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Topic: Mahmud II

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 Mahmud II - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sultan Mahmud II Animation showing the structure of the Tughra of Mahmud II Mahmud II (in Arabic محمودالثانى) (July 20, 1785–July 1, 1839) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death.
The leader of this rebellion, Mustafa Bayrakdar, then became Mahmud's vizier and took the initiative in resuming reforms that had been terminated by the conservative coup of 1807 that had brought Mustafa IV to power.
Mahmud appears to have been unable to effect the reforms he desired in the mode of educating his children, so that his son received no better education than that given to Ottoman princes in the harem.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Mahmud_II   (828 words)

 Mahmud II on Encyclopedia.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
In 1817, Mahmud recognized Miloš as prince of Serbia, a Turkish vassal.
Mahmud was obliged to accede (1833) to Muhammad Ali's demands and, by a secret agreement with Russia, promised to close the Dardanelles to all warships hostile to Russia.
In 1839, war with Egypt was resumed, and on the day of Mahmud's death, news came of the ignominious surrender of the Turkish fleet in the harbor of Alexandria.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/M/Mahmud2.asp   (798 words)

 Centralization under Mahmud II
Having succeeded in the abolishment of the army in 1826, Mahmud II mainly dealt with the establishment of the new army, and introduction of new reforms in various areas.
Mahmud II also wanted to establish and expand higher technical military schools, and the approval of the ulema for these schools was generally secured by appointment of müderris (a professor in a medrese) as teachers in these schools.
Mahmud II’s efforts to establish an educational system apart from the traditional medrese structure is much apparent in the plans for the establishment of secular rüþdiye schools (for adolescents) for the graduates of primary schools who did not wish to continue with medrese.
www.geocities.com /gokcek/docs/centralizationundermahmud.htm   (6507 words)

 [No title]
Mahmud foresaw that a battle in the streets of Constantinople must decide the question between him and the Janissaries, and he diligently strengthened himself in the arm of war which is most effective in street contests.
Mahmud also reasoned, not unsuccessfully, with the leading Ulema on the folly of their abetting by their influence the obstinate disloyalty of the Janissaries, who might once have been the truest champions, but were now clearly the worst enemies of Islam.
Mahmud is said long to have resisted their pusillanimous advice, and well would it have been for him and his empire if a single faithful friend had then been near him to support his sovereign with manly counsel.
www.shsu.edu /~his_ncp/Mahmud.html   (8533 words)

 Mahmud II: bio and encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
In 1808, Mahmud's brother and predecessor, Mustafa IV (additional info and facts about Mustafa IV) ordered his execution along with that of his brother, the deposed Sultan Selim III (additional info and facts about Selim III), in order to defuse a rebellion.
Late in his reign, Mahmud became involved in disputes with his ambitious vassal Mehemet Ali (Albanian soldier in the service of Turkey who was made viceroy of Egypt and took control away from the Ottoman Empire and established Egypt as a modern state (1769-1849)), Wali (Governor) of Egypt.
When he died from tuberculosis (Infection transmitted by inhalation or ingestion of tubercle bacilli and manifested in fever and small lesions (usually in the lungs but in various other parts of the body in acute stages)) in 1839, his funeral was crowded by throngs of people who came to bid the sultan farewell.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/m/ma/mahmud_ii1.htm   (314 words)

 Encyclopedia: Mahmud II
Animation showing the structure of the Tughra of Mahmud II A tughra (طغراء;) is a Turkish paisley-like calligraphic seal or signature used at the beginning of sultans decrees.
Mahmud II 1784–1839, Ottoman sultan (1808–39), younger son of Abd al-Hamid I. He was raised to the throne of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) upon the deposition of his brother, Mustafa IV, and continued the reforms of his cousin, Selim III.
Sultan Mahmud II Mahmud II (in Arabic محمودالثانى) (July 20, 1785–July 1, 1839) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Mahmud-II   (1732 words)

 MAHMUD I. - LoveToKnow Article on MAHMUD I.
MAHMUD I. - LoveToKnow Article on MAHMUD I. (1696-1754), sultan of Turkey, was the son of Mustafa II., and succeeded his uncle Ahmed III.
After the suppression of a military revolt the war with Persia was continued with varying success, and terminated in 1736 by a treaty of peace restoring the status quo ante bellum.
He had a passion for building, to which are due numberless kiosques, where nocturnal orgies were carried on by him and his boon companions.
www.1911encyclopedia.org /M/MA/MAHMUD_I_.htm   (202 words)

 BarbManning.net Freelance - Auspicious Event: The Significance of the Destruction of the Janissaries   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Mahmud II agreed to disband the Sekbâni Çedid and, in exchange, the Janissaries promised to let the disarmed troops leave the city unmolested.
Mahmud had to contend with three main power centers in the Ottoman government: the ulama under the control of Seyhulislam, the Janissaries under the authority of the aghas and regimental commanders, and Reis ul-Kuttap, the powerful leader of scribes of the Porte.
Mahmud II also had the support of his subjects in Istanbul who were tired of the abuses of the Janissaries.
www.barbmanning.net /samples/janissaryend.html   (4874 words)

