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Topic: MIT Whirlwind

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In the News (Wed 17 Apr 19)

  Whirlwind (computer) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In 1945 Perry Crawford, another member of the MIT team, saw a demonstration of ENIAC and suggested that a digital computer was the solution.
After Whirlwind was completed and running, a design for a larger and faster machine to be called Whirlwind II was begun.
An effort was also started to convert the Whirlwind design to a transistorized form, led by Ken Olsen and known as the TX-0.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/MIT_Whirlwind   (1410 words)

 MIT Whirlwind
In 1945 Jerry Crawford, another member of the MIT team, saw a demonstration of ENIAC and suggested that a digital computer was the solution.
Whirlwind took 3 years to build and first went online on April 20th, 1951.
Speed of the original design turned out to be too slow to be very useful, and most of the problem was attributed to the fairly slow speed of the Williams tubes used for main memory[?].
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/mi/MIT_Whirlwind.html   (651 words)

 MIT Lincoln Laboratory - History   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
At MIT Lincoln Laboratory, the approach to problem solving is grounded in following a project from the concept stage, through simulation and analysis, to the development of hardware, software, and the ultimate demonstration of an integrated system.
Building on digital technology from the MIT Whirlwind Computer of the late 1940s, early research at Lincoln Laboratory was focused on the design and prototype development of a network of ground-based radars and aircraft control centers for continental air defense.
MIT Lincoln Laboratory performed the initial research for the development of the semiconducting laser and designed an infrared laser radar to develop techniques for high-precision pointing and tracking of satellites.
www.ll.mit.edu /about/history.html   (748 words)

 Whirlwind-1949   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
Whirlwind was a large scale, general purpose digital computer begun at the Servomechanisms Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1946.
MIT took on the ASCA project in 1944, with Jay Forrester as its director.
Project Whirlwind was sponsored by the Special Devices Division of the Office of Research and Inventions of the U.S. Navy.
www.computermuseum.li /Testpage/Whirlwind-1949.htm   (413 words)

 MIT Whirlwind Computer from 1951
Development of the Whirlwind computer began in 1945, and the system was first demonstrated on April 20th, 1951.
The Whirlwind was also the first computer to use Core Memory for RAM, a storage method that flourished until the 1970's.
The Whirlwind computer was ultimately adopted by the U.S. Air Force for use in the SAGE (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment) air defense system, which became operational in 1958 with more advanced display capabilities.
www.cedmagic.com /history/whirlwind-computer.html   (165 words)

 MIT Entrepreneurship Center - Technology Leadership
MIT has an extraordinary history of serving as the breeding ground for some of the most important and revolutionary inventions of the last 100 years.
MIT Professor of Chemistry Alan Davison, Dr. Alun Jones of the Whitaker College of Health Sciences and Technology, and Dr. Michael Abrams Ph.D. '83, discover Technecium-99, a new brain-imaging agent that diagnoses damage caused by heart disease.
MIT researchers create the world's first acrobatic robotic bird--a small, agile helicopter that the military could use in mountainous and urban combat and that could offer the entertainment industry a new means of capturing aerial imagery.
entrepreneurship.mit.edu /technology_leadership.php   (735 words)

 Whirlwind - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Whirlwinds are the mascot of Floydada high school in Texas
The WhirlWind (Seabreeze) is a roller coaster at Seabreeze Amusement Park in Rochester, New York
Whirlwind tank, a Space Marine rocket artillery vehicle in Warhammer 40,000 universe
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Whirlwind   (128 words)

 Visible Storage
The Whirlwind I digital computer project began in late 1945 at MIT and was operational about five years later.
With the onset of the Cold War, Whirlwind was used as a testbed for America's SAGE air defense system.
Whirlwind was the first computer to use magnetic core memory, a technology perfected by project leader Jay Forrester to replace the unreliable Williams tube (CRT) memory.
www.computerhistory.org /virtualvisiblestorage/artifact_main.php?tax_id=   (104 words)

 MIT Whirlwind Article, MITWhirlwind Information   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
During World War II the USNavy approached MIT about the possibility of creating a computer to drive a flight simulator for training bomber crews.
This was not appropriate for the Whirlwind system, which needed to operate continually on anever-changing series of inputs.
Whirlwind took 3 years to buildand first went online on April 20th, 1951.
www.anoca.org /computer/system/mit_whirlwind.html   (703 words)

