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  LOUIS XI. OF FRANCE - LoveToKnow Article on LOUIS XI. OF FRANCE   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Louis X. is a somewhat indistinct figure among the kings of France, the preponderating influence at court during his short reign being that of his uncle, Charles of Valois.
The alliance with Savoy was sealed by the marriage of Louis with Charlotte, daughter of Duke Lodovico, in 1452, in spite of the formal prohibition of Charles VII.
Louis made light of the whole incident in his letters, but it marked the greatest humiliation of his life, and he was only too glad to find a scapegoat in Cardinal Jean Balue, who was accused of having plotted the treason of Peronne.
www.1911encyclopedia.org /L/LO/LOUIS_XI_OF_FRANCE.htm   (4249 words)

 Louis XI of France - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Louis XI the Prudent (French: Louis XI le Prudent) (July 3, 1423 – August 30, 1483), also informally nicknamed l'universelle aragne (old French for "universal spider"), was King of France (1461 - 1483).
By war, by cunning and with sheer guile, Louis XI overcame France's feudal lords, and at the time of his death in the chateau at Plessis-lez-Tours, he had united France and laid the foundations of a strong monarchy.
Louis XI was succeeded by his son, Charles VIII, at 13, and the eldest daughter Anne of Beaujeu became the Regent.
www.wikipedia.org /wiki/Louis_XI_of_France   (556 words)

 LOUIS XII. OF FRANCE - LoveToKnow Article on LOUIS XII. OF FRANCE   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Louis then forced the duke of Brittany to make peace, and turned against John V. count of Armagnac, whose death at the opening of March 1473 ended the power of one of the most dangerous houses of the south.
Louis was the soul of all hostile coalitions, especially urging on the Swiss and Sigismund of Austria, who ruled Tirol and Alsace.
Louis was to marry Anne of Austria, daughter of the Spanish king, Philip III., and the Spanish prince, afterwards Philip IV., himself was to marry the Princess Elizabeth, the king's sister.
69.1911encyclopedia.org /L/LO/LOUIS_XII_OF_FRANCE.htm   (2827 words)

 Louis XI, king of France. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
Louis began his reign by dismissing many of his father’s best advisers; but he soon deserted his former allies of the Praguerie and began the task of centralizing all authority in the crown.
Louis, however, succeeded in buying off Edward IV when he invaded (1475) France to aid Charles, and in uniting the enemies of Charles the Bold, among whom the Swiss were the strongest.
Louis preferred men of humble origin, and among his advisers were Olivier Le Daim, Louis Tristan L’Hermite, and Cardinal Balue, whom he rewarded liberally, though he was niggardly in his own expenses.
www.bartleby.com /65/lo/Louis11Fr.html   (647 words)

 [No title]
Louis XI was ugly, while Charles the Bold, the Duke of Burgundy was as handsome as a Greek god.
Louis XI rushed to Péronne, sure that he would find a dejected Charles the Bold; instead, this turned into the Péronne incarceration, during which King Louis XI remained the Duke of Burgundy's prisoner until he signed all that Charles needed to remain the leading player in the West.
Louis XI still had to learn "the tricks of the trade"; he was too greedy and too quick off the mark, and Charles the Bold pulled a great coup on him with the Péronne meeting.
www.bergerfoundation.ch /Sandro/11france_english.html   (1120 words)

 Louis XI of France   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Louis XI, a member of the Valois Dynasty, was one of the most successful kings of France, in terms of uniting the country.
By war, by cunning and with sheer guile, Louis XI overcame France's feudal lords and at the time of his death on August 30, 1483 in the chateau at Plessis-lez-Tours[?], he had united France and laid the foundations of a strong monarchy.
Louis XI was succeeded by his son, VIII of France">Charles VIII.
www.termsdefined.net /lo/louis-xi-of-france.html   (483 words)

 MSN Encarta - Louis XI
Louis XI (1423-1483), king of France (1461-1483), son and successor of Charles VII, who continued his father's work of restoring unity and stability to France after the ravages of the Hundred Years' War.
Louis was born in Bourges on July 3, 1423.
Louis was known as The Spider because of his ugliness and the skill with which he maneuvered against his enemies.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761567391/Louis_XI.html   (320 words)

 TABLE OF CONTENTS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
In 1474 Louis XI took over the administration of Anjou, and in 1476, as it was reported that Rene had been meditating the bequest of Provence to Charles of Burgundy, the King forced on the old Duke a treaty whereby he engaged never to cede any part of that province to the enemies of France.
The difficulties of Louis XI were very great, and the results of his military expenditure on the whole commensurate with the sacrifices, but he seems in his later years to have been driven by nervous fear to excessive precaution.
The France of Louis XII is the justification of Louis XI.
www.uni-mannheim.de /mateo/camenaref/cmh/cmh112.html   (14751 words)

