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Topic: Loudness

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In the News (Sat 20 Jul 19)

A general "rule of thumb" for loudness is that the power must be increased by about a factor of ten to sound twice as loud.
A widely used "rule of thumb" for the loudness of a particular sound is that the sound must be increased in intensity by a factor of ten for the sound to be perceived as twice as loud.
When two sounds of equal loudness when sounded separately are close together in pitch, their combined loudness when sounded together will be only slightly louder than one of them alone.
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/sound/loud.html   (894 words)

 Loudness control circuit - Patent 4320534
Furthermore, the loudness control circuit is disadvantageous in that, when the sliding contact of the variable resistor is set higher than the intermediate tap to increase the volume, the compensation effect of the loudness control circuit is inadequate.
Another object of the invention is to provide a loudness control circuit which can be provided in the form of an integrated circuit, and in which as the volume is decreased, the sound in the high and low frequency ranges is automatically boosted with the aid of DC voltages outputted by variable DC voltage sources.
A further object of the invention is to provide a loudness control circuit in which the sound in the low and high frequency ranges are automatically boosted with the electric field strength of a received broadcast wave such as an FM broadcast wave.
www.freepatentsonline.com /4320534.html   (1492 words)

 Search Results for loudness -¬†Encyclop√¶dia Britannica
The loudness of sound as perceived by human ears is roughly proportional to the logarithm of sound...
Loudness is a subjective characteristic of a sound (as opposed to the sound-pressure level in decibels, which is objective and directly measurable).
To measure loudness, the volume of a 1,000-hertz reference tone is adjusted until it is...
www.britannica.com /search?query=loudness&submit=Find&source=MWTAB   (388 words)

 Journal of General Psychology: Ipsilateral Loudness Adaptation Over Multiple Intensity Levels - Statistical Data ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Loudness is assumed to be based on neural activity, most likely the neural spike rate, but its precise neurological basis remains unknown (Doucet & Relkin, 1997; Relkin & Doucet, 1997).
They further argued that if "contrast" with the incremental referent produced the perception of declining loudness of the constant baseline intensity, then the opposite should also be true--that is, that a referent less intense than the base should, by contrast, produce the perception of increasing loudness.
The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether ICP loudness adaptation could be found equally well, using either increments and decrements, as sensory referents across a broad range of adapting tone intensities.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m2405/is_4_127/ai_68025178   (1296 words)

 Acoustics Chapter One: What is Loudness?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Loudness is the way in which we perceive amplitude.
The purpose of the graph is to show that for humans to consider two pitches equally loud, the amount of energy necessary to produce the tone at one frequency may be completely different than at another.
The "loudness button" on a stereo amplifier is intended to boost bass frequencies at lower volume levels where the curve is the steepest.
www.indiana.edu /~emusic/etext/acoustics/chapter1_loudness.shtml   (412 words)

 Loud, Louder, Loudest - Understanding the elements of loudness
Loudness is like happiness: we all know when we're experiencing it, and the concept, at first glance, seems like a simple one.
Loudness isn't a physical quantity, but rather a subjective sensation that humans have as part of our hearing — a sensation relating roughly to the size or proximity of a sound source.
Loudness seems to be related to how many nerve endings are firing, which depends on how big the vibrating area is and how rapidly the nerve endings are firing.
emusician.com /tutorials/emusic_loud_louder_loudest   (2012 words)

 Acoustical Society of America - The Interaction of Pitch and Loudness in Dynamic Stimuli: Beyond the Doppler illusion   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
We argue then that the Doppler illusion is due to the change in loudness that occurs as the train approaches.
This was to see if loudness change influences perceived pitch in situations that are not specified by a Doppler shift.
Loudness would rise, fall or remain constant, while pitch either rose, fell or remained constant.
www.acoustics.org /press/133rd/4pppa3.html   (668 words)

 Loudness and the auditory system   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Roughly, when comparing two similar sounds, we perceive a sound to be twice as loud when the sound pressure level increases by 10 dB (this is pretty odd, since we know that the intensity would be 10 times greater and the pressure itself would be the square-root of 10 (3.16) times greater).
You may have found this to be true for the experiment we did in class (where you were supposed to rate the loudness of different sounds compared to a reference sound with "perceived loudness" of 100).
To find the overall loudness of a sound that consists of several different frequencies, we normally first determine the number of sones that corresponds to the loudness for each frequency band, and then add up the numbers to determine the total number of sones for the complex sound.
carini.physics.indiana.edu /P105S98/More-perceived-loudness.html   (706 words)

