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Topic: Lunokhod program


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  Lunokhod 1
Lunokhod 1 is the first of two unmanned lunar rovers landed on the Moon by the Soviet Union as part of its Lunokhod program.
Lunokhod was equipped with a cone-shaped antenna, a highly directional helical antenna[?], four television cameras[?], and special extendable devices to impact the lunar soil for soil density and mechanical property tests.
Lunokhod was intended to operate through three lunar days but actually operated for eleven lunar days.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/lu/Lunokhod_1.html   (246 words)

  
 Lunokhod 2 -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Lunokhod 2 operated for about 4 months, covered 37 km (23 miles) of terrain including hilly upland areas and (Click link for more info and facts about rille) rilles, and sent back 86 panoramic images and over 80,000 TV pictures.
On June 4 it was announced that the program was completed, leading to speculation that the vehicle probably failed in mid-May or could not be revived after the lunar night of May-June.
The Lunokhod was not left in a position such that the laser retroreflector could be used indicating that the failure may have happened suddenly.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/L/Lu/Lunokhod_2.htm   (623 words)

  
 Lunokhod 1 -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Lunokhod was the first roving remote-controlled robot to land on another world.
Lunokhod 1 was a lunar vehicle formed of a tub-like compartment with a large convex lid on eight independently powered wheels.
Lunokhod was intended to operate through three (The period of time taken for the moon to make one full rotation on its axis (about 27.3 sidereal days)) lunar days but actually operated for eleven lunar days.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/l/lu/lunokhod_1.htm   (249 words)

  
 Encyclopedia: Lunokhod 2   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Lunokhod 2 was the second of two unmanned lunar rovers landed on the Moon by the Soviet Union as part of the Lunokhod program.
Lunokhod 2 was equipped with three television cameras, one mounted high on the rover for navigation, which could return high resolution images at different rates - 3.2, 5.7, 10.9 or 21.1 seconds per frame (not frames per second).
Lunokhod 2 operated for about 4 months, covered 37 km (23 miles) of terrain including hilly upland areas and rilles, and sent back 86 panoramic images and over 80,000 TV pictures.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Lunokhod-2   (1645 words)

  
 Lunokhod
The Lunokhod itself consisted of a tub-like compartment with a large convex lid on eight wheels.
The payload, the Lunokhod 1 unmanned rover, rolled down a ramp from the landing stage and began exploring the surface.
Luna 17 / Lunokhod have landed on the Sea of Storms on the moon.
www.astronautix.com /craft/lunokhod.htm   (1481 words)

  
 Lunokhod 2   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The primary objectives of the mission were to collect images of the lunar surface, examine ambient lightlevels to determine the feasibility of astronomical observations from the Moon, perform laser ranging experiments from Earth, observe solar X-rays, measure local magnetic fields, and studymechanical properties of the lunar surface material.
Lunokhod 2 was equipped with three television cameras, one mounted high on the rover for navigation, which could return high resolutionimages at different rates - 3.2, 5.7, 10.9 or 21.1 seconds per frame (not frames per second).
On June 4 it was announced that the program was completed, leading tospeculation that the vehicle probably failed in mid-May or could not be revived after the lunar night of May-June.
www.therfcc.org /lunokhod-2-44926.html   (684 words)

  
 Luna 17   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Lunokhod had traveled 10,540 m and had transmitted more than 20,000 television pictures and more than 200 television panoramas.
Luna 17 carried Lunokhod 1, the first in a series of robot lunar roving vehicles whose conception had begun in the early 1960s, originally as part of the piloted lunar landing operations.
The Lunokhod 1 rover rolled over the ramps and onto the lunar surface at 06:28 UT. The rover had an expected lifetime of three lunar days but operated for eleven.
www.worldhistory.com /wiki/L/Luna-17.htm   (610 words)

  
 Unmanned space mission - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Mariner program - Mercury, Venus and Mars, flyby and orbital
Voyager program - Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune flyby and study interstellar space
Mars Surveyor '98 program (Mars Climate Orbiter and Mars Polar Lander)
www.lighthousepoint.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Unmanned_space_mission   (502 words)

  
 Luna Ye-8
Kamanin feels the suits are too heavy, due to Mishin's demand for a 5 km range from the LK over a three day traverse with the LT. Severin could have instead developed the spacesuit used by Leonov to have a four hour autonomous operation, but Mishin insisted on doubling of the capacity.
The program they come up with: In January 1969, 2 Venera probes will be launched, two manned Soyuz missions, and L1 s/n 13 will be sent around the moon.
Despite the cause of the failure not being identified, approval is given at 14:30 for the launch of the Ye-8 to proceed.
www.astronautix.com /craft/lunaye8.htm   (2638 words)

