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Topic: Longitudinal studies

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In the News (Mon 23 Oct 17)

  Longitudinal studies
The ONS Longitudinal Study of England and Wales, Scottish Longitudinal Study and Northern Ireland Longitudinal Study are examples of the second kind.
Longitudinal studies are useful for studying individual-level change over time, in contrast to cross-sectional datasets (such as the census itself), which provide a snapshot of a population at a single point in time (or at repeated intervals, as in a time series).
English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, the first study in the UK to connect the full range of topics necessary to understand the economic, social, psychological and health elements of the ageing process.
census.ac.uk /guides/Longitudinal.aspx   (1010 words)

  Longitudinal Studies: Methodology   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Longitudinal studies combine the best aspects of diary studies (being longitudinal in nature) and large sample studies (having a tighter methodological and theoretical grounding).
Longitudinal studies also differ from diary studies in that the subjects are usually not related to the researchers; instead children are chosen for study because they meet predetermined criteria, for example - being a certain age and being talkative.
Longitudinal studies are also methodologically credible - children are visited regularly, at predetermined times for a predetermined amount of time.
bowland-files.lancs.ac.uk /chimp/langac/LECTURE2/2method2.htm   (127 words)

 Longitudinal study - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A longitudinal study is a correlational research study that involves observations of the same items over long periods of time, often many decades.
Because longitudinal studies are observational, in the sense that they observe the state of the world without manipulating it, they have less power to detect causal relationships than do experiments.
Cohort studies sample a cohort, defined as a group experiencing some event (typically birth) in a selected time period, and studying them at intervals through time.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Longitudinal_study   (273 words)

In both studies, a subsample of children who were in two-parent families during the initial interview (at age 7 in the British data and at ages 7 to 11 in the U.S. data) were followed through the next interview (at age 11 and ages 11 to 16, respectively).
Some broad themes weaving together all the studies are: (1) all of the women studied had attended college; (2) strong evidence existed for increased well-being and feelings of competence in women as they mature; and (3) all the women were affected by role socialization and gender discrimination.
The OPCS Longitudinal Study has been used to follow up women who were married at the time of the 1971 census, to see if their employment status and responsibility for children at that time had any detectable consequence for their mortality up to 1985.
sociologyindex.com /longitudinal_studies.htm   (1424 words)

 Archived: Commissioned Papers: Longitudinal Study of Family Literacy Program Outcomes
Longitudinal studies of families who participate in family literacy programs should be purposive in nature, and should reflect the variety of technical and theoretical information available about families, political and professional decision-making processes and criteria, cultural and social phenomena and their potential for change, and information-systems design and operation.
Studies should be grounded in a sound theoretical design of the program model, which is the object of question, documentation of model implementation, documentation of the short-term effects of model implementation, and documentation of the cases to be studied.
Longitudinal studies, after all, require too many resources and too much organizational energy to be conducted in any way but to obtain effects of the highest possible quality.
www.ed.gov /pubs/FamLit/long.html   (4995 words)

 Simmons Longitudinal Studies : Simmons College School of Social Work : Simmons College
The study began as a broad-based effort to determine behavioral, health, and family factors that identify preschool youth at risk for poor academic performance and adjustment in the early school years.
The study group, with equal numbers of males and females, was comprised of every child who entered kindergarten in 1977 in one community school district.
Study researchers have published the findings in professional journal articles and book chapters (see Publications for complete list) and presented at many national and international conferences.
www.simmons.edu /gssw/sls   (416 words)

 Osteoarthritis Initiative - Longitudinal Studies of Osteoarthritis: State-of-The Science Evaluation   (Site not responding. Last check: )
A "State of the Science" evaluation of osteoarthritis natural history studies was proposed to include a review of the literature and protocols for each of the existing OA natural history studies with development of a summary report that would provide an overview, document major findings, and identify gaps in knowledge.
Hence, it appears that the existing longitudinal population-based cohorts will be useful for the conduct of studies, probably of the nested case-control or case-cohort design, to validate the association of biochemical markers of bone and cartilage turnover with the onset of knee and possibly hip OA, as defined by standard radiograph imaging techniques.
Existing longitudinal cohorts may be able to contribute to the goals of the OA initiative; specifically, to facilitate the scientific evaluation of biomarkers for OA.
www.niams.nih.gov /ne/oi/oaepip.htm   (1575 words)

 7. Longitudinal studies
In a longitudinal study subjects are followed over time with continuous or repeated monitoring of risk factors or health outcomes, or both.
For example, the longitudinal study of the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys prospectively follows a 1% sample of the British population that was initially identified at the 1971 census.
Thus, in a cohort study of people occupationally exposed to ethylene oxide (used as a sterilant gas and in the manufacture of antifreeze), exposure in the general population was minimal and national death rates could be used as a reference.
bmj.bmjjournals.com /epidem/epid.7.html   (1045 words)