 Loudness Units: Phons and Sones
This is the basis for the measurement of loudness in phons.
The loudness of complex sounds can be measured by comparison to 1000Hz test tones, and this type of measurement is useful for research, but for practical sound level measurement, the use of filter contours has been commonly adopted to approximate the variations of the human ear.
The use of the phon as a unit of loudness is an improvement over just quoting the level in decibels, but it is still not a measurement which is directly proportional to loudness.
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/sound/phon.html   (438 words)

 Loudness constancy with varying sound source distance - Nature Neuroscience   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The loudness of conversational speech, for instance, generally seems to remain constant even when the distance between listener and talker is varied.
The extent to which loudness constancy depends on accurate distance perception must also be questioned, given that stimuli identical to those found to produce loudness constancy were systematically misperceived in distance.
As with the loudness judgments, listeners were instructed to close their eyes during the self-paced source presentation, and then with eyes open, make a numeric response (in decimal fractions, if necessary) on a computer terminal keypad.
www.nature.com /cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/neuro/journal/v4/n1/full/nn0101_78.html   (5188 words)

 Loudness   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Loudness is the quality of a sound which is high in volume (amplitude, or sound pressure).
Loudness is the perception of a sound wave's amplitude.
A "loudness" control on a stereo alters a frequency response curve or uses audio level compression to make a selection sound louder.
www.worldhistory.com /wiki/L/Loudness.htm   (198 words)

 Journal of General Psychology: Loudness adaptation: fact or artifact?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Therefore, if loudness is encoded by the neural spike rate, then loudness should generally decline over time in accordance with the rate of neural activity.
That is, they argued that it is possible that loudness adaptation obtained through the use of the ICP might be artificially created by the intermittent presence of the higher intensity reference tones.
On the other hand, a temporal decline in the loudness of the base signal under those conditions would constitute strong support for the presence of contrast-free adaptation effects, which would be consistent with the loudness adaptation that was expected as a result of a decline in neural activity.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m2405/is_4_130/ai_111506972   (1405 words)

 ST-LEQ1 Loudness Equalizer   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Loudness equalization is applied to the EQ INPUT signal as the CONTROL voltage is varied.
The remote volume control associated with the VCA / ST-LEQ1 combination is adjusted to the normal low listening level, then the installer sets the desired loudness equalization on the multiturn trimming potentiometer on the ST-LEQ1.
As the listening level is increased by the remote control, the loudness equalization is progressively decreased until the audio is flat at normal higher levels.
www.rdlnet.com /st-leq1.htm   (303 words)

 DVD Talk Forum - Pioneer VSX-D409 and 509 owners, do you use the loudness button??
loudness helps increase bass at low volumes, so if i have it really low i may put on loudness.
If you have to play with the "loudness" button with a powered sub, then your bass management is not being done properly.
You can set the level of each channel individually, so all you should do is turn yout bass channel up if you feel as if you aren't getting anything out of it.
www.dvdtalk.com /forum/printthread.php?t=67221   (404 words)

 Shin Force > Cool! > Music Reviews > Loudness > Disillusion
Of all the Japanese metal bands (I know of), Loudness is the only one to make a dent in the American market, albeit ultimately unsuccessful :(That's really a shame, as their music is very hard to beat...
Thanks to the success of this album (at least in Japan), Loudness was able to launch an attack on the American market with their next album, "Thunder In The East".
Loudness is easily the best Japanese metal band I've heard, especially their older stuff (not really their NEW material).
www.shinforce.com /cool/music/Loudness-Disillusion.htm   (313 words)

 Psychophysics 2   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The psychological magnitude loudness is associated with a given SPL.
Tones of the same SPL but with different frequencies are in general judged as having different loudness.
SPL is thus not a good measure of loudness, if we inter compare tones of different frequency.
www.avatar.com.au /courses/PPofM/loud/Loud3.html   (243 words)

 MP3Car.com Forums - loudness ? simulate it ?
Loudness is for low volumes, not improper speaker setup.
Loudness basically boosts low and high frequencies to counteract the ear's sensitivity to certain frequencies at certain volumes.
Loudness is used to compensate at low volumes.
www.mp3car.com /vbulletin/printthread.php?t=18793   (456 words)

 Compare Prices and Read Reviews on Loudness at Epinions.com
Loudness produced this one in Japan and really did an awesome job capturing all the right elements of their live sound; this EP shows noticeable improvement over the previous release, 'Hurricane Eyes'.
All the tunes really seem to work well together on this short effort by Loudness and I'm curious as to why they opted to make this just an EP since the music is so great.
"Long Distance Love" was so pop-oriented that it was later re-done by Loudness (with their new American vocalist, Mike Vescera) on the 'On The Prowl' CD that came out in 1991 but the re-done version, simply called "Long Distance", isn't nearly as good as the version on 'Jealousy'.
www.epinions.com /musc-review-36AD-48C728C-385AEE9A-prod2   (519 words)