 Ancestors and Family of Louis XI of France de Valois   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Louis was the son of Charles VII of France by his consort Mary of Anjou.
Louis, however, was impatient to reign and was induced by malcontent princes to put himself at their head in 1440 during the revolt known as the Praguerie, named after a contemporary disturbance in Bohemia.
Louis XI's major preoccupation was with the princes and great vassals of the kingdom, who were ready to form alliances with one another or with England against him.
nygaard.howards.net /files/3/3772.htm   (1582 words)

 The Richard III and Yorkist History Server
At the celebrated interview between Charles the Rash and Louis XI at Péronne, he acted in such a way (in what way it is still not entirely clear from his own cryptic remarks and from the independent evidence of other sources) that Louis XI believed thereafter that he owed his life largely to Commynes.
Louis XI favoured him by staying at Argenton in November and December 1481, after a second bout of illness and Commynes joined the King on his journey to Saint-Claude in 1482.
He shows how in 1465 Louis XI, far from keeping to an established plan in dealing with the uprising of the princes, in which he tried to avoid the hazards of battle at all cost, had seriously underestimated the strength of the opposition and the dangers facing him until it was almost too late.
www.r3.org /bookcase/de_commynes/decom_1.html   (13054 words)

 LXI   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Louis XI was king of France from 1461 to 1483.
However, Louis knew about the power of money and bought off Edward IV in the Merchant's Peace of Picquigny in 1475 when he was given a lump sum of 75,000 crowns with the promise of 50,000 crowns a year and the betrothal of Louis's son to Edward's daughter.
This was reversed by Louis and it is likely that this happened as he feared the power of the Emperor who was the temporal defender of the Catholic faith on Earth and who would be called on by the Pope to restore his power.
www.historylearningsite.co.uk /LXI.htm   (1516 words)

 Louis XI, créateur de l'Etat-Nation
Louis XI et René II Les grands protagonistes de la bataille pour l'Etat-nation français furent la papauté, le roi Louis XI et son premier secrétaire Philippe de Commynes, René II, duc de Lorraine, allié incertain mais habile de Louis, et la maison financière des Médicis, notamment Laurent de Médicis.
Louis garantit l'expansion des manufactures en subventionnant les villes, y compris les cités médiévales; ces subventions provenaient de l'impôt sur le revenu, levé en proportion inverse à la productivité du contribuable, afin de décourager la richesse improductive et d'encourager le travail qualifié.
Louis rédigea des milliers de lois, qui furent lues sur les places publiques à travers la France, pour à la fois informer la population des nouveaux règlements et l'inviter à participer aux activités économiques ainsi créées.
solidariteetprogres.online.fr /Dossiers/Histoire/Louis.html   (4633 words)

 Amazon.ca: Books: Louis Xi, the Universal Spider   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Louis XI was not so much spider as he was diplomat and peace-maker in an age when men looked suspiciously on such behaviour, and combat was viewed as the honorable and noble approach to settling disputes.
Louis reckoned the ceaseless bickering and fighting of the nobles was destructive to the health of the countryside and the people of France.
Louis XI was a king who travelled around his kingdom on a regular basis to learn what was happening in the towns and provinces of France.
www.amazon.ca /exec/obidos/ASIN/0393053806   (1361 words)

 Commonwealth of France’s Louis XI
France's King Louis XI, who reigned from 1461 to 1483, created the modern form of nation-state, or commonwealth, in which the nation's wealth is seen as the common property of the nation and its whole people; which wealth is a function of the increase in the free energy of the economy as a whole.
Louis needed a single national currency and a unified investment plan, which prioritized the physical economy; his dirigist program had to include a tax-incentive program, and of no less importance, he needed a national credit policy that would foster capital-intensive investment.
Louis XI's conception of the commonwealth was based on the potential contribution individual subjects could make to the development of the whole nation, if given the opportunity to do so.
www.schillerinstitute.org /fid_91-96/953_louis-XI.html   (5757 words)

 Archive Photos: Louis XI@ HighBeam Research   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
King Louis XI of France pouts at his throne.
King Louis XI, called ³Louis the Spider², reigned as king from 1461-83 during which time he successfully squelched the ambitions of rebellious nobles and established ground for an absolute monarchy.
Louis began a war with King Edward IV and his allies in the 1460s which led to Louis XI¹s acquirement of Burgundy through the Treaty of Arras.
www.highbeam.com /library/doc0.asp?DOCID=1P1:30439867&refid=ip_encyclopedia_hf   (148 words)

 Louis XII—The Rosebush of War
THE ROSEBUSH OF WAR was composed near the end of King Louis XI's life in 1483, to instruct his son and heir Charles in the principles and impulse which guided Louis in creating France as history's first nation-state commonwealth.
Nothing concerning the person of Louis could be further from the truth, as the reader will readily see expressed through the principles he set forth for the ruling of a commonwealth.
Louis is not referring merely to the knights or noblemen who composed the mounted forces of the army, but is speaking more broadly of a new national military.
www.schillerinstitute.org /fid_91-96/953_rosebush.html   (4089 words)