 Whirlwind Cable --> Info and Comparisons   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
A whirlwind is an atmospheric phenomenon consisting of twisting wind movements.
In computing, the word most commonly designates MIT's pioneering Whirlwind computer, whose direct successor(s) was used in the U.S. SAGE air defence system from the 1950s to the 1980s.
Set in Iran in 1979, it follows the fortunes of a group of Struans helicopter pilots in the turmoil surrounding the fall of the Iranian monarchy and the rise of the Ayatollah Khomeini.
www.crashdatabase.com /computers/188/whirlwind-cable.html   (687 words)

 diary 29
In December 1944, the Navy's Special De­vices Center asked MIT to undertake a feasibility study of a gen­eral-purpose flight trainer and stability analyzer that could be used to train pilots and to test new aerodynamic designs.
Since Whirlwind was designed for real-time applications, it was the fastest computer of the early 1950s, able to add two sixteen-bit words in two microsec­onds or multiply them in twenty microseconds.
Whirlwind was the first sixteen-bit computer.) As for Whirlwind’s internal read/write memory, it consisted of thrity-two CRTs, or electrostatic tubes, storing a total of 2,048 sixteen-bit words.
www.combat-diaries.co.uk /diary29/whirlwind.htm   (8779 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
Whirlwind was MIT's first computer project and one which led to the formation of the Lincoln Laboratory and MITRE Corporation, an MIT spinoff.
"It" was the Whirlwind Com- puter, the "first attempt at a real-time system, the first with magnetic core storage, the first cathode tube displays, the first synchronous electronic parallel machine, the first time-sharing hysteresis loop, and proceeded to try to put that kind of materi- al into a matrix structure.
While Whirlwind was obsolete by 1959 and now resides in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, "today's machines show more traces of Whirlwind than the other machines that existed at the same time," said Forrester.
www-tech.mit.edu /archives/VOL_094/TECH_V094_S0230_P003.txt   (635 words)

 Section 2: The emergence of computer graphics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
The Whirlwind programmers had created a series of data points, displayed on the screen, that represented the eastern coast of Massachusetts, and when data was received from radar, a symbol representing the aircraft was superimposed over the geographic drawing on the screen of a CRT.
The Whirlwind project was very expensive and made up the bulk of the Office of Naval Research budget.
Through intense lobbying by MIT, the Whirlwind computer was ultimately adopted by the U.S. Air Force for use in its new SAGE (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment) air defense system, which became operational in 1958 with more advanced display capabilities.
accad.osu.edu /~waynec/history/lesson2.html   (2220 words)

 MITRE - About Us - MITRE History - Photo Archives - Project Whirlwind
Whirlwind began as an analog computer developed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the 1940s as part of a project studying aircraft stability problems for the U.S. Navy.
A digital Whirlwind was built between 1945 and 1952 by MIT's Digital Computer Laboratory.
March 1, 1950—Project Whirlwind’s on-site tube department manufactured all of the computer’s electrostatic storage tubes.
www.mitre.org /about/photo_archives/whirlwind_photo.html   (450 words)

 MIT Whirlwind Computer Block Diagrams - Dr. Rick Smith, University of St. Thomas
The Whirlwind is an often overlooked milestone in the history of computers.
The Whirlwind, on the other hand, served as the template for the SAGE air defense computer.
The Whirlwind block diagrams were "published" in September 1947 as the capstone of the Whirlwind design process.
www.cs.stthomas.edu /faculty/resmith/r/whirlwind.html   (493 words)

 Charles Babbage Institute: RESEARCH PROGRAM> Current research   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
The Digital Computer Laboratory at MIT constructed Whirlwind in the late-1940s for use as a cockpit control or flight simulator.
MIT Lincoln Laboratory, for instance, designed a Lincoln Utility System to assist inexperienced programmers in debugging, documenting, communicating, and systematizing their work.
As its designers explained, one of the most important functions of the system was to coordinate and schedule inputs received from operators at remote SAGE air defense installations, and return outputs as directed from the central direction center.
www.cbi.umn.edu /shp/entries/anfsq7.html   (483 words)

 Making Electrons Count
The MIT Museum has kindly granted permission for me to reproduce these extracts from the 1953 film on MIT Project Whirlwind,"Making Electrons Count." The permission is governed by an agreement between Daniel P. Smith and the MIT Museum, and covers publication at this Web site only.
"The Whirlwind facility requires that potential users do their own programming for the solution of their problems." (This "hands-on" philosophy is one of the reasons I see Whirlwind as the ancestor the minicomputer and PC cultures).
Follows man identified as "Steve Dodd, Whirlwind's chief engineer" as he walks from main control room, down long corridor with racks of equipment, past a wall of electronics, around the end and down another corridor full of gear, arriving at a stack of "thirty-two planes of magnetic cores.
www.dpbsmith.com /mec/mecintro.html   (1853 words)

