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Topic: Lord Rayleigh


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In the News (Sun 16 Jun 19)

  
  Molecular Expressions: Science, Optics and You - Timeline - Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt)
Lord Rayleigh was a British physicist and mathematician who worked in many disciplines including electromagnetics, physical optics, and sound wave theory.
In optics, the Rayleigh Criterion was chosen by Lord Rayleigh to define the limit of resolution of a diffraction-limited optical instrument.
Rayleigh observed that the nitrogen attained from the ammonia was lighter than that derived from air.
micro.magnet.fsu.edu /optics/timeline/people/rayleigh.html   (822 words)

  
 Lord Rayleigh, John William Strutt
Lord Rayleigh was the cause of a radical new way of instruction of physics experiments at Cambridge, increasing his students from six to seventy.
Lord Rayleigh's first researches were mainly mathematical, concerning optics and vibrating systems, but his later work ranged over almost the whole field of physics, covering sound, wave theory, colour vision, electrodynamics, electromagnetism, light scattering, flow of liquids, hydrodynamics, density of gases, viscosity, capillarity, elasticity, and photography.
Lord Rayleigh was an excellent instructor and, under his active supervision, a system of practical instruction in experimental physics was devised at Cambridge, developing from a class of five or six students to an advanced school of some seventy experimental physicists.
www.ob-ultrasound.net /rayleigh.html   (866 words)

  
 Adventures in CyberSound: Strutt, John William (Lord Rayleigh)
The Rayleigh title was originally given to his grandmother, Charlotte, on her husband's suggestion because Joseph Holden Strutt had declined personal honours throughout his life, and perhaps didn't wish to be raised to the peerage as he should have to resign as an MP.
Rayleigh's son and biographer, Robert John, succeeded to the title in 1919 and continued in his father's footsteps being a Fellow of the Royal Society and professor of physics.
Lord Rayleigh, a former Chancellor of Cambridge University, was a Justice of the Peace and the recipient of honorary science and law degrees.
www.acmi.net.au /AIC/RAYLEIGH_BIO.html   (2177 words)

  
 On the Pitch of Organ Pipes   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Lord Rayleigh determined the passive resonance frequency when unblown of a particular organ pipe about two feet long to be 255 Hz, which he assumed to be the natural resonance frequency of the pipe.
To apply equation 6 to Lord Rayleigh's data, we have to supply a value for the phase shift B introduced by changing the blowing pressure from the blowing pressure which caused to pipe to sound at the pitch fr to a new blowing pressure causing the pipe to sound at a new pitch f.
The quantities actually measured by Lord Rayleigh were pr, fr, pf, and the frequency differences from fr, i.e., he measured fr and (f-fr) by determining beat frequencies comparing the pipe's oscillating frequencies to a standard frequency of 255 Hz which matched the resonant frequency of his flue pipe.
www.nmol.com /users/wblocker/orgnpp.htm   (3916 words)

  
 Blue Sky and Rayleigh Scattering
Rayleigh scattering refers to the scattering of light off of the molecules of the air, and can be extended to scattering from particles up to about a tenth of the wavelength of the light.
Lord Rayleigh calculated the scattered intensity from dipole scatterers much smaller than the wavelength to be:
Rayleigh scattering can be considered to be elastic scattering since the photon energies of the scattered photons is not changed.
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/atmos/blusky.html   (703 words)

  
 Rayleigh Scattering
The scattering of light by gases was first treated quantitatively by Lord Rayleigh in 1871 in an effort to explain the blue colour of the sky and the red colour of the sunset.
In order for Rayleigh scattering to be valid, the size of the particle must be much smaller than the wavelength of the incident radiation, both inside and outside of the particle.
Rayleigh scattering theory is applicable to scattering of UV and visible radiation by air molecules, infra-red radiation by small aerosols, and microwave radiation by cloud and rain drops.
www.ess.uci.edu /~cmclinden/link/xx/node20.html   (323 words)

  
 Rayleigh scattering Summary
Rayleigh scattering (named after Lord Rayleigh) is the scattering of light, or other electromagnetic radiation, by particles much smaller than the wavelength of the light.
Rayleigh scattering of sunlight by the atmosphere is the main reason light from the sky is blue.
The amount of Rayleigh scattering that occurs to a beam of light is dependent upon the size of the particles and the wavelength of the light; in particular, the scattering coefficient, and hence the intensity of the scattered light, varies inversely with the fourth power of the wavelength, a relation known as the Rayleigh law.
www.bookrags.com /Rayleigh_scattering   (2104 words)