 Mahmud, II Biography / Biography of Mahmud, II Biography
The Ottoman sultan Mahmud II (1785-1839) attempted to hold together and rebuild the empire by administrative reforms, but interior instability and foreign wars proved obstacles too great to overcome.
Mahmud was born on July 20, 1785, son of Abdul Hamid I and cousin of the reforming ruler Selim III.
But the highly intelligent and energetic Mahmud escaped the debilitating weakness trapping other Osmanli through the instruction accorded him by Selim III between the latter's dethronement in May 1807 and his execution in July 1808 as his reform-minded supporters battered down the palace gates.
www.bookrags.com /biography-mahmud-ii   (230 words)

 Berkes. Foundations
The most significant aspect of the innovations initiated by Mahmud II was the emergence of the idea of an Ottoman state, composed of peoples of diverse nationalities and religions, based on secular principles of sovereignty as contrasted with the medieval concept of an Islamic empire.
It was during Mahmud's time of greatest weakness that the idea of an Ottoman nationality composed of all the subjects of the Empire irrespective of their origin, language, and religious afliliation, and the idea of the Padisah as the temporal ruler of the Ottomans began to form.
The implications of Mahmud's utterances concerning the equality of Muslims and non-Muslims before the laws of his administration may be illustrated by his administrative measures as well as by the difficulties in harmonizing these measures and their underlying principles with the measures attempted within the field of education, as we shall see later.
coursesa.matrix.msu.edu /~fisher/hst373/readings/berkes.html   (14522 words)

 MAHMUD II - Online Information article about MAHMUD II
Mahmud, in spite of—or rather because of—his well-meant efforts at reform, was hated by his Mussulman subjects and stigmatized as an " infidel " and a traitor to See also:
Mahmud's policy was the converse of that recommended by Machiavelli, viz.
Mahmud was under no illusion as to the position in which the latter placed him towards Russia; but his fear of Mehemet Ali and his See also:
encyclopedia.jrank.org /LUP_MAL/MAHMUD_II.html   (2099 words)

 Imperialism, to the Crimean War
Mahmud felt disgraced that Muhammad Ali Pasha's military was better than his, and he was planning to strengthen his military.
Mahmud was hostile and afraid of the Russians and closed the strait of Bosporus, alongside Constantinople, to Russian ships.
Mahmud exhorted Muslims everywhere to a jihad against Russia, calling it "a struggle for the faith and for our national existence" and for everyone, rich and poor, "a sacred duty." In April, 1828, Russia declared war against Mahmud.
www.fsmitha.com /h3/h38-br.html   (7719 words)

 mahmud2   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Mahmud II In 1807, the military deposed the great reformer, Selim III.
Mahmud was prepared for such and eventuality; he had ordered the placement of artillery on the palace walls.
Mahmud II was not left to focus entirely on his reforms.
www.stfrancis.edu /hi/mahmud2.htm   (880 words)

 Sultan Composers   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Son of Bayezid II and the elder brother of Selim I. He was a poet, instrumentalist, composer and also a supporter of fine arts and sciences.
Mahmud II was one of the most active sultans in the history of the empire.
The Enderun was abolished by Mahmud II, who continued the reforms initiated by Selim III with the abolition of the Janissary Corps and the establishment of a Western type army known as the Asakir-i Mansure-i Muhammediye.
www.ottomansouvenir.com /Music/Albums/sultan_composers.htm   (4425 words)

 Mahmud II --  Britannica Concise Encyclopedia - The online encyclopedia you can trust!
Mahmud was brought to the throne (July 28, 1808) in a coup led by Bayrakdar Mustafa Pasa, 'ayn (local notable) of Rusçuk (now Ruse, Bulg.), who had first wanted to restore Mahmud's uncle, the reform-minded sultan Selim III, until he was strangled by the conservatives.
The Greeks in the Morea (the Peloponnese) rebelled (1821) against Ottoman rule, and Mahmud summoned the assistance of Muhammad 'Ali Pasha, governor of Egypt.
Determined to take revenge, Mahmud sent his army against the Egyptians in Syria but was severely defeated at Nizip on June 24, 1839, a few days before his death.
www.britannica.com /ebc/article-9050138   (1190 words)

 History of Islam
Death of the Seljuk Sultan Muhammad; accession of Mahmud II.
Death of the Seljuk Sultan Mahmud II; accession of Tughril Beg II.
Death of the Seljuk Sultan Muhammad II, accession of Gulaiman.
www.muslimaccess.com /sunnah/historyofislam/centuries/century12.html   (469 words)