 Longitudinal Studies: Theoretical Approach
Longitudinal studies differed from Large Sample studies in that the latter tended to have a behavoristic grounding.
Longitudinal studies tended to view matters from an entirely different point of view, which was put forward by Chomsky (1965) in "Aspects of the Theory of Syntax."
Those who study "child language" also tend to be constructionist, thinking of stages supporting and building on one another, while those who study "language acquisition" start with linguistic theory and make predictions about adult language use based on observations of child language.
bowland-files.lancs.ac.uk /chimp/langac/LECTURE2/2theory2.htm   (436 words)

 Research   (Site not responding. Last check: )
These studies have used a variety of measures to assess personal characteristics and aspects of the social environment that influence mental health.
Investigators with ongoing longitudinal studies can be informed about appropriate measures for new waves of data at later stages of development.
Studies are categorized according to the Developmental Stages of the participants and the Measures used.
www.umich.edu /~cdmh/longitudinal_studies.html   (167 words)

 Study Designs: Longitudinal/Prospective Studies (Page 1 of 16)   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Longitudinal studies are often referred to as prospective studies, cohort studies, or incidence studies.
With retrospective or case control studies, the disease under study was present and exposure to the risk factor had occurred.
With prospective studies, the exposure has occurred but the disease is not present when the study begins.
jeffline.tju.edu /Education/dl/epidemiology/syllabus/study/long.html   (67 words)

 Appendix 1. Longitudinal Cohort Studies
This study was designed to examine the association between intake of vitamins C and E, retinol, and beta-carotene and risk of breast cancer.
This study was conducted in the United States and designed to examine the relationships of folic acid, beta carotene and vitamins C and E to risk of colon cancer.
This study, conducted in the United States, was designed to investigate whether high intakes of antioxidant micronutrients (vitamins A, C, and E and beta-carotene) protect against colon and breast cancers.
www.ahrq.gov /clinic/3rduspstf/vitamins/vitaapp1.htm   (1217 words)

 7. Longitudinal studies
In a longitudinal study subjects are followed over time with continuous or repeated monitoring of risk factors or health outcomes, or both.
For example, the longitudinal study of the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys prospectively follows a 1% sample of the British population that was initially identified at the 1971 census.
Thus, in a cohort study of people occupationally exposed to ethylene oxide (used as a sterilant gas and in the manufacture of antifreeze), exposure in the general population was minimal and national death rates could be used as a reference.
www.bmj.com /epidem/epid.7.html   (1045 words)

 UCD - Centre for Teaching and Learning - Longitudinal Studies
Longitudinal Studies are where phenomena are studied over time either continuously or repeatedly.
Such studies reveal relative stability and allow change to be studied within an overall context.
Longitudinal studies are usually, but not exclusively, quantitative.
www.ucd.ie /teaching/t&lresearchMethodologies_sub/longitudinal_studies.html   (81 words)

 ejcjs - Change in Script Usage in Japanese: A Longitudinal Study of Japanese Government White Papers on Labor
This study examines longitudinal change in the proportions of the three Japanese scripts of kanji, hiragana and katakana using samples of White Papers on labor published between 1960 and 1997 which were controlled for subject matter to enable valid longitudinal evaluation.
Moreover, longitudinal studies are few in number but these are essential if trends are to be revealed and the results of past interventions assessed.
Similarly, a longitudinal study of the change in Japanese script usage in one genre cannot be regarded as representative of the language as a whole.
www.japanesestudies.org.uk /articles/2005/Tomoda.html   (8692 words)

 Longitudinal Studies Centre - Scotland: (SLS) What is the SLS?
Scotland is disadvantaged relative to England in the poverty of its longitudinal databases (i.e.
The SLS provides a high quality longitudinal research dataset that can be used to provide an insight into the health and social status of the Scottish population and how it changes over time.
Longitudinal studies have a long history in British social and epidemiological research and the majority are based on surveys or panel studies.
www.lscs.ac.uk /sls   (1167 words)

 Studies: The Longitudinal Evaluation of School Change and Performance in Title I Schools   (Site not responding. Last check: )
A major longitudinal study has linked student achievement gains in Title I schools with some of the school and classroom practices advocated by proponents of standards-based reform.
The Longitudinal Evaluation of School Change and Performance (LESCP), conducted for the U.S. Department of Education by Westat and PSA as part of the National Assessment of Title I, followed the progress of students in 71 high-poverty schools as they moved from third to fifth grades.
Although, on average, the students participating in the study had achievement levels that consistently fell short of national norms, the combination of all the favorable conditions just described could make a real difference in their progress.
www.policystudies.com /studies/school/lescp.html   (545 words)

 Longitudinal Studies
In a longitudinal study of HIV seropositive patients, there were fluctuations in the specificity of cytotoxic T cells for the virus.
The objective of this study was to develop a prospectively applicable method for classifying comorbid conditions which might alter the risk of mortality for use in longitudinal studies.
Longitudinal data sets are comprised of repeated observations of an outcome and a set of covariates for each of many subjects.
lib.bioinfo.pl /meid:28559   (2748 words)