  
 John Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh Summary
By his marriage to Evelyn Balfour, Rayleigh was brought close to high government circles: her uncle, the Marquis of Salisbury, was prime minister from 1885 to 1901, and her brother, Arthur Balfour, was also prime minister.
Although Rayleigh was content to work at his home, he accepted the position of Cavendish Professor at Cambridge University, due to the fact that revenue from his estate had declined as the result of a general agricultural depression.
Rayleigh's continues to be read in the original and cited, whereas the work of most of his contemporaries is not.
www.bookrags.com /John_Strutt,_3rd_Baron_Rayleigh   (3706 words)

  
 Sympathetic Vibratory Physics - John W. Keely's Sacred Science.
Text: Lord Rayleigh's discovery of argon Lord Rayleigh's interest in the density of nitrogen, which led to the discovery of argon, was prompted by William Prout.
Rayleigh investigated the oxygen and hydrogen relationship and then moved on to the nitrogen and hydrogen relationship.
On 31st January 1895, Rayleigh and Ramsay presented a joint paper entitled Argon, a New Constituent of the Atmosphere to a meeting of the Royal Society.
www.svpvril.com /svpnotes/ARGON_132644.html   (437 words)

  
 [No title]
Or, l'apport principal de Rayleigh fut d'expliquer pourquoi le gradient de température doit dépasser un certain seuil pour déclencher le mouvement convectif.
Lord Rayleigh montre qu'un écoulement convectif ne peut naître que si le gradient de température est suffisant pour vaincre les forces dissipatives (de traînée visqueuse et de diffusion de la chaleur).
Ce rapport s'appelle aujourd'hui le nombre de Rayleigh; la convection démarre lorsque le nombre de Rayleigh dépasse une valeur critique.
www.ens-lyon.fr /DSM/magistere/projets_biblio/2002/plancien/rayleigh.html   (965 words)

  
 Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for Rayleigh,
English physicist Lord Rayleigh and Scottish chemist Sir William Ramsay discovered argon in 1894.
A form of partial colour-blindness in which the proportion of green light required to be mixed with red to match yellow is abnormally high according to the normal Rayleigh equation, owing to a deficiency in the visual pigment that absorbs light in the middle part of the visible...
A form of partial colour-blindness resulting from an abnormality in the visual pigment that absorbs longwave light, resulting in a partial loss of sensitivity to light in the red part of the visible spectrum, a tendency to confuse reds and greens, and matches that deviate from the...
www.encyclopedia.com /SearchResults.aspx?Q=Rayleigh,   (771 words)

  
 Blackbody
Rayleigh realized that light emitted from excited oscillators in the heated flbody would be reflected back and forth by the walls of the cavity.
Rayleigh used the same principle to explain the appearance of a red sky at dusk and dawn.
The Rayleigh intensity reaches a maximum at zero wavelength, instead of at a finite wavelength, as is observed experimentally.
www.fordham.edu /academics/programs_at_fordham_/chemistry/courses/fall_2006/physical_chemistry_i/lectures/blackbody_6308.asp   (487 words)

  
 News | Gainesville.com | The Gainesville Sun | Gainesville, Fla.   (Site not responding. Last check: )
John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh (12 November 1842 – 30 June 1919) was an English physicist who (with William Ramsay) discovered the element argon, an achievement that earned him the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1904.
Lord Rayleigh elected to Fellow of the Royal Society on June 12, 1873 and was elected president of the Royal Society between 1905 and 1908.
Lord Rayleigh died on June 30, 1919 in Witham, Essex.
www.gainesville.com /apps/pbcs.dll/section?category=NEWS&template=wiki&text=John_William_Strutt,_3rd_Baron_Rayleigh   (381 words)

  
 1.3.6.3 John William Strutt (Lord Rayleigh)
Lord Rayleigh's first research was mainly mathematical, concerning optics and vibrating systems, but his later work ranged over almost the whole field of physics, covering sound, wave theory, color vision, electrodynamics, electromagnetism, light scattering, flow of liquids, hydrodynamics, density of gases, viscosity, capillarity, elasticity, and photography.
Rayleigh was considered to be an excellent instructor.
Lord Rayleigh, a Chancellor of Cambridge University, was a Justice of the Peace and the recipient of honorary science and law degrees.
www.potto.org /gasDynamics/node55.html   (445 words)