 Edwards - "Computers in Society and Culture"   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
This practical goal distinguished Whirlwind from almost all other digital computer projects of this era, because it required a computer which could (a) be used as a control mechanism, and (b) could perform this function in real time.
Whirlwind research also focused heavily, and successfully, on increasing vacuum tube lifespan, a major cause of breakdowns in early computers.
Turkle's ethnographic study of MIT hackers revealed a powerful competitive side in such phenomena as "sport death," the practice of staying at one's terminal until one drops, achieving fame through a kind of monumental physical self-denial.
www.si.umich.edu /~pne/impact.htm   (10435 words)

 Small piece of computer history
I was especially interested because when I was still in high school, my brother Ron Mayer started working at MIT on Whirlwind, and joined MITRE when that was spun off from MIT as a not-for-profit research corporation.
When my brother started working at MIT in February 1948, the area where Whirlwind was going to be installed was still divided into small rooms, whose walls were in the process of being torn down.
I arranged it so you could specify the detailed duration of each note, and thus was able to add a little life by slightly lengthening the first note of each measure, and slowing down the notes at the end of the piece.
www.gazettenet.com /columns/milne/09062003.htm   (435 words)

 Project History: Magnetic Core Memory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
Jay Forrester, who was head of the Whirlwind computer project, invented core memory at MIT in the late 1940s.
Whirlwind was MIT’s first digital computer and the first digital computer built specifically for real-time control.
This project history will work primarily with the core memory collection in the MIT archives, one of the richest sets of documentation for a particular invention that exists.
web.mit.edu /6.933/www/core.html   (305 words)

 MITRE - About Us - MITRE History - Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE)
At the heart of each center was a new large-scale digital computer that had evolved from MIT's experimental Whirlwind computer of the 1950's.
Former MITRE President Bob Everett's invention of the light gun is often referred to as one of the precursor's to today's computer mouse.
Whirlwind's control program, the largest real-time computer program written at that time, spawned a new profession, software development engineers and programmers.
www.mitre.org /about/sage.html   (1102 words)

 Computer History Museum - Timeline
At MIT, researchers began experimentation on direct keyboard input on computers, a precursor to today´s normal mode of operation.
MIT students Slug Russell, Shag Graetz, and Alan Kotok wrote SpaceWar!, considered the first interactive computer game.
Dueling players fired at each other´s spaceships and used early versions of joysticks to manipulate away from the central gravitational force of a sun as well as from the enemy ship.
staging.computerhistory.org /timeline/timeline.php?timeline_category=sl   (2132 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
The "704" is considered the fastest of its kind in the world; although MIT will not be the first to receive one, the Institute's "704" will be the first used exclusively for research purposes.
The new IBM computor has a larg- er "memory" both at low and high speed calculations, it is a more com- pact design, it is more "flexible" which means it can do many different types of problems, and it is faster.
However, according to Dr. Corbato, "Whirlwind" is still faster on some problems than is the "704".
www-tech.mit.edu /archives/VOL_077/TECH_V077_S0099_P003.txt   (735 words)

 Whirlwind (Computer)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
During World War II the US Navy approached MIT about the possibility of a computer to drive a flight simulator for training bomber crews.
A short study by the MIT Servomechanism concluded that such a system was certainly The Navy decided to fund development under Project Whirlwind and the lab placed Jay Forrester in charge of the project.
Speed of the original design (20 KIPS) out to be too slow to be useful and most of the problem was to the fairly slow speed of the Williams tubes used for main memory.
www.freeglossary.com /MIT_Whirlwind   (942 words)

 Seeding Networks (pg 2)
Whirlwind demonstrated the feasibility of real-time data communication over analog telephone lines, and led to important engineering developments like core memory.
Whirlwind's successor, the XD-1, was the prototype for the IBM AN/FSQ-7 and AN/FSQ-8 (Army-Navy Fixed Special eQuipment) computers that were used in SAGE.
The case for interactive computing was stated by MIT's J. Licklider in an influential article on man-machine symbiosis [16].
www.indwes.edu /faculty/bcupp/lookback/nethist2.htm   (792 words)

 The Encyclopedia of Computer Languages
John W. Carr, III "Progress of the whirlwind computer towards an automatic programming procedure" view detailsAbstract: This paper shall discuss present and proposed uses of subroutines and other pre-tested automatic programs on the Whirlwind computer at the Digital Computer Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
At Whirlwind, programming methods are involved not only with a Subroutine Library, but also with the use of artificial andquot; programmed codes,andquot; interpretive routines, automatic assembly schemes, and conversion programs.
MIT was allocated a small amount of the Whirlwind Iandquot;s computing time for academic work, an activity organized by Charles W. Adams, assistant professor of digital computation at MITandquot;s Digital Computer Laboratory.
hopl.murdoch.edu.au /showlanguage2.prx?exp=39   (5721 words)

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