 Students Share their Enthusiasm for Longitudinal Research Methods
Previously, when researchers wanted to study how IQ or other constructs varied with age, they used a cross-sectional design that might have tested 100 participants representing each age group in five-year increments from 5—75 years of age (100 five-year olds, 100 ten-year olds, and so on) and then compared their IQ scores.
The most common form of longitudinal data collection in psychology is panel data, which consists of repeated observations of many individual persons, preferably on more than two intervals referred to as "waves." Longitudinal studies with just two waves may address some research questions marginally well, but many others rather poorly.
The Victoria study is based on three-year retest intervals because many of the measures we study reflect relatively enduring trait-like changes including episodic memory, working memory, perceptual speed, and simple reaction time," he said.
www.apa.org /apags/members/longitudinal.html   (1567 words)

 Osteoarthritis Initiative - Appendix A: The U.S. Longitudinal Studies of Osteoarthritis   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Appendix A: The U.S. Longitudinal Studies of Osteoarthritis
Imaging studies: Bilateral, weight-bearing PA semi-flexed radiographs of the knee and weight-bearing axial (skyline) views of the knees, were obtained at the Year 2 visit (baseline for OA studies) in all subjects (n=900) reporting knee symptoms on most days of a month in the past year, or who reported at least moderate pain on activity.
Longitudinal data suggest that quadriceps weakness may be a risk factor for incident knee OA (Slemenda 1998, Brandt 1999).
www.niams.nih.gov /ne/oi/oaepipappen_a.htm   (5965 words)

 Aracy | Longitudinal Studies
We identified enhanced co-ordination and collaboration amongst Australasian child and adolescent longitudinal studies as a potentially valuable means to improve the use of existing data.
Longitudinal Studies Workshop held on 21-22 August 2006, the notion of establishing a network, under the auspices of the ARACY Research Network, was strongly endorsed.
Membership of the network is open to any longitudinal studies of children and youth as well as individuals with a particular interest in longitudinal research.
www.aracy.org.au /AM/Template.cfm?Section=Longitudinal_Studies   (242 words)

 National Institute on Aging, Intramural Research Program - Luigi Ferrucci, M.D., Ph.D.
Taking a longitudinal perspective of the disablement process, we demonstrated that in 50% of older persons, disability results from an acute catastrophic event that, within a short period of time, leads from full function to severe disability in activities of daily living.
Using data from the EPESE and the WHAS (Women's Health and Aging Study) studies, we demonstrated that high IL-6 serum level is one of the strongest, independent predictors of accelerated decline of physical function.
The study of the effect of aging independent of diseases on these biological mechanisms and their relationship with the development of disability is the main target of the new BLSA design.
www.grc.nia.nih.gov /branches/irp/lferrucci.htm   (1154 words)

 Rethinking high school graduation rates and trends
This study reviews the available data on high school completion and dropout rates and their historical trends and finds that high school completion has been increasing and dropouts declining for over 40 years, though the improvements have been modest over the last 10 years or so.
This study finds that these analyses are contradicted by better data collected by the U.S. Department of Education that follow actual students' experiences and by the Census Bureau surveys of households.
Our study surveys what is known, and not known, about high school completion rates—both their current levels and the historical trends.
www.epi.org /content.cfm/book_grad_rates   (2741 words)

 Social Research Update 28: Longitudinal Research in the Social Sciences
Longitudinal data are essential if the research purpose is to measure social change: they allow a diacronic analysis of the incidence of conditions and events.
Because several types of data may be regarded as longitudinal, methods for the analysis of social change may also vary substantially: from time-series techniques for repeated cross-section data to logistic and log-linear models; from structural equation models to longitudinal multilevel methods; from regression analysis to event history analysis (Davies and Dale 1994).
Longitudinal data are collected in a time sequence that clarifies the direction as well as the magnitude of change among variables.
www.soc.surrey.ac.uk /sru/SRU28.html   (2634 words)

 Note from NCES
NCES initiated its first longitudinal survey over a quarter of a century ago to reflect the paradigm shift in research from a study of phenomena based on an input-output model (or fl box) approach to a process model approach.
The Center's first longitudinal study sought to identify and explain the processes that linked traditional education inputs, such as student characteristics, to outputs, such as degrees and earnings received.
Since 1972, longitudinal studies at NCES have expanded to include 10 studies that examine learning across the life span, literally from birth through elementary, middle, secondary, and postsecondary school to work.
www.nces.ed.gov /programs/quarterly/vol_2/2_1/1-esq21-a.asp   (780 words)

 Growing Up in Australia: The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) - Links to longitudinal studies
The Australian Temperament Project (ATP) is a longitudinal study of children's development which began in 1983 with the enrolment of a representative sample of over 2,000 infants and their families from urban and rural areas of Victoria.
The National Longitudinal Study of Children born in 1995 is a unique data set designed for analysing the health and development of children as well as the effects of non-institutional sources of learning and institutional welfare efforts.
The objective of the study is to provide researchers with a comprehensive, nationally representative, and longitudinal data base of children and their families with which to study the dynamic process of early human capital formation.
www.aifs.gov.au /growingup/links.html   (2724 words)

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