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Topic: Lower class

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  Social class - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Classes are seen to have their origin in the division of the social product into a necessary product and a surplus product.
It is seen as the process of a "class in itself" moving in the direction of a "class for itself," a collective agent that changes history rather than simply being a victim of the historical process.
For example, Bourdieu seems to have a notion of high and low classes comparable to that of Marxism, insofar as their conditions are defined by different habitus, which is in turn defined by different objectively classifiable conditions of existence.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Social_class   (2030 words)

 Middle class - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In early industrial capitalism the middle class was defined primarily as white collar workers—those who worked for wages (like all workers), but did so in conditions that were comfortable and safe compared to the conditions for blue collar workers of the "working class".
Some modern theories of political economy consider a large middle class to be a beneficial, stabilising influence on society, because it has neither the possibly explosive revolutionary tendencies of the lower class, nor the absolutist tendencies of an entrenched upper class.
Here the middle class is defined by a similar income level as semi-professionals, or business owners; by a shared culture of domesticity and sub-urbanity; and, by a level of relative security against social crisis in the form of socially desired skill or wealth.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Middle_class   (1345 words)

 Social class -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
A social class is, in the most basic sense, a group of people that shares the same or similar (A party of people assembled to promote sociability and communal activity) social (The relative position or standing of things or especially persons in a society) status.
Persons from intermediate classes such as the (The social class between the lower and upper classes) middle class own substantial assets and earn higher incomes, possibily making their employment a matter of choice.
At times, social class can be related to (The attitude that society should be governed by an elite group of individuals) elitism, and those in the higher class are usually known as the "social (A group or class of persons enjoying superior intellectual or social or economic status) elite".
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/s/so/social_class.htm   (1897 words)

 Does "Lower-Class" Culture Perpetuate Poverty   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
If, however, the lower class were to disappear—if, say, its members were overnight to acquire the attitudes, motivations, and habits of the working class—the most serious and intractable problems of the city would all disappear with it.
Outside the lower class, poverty (in the sense of hardship, want, or destitution) is today almost always the result of external circumstances—involuntary unemployment, prolonged illness, the death of a breadwinner, or some other misfortune.
The millionaire, freshly risen from the lower class, whose crude tongue and appalling table manners betray the newness of his affluence, is a staple of American literature and folklore.
courses.nus.edu.sg /course/socsja/English/Takeside.html   (7256 words)

 Social class
When sociologistss speak of "class" they usually mean economically based classes in modern or near pre-modern society.
Marx defined class in terms of the extent to which an individual or social group has control over the means of production.
"Bourdieu seems to have fairly rigid notion of high and low classes comparable to that of Marxism, insofar as their conditions are defined by different habitus, which is in turn defined by different objectively classifiable conditions of existence.
www.brainyencyclopedia.com /encyclopedia/s/so/social_class.html   (1407 words)

 More About...
Classification of the lower classes can be defined as people who use physical means for their living and include skilled workers and unskilled manual laborers.
As part of the lower class himself, Daumier's sensitivity and empathy with the plight of the lower class is evident in the image of the family group, quite different than his better known satirical caricatures of upper-middle class society and their life styles.
This painting is indicative of the social stratification where the life of the artist as a upper-middle class comes in contact with her lower class servant hanging out the wash. This beautiful painting is the embodiment of the stark contrast between the leisure activity of upper class Morisot, and the toil of a servant woman.
gallery.sjsu.edu /paris/social_classes/lower/LCwomen_more.html   (673 words)

 [No title]
Even after the war, groups of lower class laborers working for sub-standard pay continued to be held at the mercy of the political establishment, and those who were unable to move along in a run for employment were left behind.
As explained above, the lower class labor forces of Japan were born from a social system where they were wittingly used out of greater national interest and left with no choice but to continually relocate as they searched for work and filled the industrial needs of the time.
The urban lower class labor movement is not limited to the homeless.
www.jca.apc.org /wsf_support/documents/lower_class.html   (3821 words)

 Lower Class Revolts for Independence
The lower classes struggle for independence began in the periphery (marginal areas) of the Spanish colonial system.
It was a revolt of the lower classes.
Just prior to the defeat of the lower classes Morelos in November 1814 issued a new Constitution (of Apatrzingan) outlining the goals of the revolutionaries.
www.unm.edu /~nvaldes/350/revolt.html   (903 words)

 Haiti Urban Lower Class   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The urban lower class, which made up about 15 percent of the total population in the early 1980s, was concentrated in Port-au- Prince and the major coastal towns.
The urban lower class was socially heterogeneous, and it had little class consciousness.
The poorest strata of the urban lower class lived under Haiti's worst sanitary and health conditions.
www.country-studies.com /haiti/urban-lower-class.html   (209 words)

