridge alignment is such that a clear view of St Paul's south facade is presented from across the river, framed by the bridge supports, thus providing one of London's most photogenic views of the cathedral.
The bridge was completed at a cost of £18.2m (£2.2m over budget) and opened on June 10, 2000 (2 months late) but unexpected lateral vibration (resonant structural response) caused the bridge to be closed on June 12 for modifications.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/London_Millennium_Bridge   (840 words)

 The Millennium Bridge
London's Millennium Bridge is the first pedestrian river crossing over the Thames in central London for more than a century.
The bridge is a very shallow suspension bridge where the highly tensioned cables sag 2.3m over the 144m of the central span, a span to dip ratio of 63:1.
As with all bridge structures, the Millennium Bridge is subject to a degree of movement.
www.georgianhousehotel.co.uk /the_millennium_bridge.htm   (455 words)

 Millennium Bridge over the River Thames, joining the Tate Modern and St Paul's London - photos, history and background   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
With the bridge crossing such an old part of London, archaeological excavations were undertaken on both banks before construction started, with remains of structures from the Middle Ages being uncovered.
Although the Millennium Bridge, like all bridges, was designed to cope with a degree of movement it soon became clear that things were going seriously awry as the deck swayed about like a drunken sailor.
While work continued on the bridge, visitors were treated to the occasional sight of hundreds of paid volunteers walking over the bridge in army-type formations as the engineers battled to correct the swaying.
www.urban75.org /london/millennium.html   (932 words)

 Encyclopedia article on London [EncycloZine]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The term "London" was used for hundreds of years to refer to the conurbation centred on the small City of London in the historic county of Middlesex.
The coordinates of the centre of London (traditionally considered to be Charing Cross, near Trafalgar Square) are approximately 51°30' N, 0°8' W although the Romans marked the centre with the London Stone in the City.
London was one of the venues for the World Cup in 1966, and the European Football Championship in 1996, and hosted the final of both tournaments.
encyclozine.com /London   (3256 words)

 London Millennium Bridge: Pedestrian-Induced Lateral Vibration   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The London Millennium Footbridge is located across the Thames River in Central London.
The bridge was closed on June 12, 2000, pending an investigation into the cause of the unexpected lateral movements.
Modification of the bridge, introducing extensive passive damping, is currently underway with completion scheduled for the end of 2001.
www.pubs.asce.org /WWWdisplay.cgi?0106070   (117 words)

 London Millennium Bridge   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
It was the first new bridge the Thames in London since Tower Bridge in 1894 and it is owned the Corporation of London.
The south end of the bridge is Globe Theatre the Bankside Gallery and Tate Modern the north end near St Paul's Cathedral.
The bridge alignment is such that clear view of St Paul's south facade presented from across the river framed by bridge supports thus providing one of London's photogenic views of the cathedral.
www.freeglossary.com /Wobbly_bridge   (553 words)

 Millennium Bridge   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Londoners can walk on water again after the city's Millennium Bridge, a high-tech pedestrian walkway over the River Thames, re-opened to the public on Friday.
Initially funded by Britain's Millennium Commission, the bridge was one of several legacy projects built to commemorate the arrival of 2000.
The Millennium Bridge was one of several public legacy projects built to commemorate 2000 in Britain.
www3.telus.net /johnlee/millenniumbridge.html   (497 words)

 CNN.com - London's wobbly bridge reopens - February 22, 2002
Queen Elizabeth II officially inaugurated the completed bridge at a dedication ceremony which was preceded by a service in St Paul's Cathedral.
If enough people are on the bridge, their lateral push eventually exceeds the structure's damping force, or its resistance to movement.
The engineers are confident that the bridge is solid, and that the public will forget the criticism that followed the first opening when it re-opens on Friday.
edition.cnn.com /2002/WORLD/europe/02/22/london.bridge   (566 words)

 The Millennium Bridge, London   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The bridge was designed to open in 2000 for the millenium.
The bridge was promptly closed so that design modifications could be made.
Though the original design did not properly account for wind forces, an aerodynamically designed handrail was added to allow the bridge to withstand the forces.
mywebpages.comcast.net /timandjen/images/vacation/london_millennium.htm   (78 words)