 The Physics Classroom
The same sound will not be perceived to have the same loudness to all individuals.
The same intensity sound would not be perceived to have the same loudness to them as it would to you.
Despite the distinction between intensity and loudness, it is safe to state that the more intense sounds will be perceived to be the loudest sounds.
www.physicsclassroom.com /Class/sound/U11L2b.html   (1282 words)

 What is a decibel?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
It is still different from loudness, however, because the filter does not respond in quite the same way as the ear.
For all other frequencies, the phon scale is determined by the results of experiments in which volunteers were asked to adjust the loudness of a signal at a given frequency until they judged its loudness to equal that of a 1 kHz signal.
So the speaker driven by the 100 W amplifier is twice as loud as when driven by the 10 W, assuming you stay in the linear range and don't distort or destroy the speaker.
www.phys.unsw.edu.au /~jw/dB.html   (3317 words)

 Equal loudness tester   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Listen to it and check that (i) it is not uncomfortably loud and (ii) it is considerably louder than the background noise.
Under normal conditions, if you seek the lowest sound level you can hear at each frequency, what you will find is the lowest level of a sine wave that is not masked by the background noise that you are hearing inside your headphones.
It is possible to improve the accuracy of measurements made using this service by calibrating the response of your sound card and headphones, using a small microphone with good frequency response.
www.phys.unsw.edu.au /~jw/hearing.html   (1217 words)

 Loudness   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
s), the measurement of loudness is very difficult; however, the Stevens method of loudness summation is perhaps the most useful.
The loudness of short sounds will tend to fall off below a duration of half a second.
That is, to sound equally loud as longer sounds, short ones must be more intense.
www.sfu.ca /sonic-studio/handbook/Loudness.html   (248 words)

 The Numbers (and Initials) of Acoustics
You will see lots of references to equal loudness curves or equal loudness contours- these are based on the work of Fletcher and Munson at Bell labs in the 30s, or perhaps refinements made more recently by Robinson and Dadson.
If it seems odd that these curves turn down when the equal loudness curves turn up, remember that this is a frequency response and the loudness curve indicates sensitivity.
Use the A curve for soft measurements and the C curve for loud sounds, and the flat setting for comparative measurements like transmission loss.
arts.ucsc.edu /EMS/Music/tech_background/TE-02/AcNumbers/AcNumbers.html   (1128 words)

 Equal-Loudness Curves
On the other hand, how loud the sound is perceived by a human, the loudness of the sound, is described in phons.
The relationship between both units is given by the curves of equal loudness.
By definition, the equal-loudness curve for x phons connects all sounds with different frequencies that are perceived equally loud as a sound of x dB SPL at 1000 Hz (1000 Hz was chosen to be the reference frequency).
www.esat.kuleuven.ac.be /~spchlab/exercises/HD69/tools_mad/audiometer/audiometer.html   (674 words)

 Equal_Loudness_Contours   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The curves are plotted for each 10 dB rise in level with the reference tone being at 1 kHz.
The curves are lowest in the range from 1 to 5 kHz, with a dip at 4 kHz, indicating that the ear is most sensitive to frequencies in this range.
Curves based on the studies of Fletcher and Munson showing the response of the human hearing mechanism as a function of frequency and loudness levels.
www2.sfu.ca /sonic-studio/handbook/Equal_Loudness_Contours.html   (254 words)

 diyAudio Forums - Potentiometer loudness tap?
I'm replacing a potentiometer in an old Sony amp for a friend and I don't think I'll be able to find one with the loudness tap that it has.
Loudness shmoudness, I don't care about it but I'm wondering what to do with the extra connection.
I can't seem to find a schematic showing me a circuit of how the loudness tap on a potentiometer works.
www.diyaudio.com /forums/showthread.php?postid=30033   (162 words)

 ACS Articles - Fletcher-Munson Equal Loudness Curves
(The loudness level in phons is a subjective sensation--this is the level we perceive the sound to be at.) From about 500Hz to roughly 1,500Hz the line is flat on the 10dB scale.
This is why many stereo systems have a loudness switch--when you're listening to the stereo at low volumes, you activate this switch which boosts the low and some of the high frequencies of the sound.
You'll notice 100dB is needed to perceive a loudness level of 100 phons at 1,000Hz--only 90dB is required to give a perceived loudness level of 100 phons at 4,000Hz.
www.allchurchsound.com /ACS/edart/fmelc.html   (940 words)

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