  
 Section 360: A Soviet Moonshot?
The Soviet decision for a manned lunar program came after the United States had set the ultimate goal in the Space Race--landing a man on the Moon.
Lunokhods were equipped to take photographs and to analyze rock and soil samples--the same kinds of tasks performed by astronauts on the Moon.
The program was canceled without a manned flight after repeated test failures of the launch vehicle.
www.hrw.com /science/si-science/earth/spacetravel/spacerace/SpaceRace/sec300/sec360.html   (862 words)

  
 Details of the Soviet Primate Lunar Landing Program   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
So, on 5 March 1964, the chimp program was revamped and given a formal designation that was the same as the spacecraft that was to carry the chimps: Ye-8-6.
This program was for the design of a capsule and life support system to be carried by one of the Ye-8 Lunokhod spacecraft.
Oberg eventually traced enough information about the program to write what at the time was a stunning expose of what he called "unparalleled Communist cruelty against animals." A major part of his narrative was an account of the "monkey mutiny" (Oberg's words) where Boris refused to leave the spacecraft upon landing.
studweb.studserv.uni-stuttgart.de /studweb/users/lrt/lrt28256/humor/boris.htm   (3733 words)

  
 Lunokhod
The eight-wheeled vehicles carried TV cameras and instruments to analyze the Moon’s soil, and were guided over the lunar surface by remote control from Earth.
Lunokhod 1 was delivered to the Sea of Rains aboard Luna 17 in November 1970 and had covered over 10 km by the end of its mission 11 months later.
Lunokhod 2, an improved version with twice the top speed, landed aboard Luna 21 in January 1973 in the partially ruined crater Le Monnier on the edge of the Sea of Serenity, and covered a total of 37 km in its five-month lifetime.
www.daviddarling.info /encyclopedia/L/Lunokhod.html   (190 words)

  
 Luna 21 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Landing occurred at 23:35 UT in Le Monnier crater at 25.85° N, 30.45° E. The lander carried a bas relief of Lenin and the Soviet coat-of-arms.
Luna 21 carried the second successful Soviet "8YeL" lunar rover, Lunokhod 2, and was launched less than a month after the last Apollo lunar landing.
The 840-kilogram Lunokhod 2 was an improved version of its predecessor and was equipped with a third TV camera, an improved eight-wheel traction system, and additional scientific instrumentation.
www.eastcleveland.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Luna_21   (670 words)

  
 Station Information - Unmanned space mission
ESA has, however, launched various spacecraft to carry out astronomy, and is a collaborator with NASA on the Hubble space telescope.
Viking program - Mars orbiter and lander (1974)
Voyager program - Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune flyby
www.stationinformation.com /encyclopedia/u/un/unmanned_space_mission.html   (228 words)

  
 Trip to Eastern Europe and Asia - 2002
Lunokhod 1 was the first successful Soviet remote-controlled moon rover to land on the Moon on 17 November 1970.
Lunokhod 3 (photo) never made it to the Moon and to our luck could be admired in the museum.
The three Lunokhod rovers were part of the Soviet's manned lunar program and would serve in the construction of the first lunar bases.
www.reaiche.org /Trip_to_EE_2002.html   (1276 words)

  
 Remote Sensing Tutorial Introduction - Part 1 Page 11   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Their space program never fully recovered, and they lost the race to put a man on the moon.
First, whereas in the United States, NASA was the one central organization who was responsible for leading the race to the moon, the Soviet Union had competing design bureaus which very rarely cooperated on such important ventures.
The Soviet program was re-oriented to further unmanned exploration of the moon with their Luna series of planetary spacecraft, and the launching and maintaining of space stations in orbit.
rst.gsfc.nasa.gov /AppA/Part1_11.html   (285 words)

  
 Moon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The first robot lunar rover to land on the Moon was the Soviet vessel Lunokhod 1 on November 17, 1970 as part of the Lunokhod program.
On December 24, 1968 the crew of Apollo 8, Frank Borman, James Lovell, and William Anders became the first human beings to see the far side of the Moon with their own eyes (as opposed to seeing it on a photograph).
The far side of the Moon remained completely unknown until the Luna 3 probe in 1959, and was extensively mapped by the Lunar Orbiter program in the 1960s.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Moon   (5308 words)

  
 Astronomy - Making tracks - Andrew Fazekas
Lunokhod 1 was part of the Soviet empire's last-ditch effort to take back some of the glory it lost to the immensely successful American Apollo program.
Lunokhod carried an X-ray spectrometer, instruments to analyze soil density and composition, and a suite of television cameras.
By the time Lunokhod was officially shut down October 4, 1971 — the anniversary of Sputnik's launch — the "Moon buggy" had set the bar high.
www.astronomy.com /asy/default.aspx?c=a&id=2599   (1698 words)