 Millennium Bridge London by Foster
The Millennium Bridge is the first new bridge across the river Thames in London since Tower Bridge opened in 1894, and it is the first ever designed for pedestrians only.
During this day and the next two days a huge amount of people crossed the bridge producing a sway movement that was far greater than expected; in order to fully investigate and resolve the issue the decision was taken to close the bridge on 12th June 2001.
The Millennium Bridge is situated between Blackfriars Bridge and Southwark Bridge on the river Thames in London.
www.galinsky.com /buildings/millenniumbridge   (499 words)

 london millennium bridge   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
It was the first new bridge across the Thames in London since Tower Bridge in 1894 and it is owned by the Corporation of London.
The south end of the bridge is near Globe Theatre, the Bankside Gallery and Tate Modern, the north end near St Paul's Cathedral.
The image above was taken while the bridge was being retrofitted.
www.yourencyclopedia.net /london_millennium_bridge.html   (457 words)

 London Millennium Bridge - Term Explanation on IndexSuche.Com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
It was the first new bridge across the Thames in London since Tower_Bridge in 1894 and it is owned by the Corporation_of_London.
The south end of the bridge is near the Bankside_Gallery and Tate_Modern, the north end near St_Paul's_Cathedral.
After extensive analysis, the problem was fixed by the retrofitting of 37 fluid-viscous dampers (energy dissipating) to control horizontal movement and 52 tuned_mass_dampers (inertial) to control vertical movement.
www.indexsuche.com /London_Millennium_Bridge.html   (380 words)

 ArchitectureWeek - News - London's Bridge Ascendant - 2002.0327
London’s Millennium Bridge reopened on February 22, 2002, with its designer, Lord Foster, in attendance, but without its original, notorious wobble.
Described by Foster as a "blade of light," the Millennium Bridge was closed just two days after it first opened in June, 2000, because it shimmied and shook uncomfortably.
Viewed from the east, London's Millennium Bridge, by Lord Foster, reopened to pedestrians in February.
www.architectureweek.com /2002/0327/news_1-1.html   (274 words)

 London Millennium Bridge
Millennium Bridge with St Paul's Cathedral in the foreground
The London Millennium footbridge is located on the River Thames, between St. Paul’s Cathedral on the north bank of the river, and the Borough of Southwark with the nearby Globe Theater and Tate Modern Art Museum on the South bank.
The Millennium Footbridge was officially opened on June 10, 2000 The bridge features a “Blade of Light” design theme, conceived by Sir Norman Foster and Partners, Architects, and sculptor Sir Anthony Caro.
www.travellondon.com /templates/attractions/MillenniumBridge.html   (125 words)

 Millennium Bridge to close for wobble check
The Millennium Bridge will close for three days during March whilst part of the decking is removed to allow a structural inspection.
The Corporation of London says that all highway structures are inspected regularly and the Millennium Bridge - now almost five years old - is due for its first general inspection.
It is not usually necessary to close a structure to complete an inspection, however for the Millennium Bridge there is the need to inspect the various retrofitted dampers installed to counteract the infamous wobble.
www.london-se1.co.uk /news/view.php?ArtID=1433   (198 words)

 USATODAY.com - Science snapshot: London's bridge is swinging 'round   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
London's Millennium Bridge was sent swinging by the steps of about 160 tourists.
The force of feet on a bridge isn't the worry, rather it is their rhythm, says Cornell University's Steve Strogatz.
The engineering firm that designed the bridge determined that it took about 160 walkers to set the structure swaying, and that its sideways resonance frequency, unfortunately, seemed to match two footsteps a second — a natural stride.
www.usatoday.com /tech/science/discoveries/2005-11-06-snapshot-bridges_x.htm?csp=34   (502 words)

 Explaining why the Millennium Bridge wobbled
The Millennium Bridge, a 320-meter-long lateral suspension bridge connecting London's financial district to Bankside, south of the river, opened June 10, 2000.
And the critical number of pedestrians, tested subsequently on the Millennium Bridge and derived independently by Strogatz and co-authors, is as low as 160.
In addition to Abrams, the paper, "Crowd Synchrony on the Millennium Bridge," was authored by Allan McRobie of the University of Cambridge; Bruno Eckhardt of Fachbereich Physik, Philipps-Universität, Marburg, Germany; and Edward Ott of the University of Maryland.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2005-11/cuns-ewt110105.php   (623 words)

 Millennium Bridge - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Several bridges are known as the Millennium Bridge:
Millennium Bridge, a footbridge across the River Liffey in Dublin
Third Millennium John Paul II Bridge in Gdansk
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Millennium_Bridge   (109 words)

 Structurae [en]: Millennium Bridge (2000)
The bridge is temporarily closed to assess the deflection problems that occurred in the first days of opening.
The structural problem of the Millennium Bridge is due to "synchronous lateral excitation", where the footfalls from pedestrians create lateral movements in the bridge.
Millennium Bridge, London: problems and solutions, in "The Structural Engineer", 17 April 2001, n.
www.structurae.net /structures/data/index.cfm?id=s0000603   (421 words)