 Louis, XI Biography / Biography of Louis, XI Biography Biography
Louis XI (1423-1483), called the Spider King, was king of France from 1461 to 1483.
The prosperity of France and the authority of the Crown were the major concerns of Louis XI.
Louis XI was born at Bourges, the son of Charles VII and Marie of Anjou.
www.bookrags.com /biography-louis-xi   (242 words)

 Louis XI   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Louis XI King Louis XI is one of the most interesting characters in French history.
At an time when a monarch was expected to sumptuously display his majesty Louis XI preffered the simplicity of bourgeois clothes.
Louis XI of France, 1476 From a copy of the statutes which established the Order of St Michael
www.edison.ro /louisxi/web   (407 words)

 France History, The French Valois Dynasty 1358-1589
Louis XI ouis XI (July 3, 1423 - August 30, 1483) was a King of France (1461 - 1483).
His marriage on June 24, 1436 to Margaret, daughter of King James I of Scotland, gave Louis XI an interest in English affairs, and he schemed to restore King Henry VI of England and his Lancastrian heir to the throne - partly because his arch-enemy, Charles the Bold of Burgundy was allied with the Yorkists.
Born Louis d'Orléans in the Royal Chateau Blois on June 27, 1462, son of Charles, duc d'Orleans, Louis was required by royal command to marry Jeanne, the daughter of his second cousin King Louis XI.
www.bonjourlafrance.net /france-history/valois-dynasty.htm   (6565 words)

 Louis XI   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
He was succeeded by his son Louis XI, who had been in revolt against his father since 1446.
When Louis XI of France forced Philip to cede some towns on the River Somme, Charles formed the League of the Public Weal, an alliance of noblemen.
The most notable incident of this period was a short war with France in 1475, which was terminated by an arrangement whereby King Louis XI agreed to pay Edward an annual subsidy.
www.edison.ro /louisxi/web/key.html   (1188 words)

 Louis XI and Astrology
The Court of Louis XI of France was no exception, and the following text offers some insight into what use Medieval kings made of their astrologers.
From the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries, when astrology flourished throughout Europe, there was scarcely a ruler of importance or reigning prince who did not have a Court Astrologer, whose advice and prognostications were depended upon for guidance in problems of State and other important matters[1].
Louis XI of France was a convinced believer in astrology and is said to have often consulted Angelo Catto and d'Almonsor, two famous astrologers of the time.
www.tarot-decks.com /astrology-louis-XI.html   (925 words)

 Louis Bleriot XI Monoplane, Bleriot and the English Channel Crossing 1909   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
His type XI established the classic formula of the tractor monoplane, a formula that remained unchanged until the start of the First World War.
The Bleriot XI made its debut at the Paris Salon de t'Automobile et de l'Aeronautique in December 1908, in the aeronautical section, along with two other Bleriot planes: the type IX (another tractor monoplane) and the type X (a pusher biplane).
Louis Bleriot'sflight last July to commemorate his grandfather'sfirst crossing of the English Channel was considerably shorter than the 1909 onginal-by some 35 minutes.
www.fiddlersgreen.net /aircraft/WWI/bleriot/bler_info/bler_info.htm   (3410 words)

 Additional Reading (from Louis XI) --  Encyclopædia Britannica
For general studies, see Christopher Hare, The Life of Louis XI Mosher, Louis XI, King of France, As He Appears in History and in Literature (1925); Pierre Champion, Louis XI, 2 vol.
1929); Joseph Calmette, Autour de Louis XI (1947); and for an analysis of the character of the King, Jean Dofournet, La Destruction des mythes dans les mémoires de Ph.
The “Brown Bomber,” Joe Louis was the world heavyweight boxing champion for almost 12 years—the longest reign in the history of the heavyweight division.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-4290?tocId=4290   (810 words)

 MSN Encarta - Search Results - Louis XI   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Louis XI (1423-1483), King of France (1461-1483), son and successor of Charles VII, who continued his father's work of restoring unity and stability...
Innocent XI (1611-1689), pope (1676-1689), who opposed King Louis XIV of France on the issue of Gallicanism, a policy calling for restrictions of...
Numbered rulers named Louis are entered below by their countries, in alphabetical order, and by regnal numbers.
uk.encarta.msn.com /Louis_XI.html   (98 words)

 Le Dauphin Louis II, futur Roi Louis XI
Devenu roi, Louis XI le récompensa en le nommant trésorier du Dauphiné.
Louis pouvait compter sur le soutien des grandes villes et de provinces entières comme le Languedoc, la Normandie, la Champagne et bien sûr la Dauphiné.
Louis deploie sa petite armée devant le château de Montlhéry.
atelierdesdauphins.com /histo/louis2.htm   (710 words)

 Rois de France en Val de Loire
Louis XI est né en 1423, c'est le fils de Charles VII et de Marie d'Anjou.
Louis XI est agé de 38 ans à la mort de son père et en tant que Dauphin il lui a créé beaucoup de difficultés.
Louis XI s'empare alors du Duché et du Comté de Bourgogne et de la Picardie aux dépens de la fille et héritière de Charles le Téméraire, Marie de Bourgogne.
www.francebalade.com /histo/roivdl.htm   (3947 words)

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