  
 Springer Online Reference Works
the Rayleigh distribution coincides with the distribution of the square root of a random variable which has the  "chi-squared"  distribution with two degrees of freedom.
In other words, a Rayleigh distribution can be interpreted as the distribution of the length of a vector in a plane Cartesian coordinate system, the coordinates of which are independent and have the normal distribution with parameters 0 and
It was first considered by Lord Rayleigh in 1880 as the distribution of the amplitude resulting from the addition of harmonic oscillations.
eom.springer.de /r/r077730.htm   (216 words)

  
 Rayleigh & Lodge on the Ether of Space - Keelynet - 06/26/00
So clearly and universally has it been perceived that waves must be waves of something- something distinct from ordinary matter-that Lord Salisbury, in his presidential address to the British Association at Oxford, criticised the ether as little more than a nominative case to the verb to undulate.
A still further example is Lord Kelvin's model of a spring balance, made of nothing but rigid bodies in spinning motion.
The whole visible universe within a parallax of 1/1000th second of arc, estimated by Lord Kelvin as the equivalent of 10^9 suns, would be quite incompetent to raise etherial tension to the critical point 10^33 c.g.s.
www.keelynet.com /osborn/rey7.htm   (4207 words)

  
 CDCC - Física - Lord Rayleigh
O primeiro contato que Rayleigh teve com o lado experimental da ciência foram as aulas de George Gabriel Stokes, um importante físico e matemático, que realizava demonstrações durante suas aulas teóricas.
Quando se tornou professor, embora algumas mudanças já houvessem sido realizadas, Rayleigh tomou para si a tarefa de organizar os laboratórios como centros de pesquisa e ensino.
Lorde Rayleigh foi membro da Royal Society e recebeu muitos prêmios por seus trabalhos científicos.
fisica.cdcc.sc.usp.br /Cientistas/LordRayleigh.html   (504 words)

  
 Free Convection and the Rayleigh Number at Nonoscience   (Site not responding. Last check: )
These requirement are expressed as a non-dimensional number, called the Rayleigh Number in honor of Lord Rayleigh who came up with the explanation for this convection behavior of an enclosed fluid subjected to a temperature differential.
Thus Rayleigh Number (a non-dimensional number, if you notice) is a quantitative measure/ representation of when the ’switch’ from conductive to convective transport happens for a given fluid plus geometry configuration.
Lord Rayleigh’s analysis of the problem of convective flow was initiated by the 1901 experiments of Henri Benard.
www.arunn.net /scienceblog/2006/08/03/free-convection-and-the-rayleigh-number   (2139 words)

  
 Atmospheric Extinction
Assuming that the scatterers are small compared to the wavelength of light, Rayleigh showed that the scattered intensity should be inversely proportional to the fourth power of the wavelength of light, and that this was in good agreement with the spectral distribution of the light in the blue sky.
A remarkable aspect of Rayleigh's 1871 paper is that the development was done entirely on the basis of the “elastic-solid” theory of the luminiferous ether.
Because the refractivity of air is dispersive, the actual intensity of Rayleigh scattering in air is somewhat steeper than an inverse-fourth-power law, and amounts to about an inverse 4.08-power law across the visible spectrum.
mintaka.sdsu.edu /GF/explain/extinction/extintro.html   (1037 words)

  
 Problems Explaining the Sky's Blue Colour   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Recently I became aware of the fact that the accepted explanation of what causes the sky’s blue colour is entirely inadequate and that some other physical process must lie behind the phenomena.
The explanation we have been given is that it is caused by Rayleigh ‘molecular’ scattering of light.
Each of these three points when considered in isolation, strongly suggest that Rayleigh scattering is not at all adequate in explaining the sky’s blue colour.
www.webspawner.com /users/rayleigh   (634 words)