  
 Encyclopedia: November 17   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
1970 - Luna program: The Soviet Union lands Lunokhod 1 on Mare Imbrium (Sea of Rains) on the Moon.
This is the first roving remote-controlled robot to land on another world and was released by the orbiting Luna 17 spacecraft.
The Luna programme was a series of 24 unmanned space missions sent to the Moon by the Soviet Union between 1959 and 1976.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/November-17   (9681 words)

  
 THE SOVIET MANNED LUNAR PROGRAM
Although the future course of the Soviet space program was unclear when the Soyuz was conceived in 1959-62 (space stations, lunar missions or even a manned flight around Mars were considered), it was generally agreed on that rendezvous and docking would play a major role.
As the L1 program was winding down in early 1969, the focus shifted to the N1 program.
The program would eventually be reorganized around the concept of extended stays on the Moon that would be longer than the brief visits made by the American Apollo astronauts (Logsdon,1994).
www.fas.org /spp/eprint/lindroos_moon1.htm   (9269 words)

  
 19731
The late President's interest and support of the space program began while he was Chairman of the Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences and continued during his tenure as Vice President and President.
A Lunar Programs Office, under which the Lunar Data Analysis and Synthesis Program would be conducted, was established in the Office of Space Science, NASA Hq.
The inherent worth of a Skylab-B was recognized, but officials were reluctant to recommend it, on the premise that it would be unwise to allow it to delay or displace the development of the Space Shuttle and other programs already included in the FY 1974 budget.
www.friends-partners.org /partners/mwade/chrono/19731.htm   (1286 words)

  
 Lunokhod programme - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Lunokhod programme - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography
This page was last modified 16:11, 1 May 2005.
The article about Lunokhod programme contains information related to Lunokhod programme and External link.
www.arikah.com /encyclopedia/Lunokhod_program   (112 words)

  
 Knowledge King - Luna program   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The Luna program (Lunik) was a series of 24 unmanned space missions sent to the Moon by the Soviet Union between 1959 and 1976.
Lunas 17 and 21 even carried roving vehicles which roamed around on the Moon's terrain (see Lunokhod program).
Another major achievement of the Luna program was the ability to collect samples of lunar soil and return them to Earth, by 1970.
www.knowledgeking.net /encyclopedia/l/lu/luna_program.html   (380 words)

  
 Lunokhod 1 -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Lunokhod 1 -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article
The spacecraft which carried Lunokhod 1 was named (Click link for more info and facts about Luna 17) Luna 17.
Lunokhod had traveled 10,540m and had transmitted more than 20,000 TV pictures and more than 200 TV panoramas.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/L/Lu/Lunokhod_1.htm   (249 words)

  
 Unmanned space mission - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
There were also a few Japanese missions and the Chinese space program is preparing missions for the future.
Unmanned programs through the ages (first mission year given, if known):
Lunokhod program - unmanned Lunar Rover probes (1970-1973).
www.sterlingheights.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Unmanned_spaceflight   (502 words)

  
 Lunokhod 2   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
After landing, the Lunokhod 2 took TV images of the surrounding area, then rolled down a ramp to the surface at 01:14 UT on
On June 4 it was announced that the program was
The Lunokhod was not left in a position such that the laser retroreflector could be used indicating that the failure
pages.preferred.com /~tedstryk/lunokhod2.html   (602 words)

  
 Chaper 1: Misson   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
This historic landing is still remembered as a fulfillment of the spirit of exploration, and is considered to be one of the greatest achievements of the American space program.
The Lunokhod vehicles are predecessors of this rover, as they are the only telerobotic vehicles to have operated on the Moon.
Because the exact location where Lunokhod became trapped and failed is unknown, the possibility that Lunokhod's trail will end just over the next horizon will keep interest high.
www.frc.ri.cmu.edu /projects/lri/Luna/report/mission.html   (1514 words)

  
 Russians Fret That U.S. Endangers Manned Space Flight
MOSCOW: The 2006-2015 federal space program budget approved this month gives a green light to a comprehensive research program including a Russian launch of a probe to Mars and perhaps a long-range manned space program similar to the one announced last year by the United States.
The legendary Lunokhod was developed at the Lavochkin science-and-production association.
[Editor’s Note: Lunokhod 1 was the first of two unmanned lunar rovers landed on the Moon by the Soviet Union as part of its Lunokhod program.
watchingamerica.com /novosti000009.html   (637 words)

  
 Luna 21   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The Luna 21 mission deployed the second Soviet lunar rover (Lunokhod 2).
The Lunokhod 2 rover was equipped with two TV cameras, one mounted high on the rover for navigation and one lower.
On June 4 it was announced that the program was completed, leading to speculation that the vehicle could probably not be revived after the lunar night of May-June.
lunar.arc.nasa.gov /printerready/history/timeline_items/luna21.html   (418 words)

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