 Miller's Lower-Class Focal Concerns   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Having closely studied the lower class areas in Boston, in 1955, he came up with his own conclusions, and thus his Lower-Class Focal Concerns theory.
Miller identified six focal concerns to which the lower class give attention to.
It is a crucial concern to the lower class.
home.comcast.net /~ddemelo/crime/miller.html   (337 words)

 Class and Schools--Using Social, Economic, and Educational Reform to Close the Black-White Achievement Gap   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Throughout this book, the term "lower class" is used to describe the families of children whose achievement will, on average, be predictably lower than the achievement of middle-class children.
The fact that social class differences are associated with, and probably cause, a big gap in academic performance does not mean that, in theory, excellent schools could not offset these differences.
We don't know how large the race or social class achievement gaps are in these subjects, but there is no reason to believe that gaps in one domain are the same as the gaps in others, or that the relationships between gaps in different domains are consistent at different ages and on different tests.
www.epinet.org /content.cfm/books_class_and_schools   (5116 words)

 [Ngo-list] Lower middle class women facing thorny path   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Lower middle class women facing thorny path The Nation, By Ishrat Ansari 3/18/2003 http://www.nation.com.pk/daily/mar-2003/18/national/k5.asp KARACHI-With fast global changes, the era of command and control has diminished greatly.
For the lower middle class working women life offers precious little other than work with inadequate facilities, low wages, quite possibly also harassment at the workplace, long working hours and almost nothing by way of job satisfaction.
The lower class urban working woman is usually a domestic servant.
lists.isb.sdnpk.org /pipermail/ngo-list/2003-March/002816.html   (801 words)

 Iran - Social Class
The element of the upper classes with greatest political influence was a new group, the senior clergy.
Prior to the Revolution, the middle class was divided between those possessed of a Western education, who had a secular outlook, and those suspicious of Western education, who valued a role for religion in both public and private life.
The working class was divided into various groups of workers: those in the oil industry, manufacturing, construction, and transportation; and mechanics and artisans in bazaar workshops.
countrystudies.us /iran/48.htm   (1392 words)

 Lower primary class sizes - theage.com.au
Class sizes in Victorian primary schools have fallen to record lows, with average classes of 22.9 students - down from 26 in the mid-1990s and the lowest levels in three decades.
Average class sizes in the upper primary levels were slightly higher (24.3 students in years three to six) but still down on previous years.
Australian Education Union Victorian president Mary Bluett said that using averages rather than maximum class sizes was masking the fact that there were some larger classes across the state that were being levelled out by smaller classes, particularly in regional areas.
www.theage.com.au /articles/2003/04/28/1051381899169.html   (477 words)

 Lower-middle class hardest hit -DAWN - Business; May 29, 2005
The answer is a simple No. Ninety per cent of the people (heads of 20 lower-middle class families) interviewed by this reporter said that they coped with rising prices by curtailing expenditure on their medical and kitchen needs.
Sometimes they had to curtail the education budget of their children by shifting them to schools where the fee structure was more affordable and, where the situation was tighter, they had opted for government schools.
The salary of the lower-middle class ranges between Rs4,000 to Rs7,000 and the amount is so meagre that they find life tough.
www.dawn.com /2005/05/29/ebr15.htm   (722 words)

 Articles - Social structure of the United States   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The lower class in the United States consists of about 20% of the population and is deficient in all three factors.
The historical bourgeoisie, considered as a class which supports itself through investment and management of capital, is split in the United States between the upper middle class and the upper class.
The middle class is sometimes similarly divided into sections, with professionals and successful small business owners comprising the upper middle class, and the others, among them white-collar workers, comprising the remainder.
www.gaple.com /articles/Social_structure_of_the_United_States   (1382 words)

 Lower Class Dwelling   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
If you are a member of the upper class try this enhanced page for large monitors.
This dwelling produced by Stranglehold Inc. is a mass produced dome structure intended for habitation by lower class families.
This dwelling is intended to restrict lower class family sizes to a maximum of five persons.
www.his.com /~jtopping/distopia/LowClassDwell.html   (215 words)

 Panama - The Lower Class   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The lower class constituted the bulk of the country's urban population.
Ethnically, the lower class had three principal components: mestizo migrants from the countryside, children and grandchildren of Antillean fls, and Hispanicized fls--descendants of former slaves.
Although some Antillean fls were middle class, most remained in the lower class.
www.country-data.com /cgi-bin/query/r-9976.html   (485 words)