  
 Theory of Wireless SAW Sensor Systems
It was Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt) at the end of the 19th century who treated the problem of acoustic wave propagation along the surface of a semi-infinite isotropic medium in theory.
The physics is mathematically described by a boundary value problem derived from the equation of motion (Newton´s second law for infinitesimally small volumes), the constitutive relation for the elastic medium (generalised Hook´s law), and the boundary conditions (no normal forces on the free substrate surface).
One possible solution, now called the Rayleigh wave, describes a wave whose amplitude of the particle displacement decreases exponentially with depth, resulting in hardly any motion in the substrate at depths greater than about one acoustic wavelength l.
www.ieee-uffc.org /freqcontrol/tutorials/Reindl_2002_files/slide0471.htm   (298 words)

  
 JHT History of Heat Transfer - Rayleigh   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Lord Rayleigh was a British physicist born near Maldon, Essex, on November 12, 1842.
Rayleigh's research covered almost the entire field of physics, including sound, wave theory, optics, colour vision, electrodynamics, electromagnetism, the scattering of light, hydrodynamics, the flow of liquids, capillarity, viscosity, the density of gases, photography and elasticity, as well as electrical measurements and standards.
His research on sound was embodied in his Theory of Sound and his other extensive studies in physics appeared in his "Scientific Papers." Rayleigh died on June 30, 1919 at Witham, Essex.
www.me.utexas.edu /~me339/Bios/rayleigh.html   (189 words)

  
 Microlithography World - The Lithography Expert: The Rayleigh depth of focus
In this column, we'll repeat a version of Lord Rayleigh's derivation (using modern terminology specifically for lithography) and see how the Rayleigh depth-of-focus criterion can be extended to high numerical apertures and immersion lithography [2].
At this point, Lord Rayleigh made a crucial application of this formula that is often forgotten.
This high-NA version of the Rayleigh DOF criterion still assumes we are imaging a small binary pattern of lines and spaces, but is appropriate at any numerical aperture.
sst.pennnet.com /Articles/Article_Display.cfm?Article_ID=199855&pc=gls   (1038 words)

  
 Mahalanobis
The question was answered the following week by Lord Rayleigh, who pointed out the connection between this problem and an earlier paper of his published in 1880* concerned with sound vibrations.
The lesson of Lord Rayleigh's solution is that in open country the most probable place of finding a drunken man who is at all capable of keeping on his feet is somewhere near his starting point.
Rayleigh first solved the one-dimensional problem where the walker can only go forward or backward.
mahalanobis.twoday.net /stories/228354   (591 words)

  
 Loudspeaker Cones   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Rayleigh literally produced two volumes of differential equations in his treatise regarding complex sound waves, in his attempt to mathematize the physics.
The point to be made here is that Rayleigh's treatise is not only formidable, it is the bible of acoustics.
To really comprehend Rayleigh one must have a doctorate in mathematics, majoring in the type of differential equations employed by Rayleigh.
www.cosmos2000.org /audio/lspeaker.htm   (2118 words)

  
 Rayleigh jets come into view (January 2003) - News - PhysicsWeb
Lord Rayleigh showed that, for a given charge, droplets are only stable when their radius exceeds the “Rayleigh limit”.
Rayleigh suggested that when a charged droplet becomes unstable, it ejects a microscopic jet of liquid from each end before returning to equilibrium.
When the Rayleigh limit is reached, fine jets containing about one hundred droplets each are ejected from both ends of the ellipsoids.
physicsweb.org /article/news/7/1/3   (417 words)

  
 Multiple scattering theory
Lord Rayleigh, "On the Influence of Obstacles arranged in Rectangular Order upon the Properties of a Medium," Phil.
It is interesting that the three main methods for solving the wave equation in non-trivial cases, the Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation method, the Rayleigh-Ritz variational method, and the multiple-scattering method had their origin in the works of Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt).
He extended the multiple-scattering method of Rayleigh to deal with solutions of the Helmholtz (wave) equation.
www.fau.edu /divdept/physics/alloy-theory/mulscat.htm   (580 words)

  
 Random Heterogeneous Materials
In his Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, Maxwell derived an expression for the effective conductivity of a dispersion of spheres that is exact for dilute sphere concentrations.
Lord Rayleigh developed a formalism to compute the effective conductivity of regular arrays of spheres that is used to this day.
Chapter 22 describes the evaluation of the bounds found in Chapter 21 for certain theoretical model microstructures as well as experimental systems using the results of Part I. Finally, cross-property relations between the seemingly different effective properties considered here are discussed and derived in Chapter 23.
cherrypit.princeton.edu /book-intro.html   (697 words)

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