 Millennium Bridge Hotels - London
London City Hotel Service offers the lowest rates on hotels near the Millennium Bridge.
As its name indicates, this bridge was built in honour of the third millennium.
The bridge is a 370-metre long pedestrian walkway with easy access for the disabled - a scenic stroll along the teak decks between St. Paul's and the Tate Modern.
london.cityhotelservice.com /millennium_bridge_hotels.html   (120 words)

 Millennium Bridge :: Spanning the River Thames, London, England, United Kingdom :: Glass Steel and Stone
The bridge swayed, giving some people the feeling that they were on a carnival thrill ride.
Even though it is a suspension bridge, it does not boast sets of tall towers to lift the cables.
The bridge was supposed to provide a foot link between London and Southwark, but because of unforeseen design problems it wobbles when under load.
www.glasssteelandstone.com /BuildingDetail/284.php   (484 words)

 New Scientist Breaking News - London's Millennium Bridge set to reopen
London's Millennium Bridge, which was closed due to excessive swaying three days after it opened in June 2000, will reopen at 10am on Friday 22nd February.
Arup had been instructed by the bridge's owners to ensure the bridge did not move with accelerations greater than 25 mG horizontally - or 25 thousandths the acceleration due to gravity - and 50 mG vertically.
The bridge was the first river crossing to be built in the city for more than a century.
www.newscientist.com /article.ns?id=dn1950   (359 words)

 Queen inaugurates London's Millennium bridge
The bridge stretches between St. Paul's Cathedral in the City of London and the Globe Theatre and the new Tate Modern art gallery in Southwark on the south bank.
The 320 metre long pedestrian-only bridge cost 24 and a half million dollars to construct and is the first new crossing of the Thames in central London for more than a hundred years - since Tower Bridge opened in 1894.
I dedicate this bridge as a symbol of the new Millennium to the people of Southwark and of the City of London and to all who shall pass over it from all over the world.
www.netlondon.com /news/2000-19/145DA6612D73C17E802.html   (583 words)

 BBC News | ENGLAND | 'Rigid' Millennium Bridge reopens
The Millennium Bridge has reopened to the public, after a £5m repair programme.
In February 2001, the Millennium Bridge Trust announced that it had raised the £5m needed to carry out the necessary modifications to the bridge.
Millennium Bridge Trust chairman David Bell said: "Thanks to all that's happened, the structure is probably the best known modern bridge in the world.
news.bbc.co.uk /hi/english/uk/england/newsid_1835000/1835376.stm   (517 words)

 Great Public Spaces: Millennium and Hungerford Pedestrian Bridges | Project for Public Spaces (PPS) - Placemaking for ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Millennium bridge is located between the between Blackfriars Bridge and Southwark Bridge on the river Thames, London, United Kingdom
The Millennium Bridge appears to be successful with both tourists and Londoners alike.
The Millennium Bridge is a great place because it brings people to a new public space near the river.
www.pps.org /gps/one?public_place_id=658   (538 words)

 Spooky steps put a wobble in London bridge - Science - MSNBC.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
When Londoners started walking across the Millennium Bridge in 2000, the span began swaying so much that the bridge was closed for almost two years of modifications.
LONDON - A natural phenomenon rather than a design fault caused London's Millennium Bridge to wobble and sway, forcing its closure just two days after opening in 2000.
In the case of London's wobbly bridge, it was large crowds walking across a flexible footbridge that vibrated at a frequency of one cycle per second, which just happened to be the same frequency as humans walking.
www.msnbc.msn.com /id/9897010   (619 words)

 Troubled bridge over water: The London Millennium Bridge in The AnswerBank: Arts & Literature   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Around 150,000 people had crossed the bridge over the weekend of 10-12 June last year, but the decision was taken to close it at 10pm on the Sunday, after 'greater than expected movement' (quoted from Arup's Millennium Bridge website, see below for details) of up to 70mm was measured.
Although the present London Bridge, the third, was opened as recently 1972, it is on the site of the original bridge, which dated back to the Roman city, and as such is not a 'new' crossing.
The bridge is a Millennium Commission project (who provided £7 million of the total bill of £18 million) and it was also funded by the Corporation of London, HSBC - whose headquarters in Hong Kong Norman Foster also designed - the Cross River Partnership and a number of private donors.
www.theanswerbank.co.uk /Article1739.html   (580 words)

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