 Dr. Gerry Lower: Class Warfare Against the Poor
Indeed, class warfare would be what much of the past two millennia of western cultural evolution has been all about.
If we are ever to eliminate the culture-driven class warfare which has flared back up in America, it is back to the values and principles of democracy that we must return.
Class warfare is a given in post World War II America, now perpetrated against working mothers as well as working fathers, nevermind the detrimental impact on America's families.
www.counterpunch.org /lower01302003.html   (1043 words)

 LEON TROTSKY: 1930 — The History of the Russian Revolution — Ch. 3   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The first war months are marked by political inertness in the working class, but already in the spring of 1915 the numbness begins to pass.
 However, the broadest gates were opened for the emerging of capitalist farmers from the peasant class by the law of November 9, 1906, the chief reform introduced by the victorious counter-revolution.
Giving the right even to a small minority of the peasants of the commune, against the will of the majority, to cut out from the communal land a section to be owned independently, the law of November 9 constituted an explosive capitalist shell directed against the commune.
www.marxists.org /archive/trotsky/works/1930-hrr/ch03.htm   (5540 words)

 SRVUSD : NEWS : SRVUSD Students Benefit from Lower Class Size
While the data supporting the program’s success has not been widely available, ask teachers or parents who have seen the difference between a classroom of 34 and a classroom of 20 students, and you will hear overwhelming praise of the program and its benefits.
The K-3 Class Size Reduction legislation, which carried some flexibility in its implementation, was introduced in August 1996.
However, research shows that the introduction of smaller classes has led to improved student achievement and reduced rates of attrition among new teachers.
www.srvusd.k12.ca.us /news?cmd=view&articleID=240   (764 words)

 Monsieur Nice Woos the Lower Class
The dynamic forces in the country are the provinces, Raffarin says, having noticed that the call for a move to the Right in this year's elections, including law and order, anti-immigration policies and pension reform, came from a reactionary senior-citizen vote outside the capital.
Lucien Benoist, 75, a retired postmaster, is Monsieur Average in the Vienne.
He was unsure whether la France d'en bas - roughly translated as 'lower France' - was a tribute or a putdown.
www.buzzle.com /editorials/7-20-2002-22841.asp   (790 words)

 Encyclopedia: Lower class
Using wealth as a dimension, many have used a bi-partite model to view societies, from ancient history to the present day:
With the social changes of the 20th century, a gradually developing urban middle class appeared in most Western countries, producing three strata:
(Some writers divide Middle and Lower classes between White collar and Blue collar jobs.)
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Lower-class   (1609 words)

 AllRefer.com - Venezuela - Workers and the Urban Lower Class | Venezuelan Information Resource
Massive rural-to-urban migration has resulted in the emergence of a burgeoning urban lower class, the most successful members of which have become urban workers.
In the Venezuelan social view, the lower class consisted of those in low-status occupations (usually manual), the illiterate, and recent immigrants from the countryside.
The inroads made among the urban poor class by Protestant evangelical and charismatic sects provided another manifestation of this sense of alienation.
reference.allrefer.com /country-guide-study/venezuela/venezuela31.html   (504 words)

 American Whitewater - River Reach #1687   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Class IV at 4 ft (on the Ohiopyle gage).
The most dangerous spot on the Lower Yough, Dimple Rock was the site of three deaths in 2000.
Perhaps the toughest rapid on the Lower Yough, this one has a couple of rocks with pinning potential.
www.americanwhitewater.org /rivers/id/1687   (1944 words)

 Color in Lowerclass Elizabethan Clothing   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Add to this palette the newly imported dyes, such as indigo and cutch, that were becoming available to the lower classes, and you would see an impressive array of colors at any country fair.
Reds, tans, dark greens, and all shades of brown tended to be popular among the Flemish lower classes, according to the paintings done by Aertsen, Beuckelaer and Brueghel in Flanders during the 1560s and 1570s.
Although peasants and lower class folk of Elizabethan times had access to a number of colors, they were rarely as intense as their modern counterparts; a woad "blue" would be duskier and slightly subdued, a purple more blue-violet or plum-purple rather than "pure purple".
costume.dm.net /lowerclass/lcolors.html   (1065 words)

 A to Z Teacher Stuff Forums - Upper vs. Lower Class Students
The truth is that lower class families seem to not have as many options as those with a larger income or stay at home parents.
I am not implying that lower class families are not involved in education, or that their kids can't learn, etc. etc.
It is the upper class students that I have no experience with and would like to learn what challenges may present themselves in that matter, and how to handle them.
forums.atozteacherstuff.com /showthread.php?t=1605   (870 words)

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