 Mahmud II   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Mahmud II Ottoman sultan from 1808 who attempted to Westernize the declining empire, carrying out a series of far-reaching reforms in the civil service and army.
The pressure for Greek independence after 1821 led to conflict with Britain, France, and Russia, and he was forced to recognize Greek independence in 1830.
In 1826 Mahmud destroyed the elite janissary army corps.
www.tiscali.co.uk /reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0025128.html   (196 words)

 Mahmud II --  Encyclopædia Britannica
Mahmud was brought to the throne (July 28, 1808) in a coup led by Bayrakdar Mustafa Pasa, 'ayn (local notable) of Rusçuk (now Ruse, Bulg.), who had first wanted to restore Mahmud's uncle, the reform-minded sultan…;
Under the leadership of Sultan Mahmud in the 11th century, it expanded to incorporate northwestern India and most of Iran.
Mahmud was the first warrior to carry the flag of Islam into India; yet he did not impose his religion on his subjects.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-9050138?tocId=9050138   (757 words)

 tarih1   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Mehmed II was not satisfied with only a new capital; he consolidated control over Serbia and Wallachia (which had become independent after the Battle of Ankara), defeated the Venetians after a sixteen year long war, and made offensive movements against the Italians (which culminated in a land invasion of the Italian peninsula in 1480).
Mahmud I was followed on the throne Osman III, who ruled for three uneventful years.
Mahmud II was not left to focus entirely on his reforms; in 1832, Mehmed Ali, the de facto ruler of Egypt, marched his army through Syria into Anatolia.
www.stfrancis.edu /hi/tarih1.htm   (3051 words)

 Read about Mahmud II at WorldVillage Encyclopedia. Research Mahmud II and learn about Mahmud II here!   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The leader of this rebellion, Mustafa Bayrakdar, then became Mahmud's vizier and took the initiative in resuming
9, Mahmud was forced to grant Greece its independence in 1832.
Mahmud appears to have been unable to effect the reforms he desired in the mode of educating his children, so that his son received no better education than that given to Turkish princes in the
encyclopedia.worldvillage.com /s/b/Mahmud_II   (404 words)

 Internal Reforms and Modernization Debates   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Mahmud's place as a reformer was established by the changes he made in the government infrastructure....
Adbul Hamid II was not the sort to give credence to the abstract benefits of democracy, especially when democracy threatened his own power....[When] he decided the\at the parliament was not working as he wished, he simply ended it.
In short, when Abdul Hamid II left the sultanate the physical state of the Ottoman Empire was much better than when he took the throne.
www.humanities.ualberta.ca /ottoman/module4/lecture2.htm   (2420 words)

BAYAZID II (1448-1512), Ottoman sultan of Turkey (1481-1512), son and successor of Muhammad II, the conqueror of Constantinople.
Son of Sultan Mehmed II; challenged accession of his brother, Bayezid II (1481); raised revolt of nobles in Anatolia but was defeated; in exile in Rhodes and Rome until death.
MURAD II (1404-51), sultan (1421-44 and 1446-51) of the Ottoman Empire, the son of Muhammad I (1389-1421).
website.lineone.net /~johnbidmead/ottomans.htm   (2807 words)

 Islamic History (Chronology)
Assassination of the Samanid ruler Ahmad II, accession of Nasr II.
Death of the Samanid ruler Mansur II, accession of Abdul Malik II.
In the Mongols II Khans empire, Invasion of Syria, the Mongols repulsed.
www.barkati.net /english/chronology.htm   (8011 words)

 Mahmud I
Mahmud I, 1696–1754, Ottoman sultan (1730–54), son of Mustafa II, nephew and successor of
During Mahmud's reign, the Ottoman Empire was involved in wars with Persia.
Mahmud grows into captain's role Scyld Berry says they are both new to the job, but there the similarities end between Vaughan and his Bangladesh rival (The Sunday Telegraph)
www.infoplease.com /ce6/people/A0831220.html   (251 words)

 Miscellenous ancient coins
The sultanate reached the peak of its power during the vizierate (1466—1481) of Mahmud Gawan.
Mahmud, the most famous sultan of Ghazni, carried the banner of Islam into the heartland of India around 1000 AD.
Hoshang Shah's son Ghazni Khan ruled for only a year, and was suceeded by Sultan Mahmud Khalji (1436-1469), first of the Khalji sultans of Malwa, who expanded the state to include portions of Gujarat, Rajasthan, and the Deccan.
www.ancientcoins.ca /india4.html   (3379 words)

 The Role of the Military in Turkish Politics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Selim III and Mahmud II Any rigorous study of the role of the military in the modernization of the nation-state of Turkey and in the contemporary political affairs of Turkey should commence with a brief synoptic recapitulation of historical and political antecedents in the Ottoman Empire.
When Mahmud II died in 1839, he was succeeded by his son, Abdul-Mejid II, whose first action was to proclaim the Noble Rescript of the Rose Garden (Hatt-i Sherif of Gülhane) on 3 November 1839.
Howard A. Reed, "The Destruction of the Janissaries by Mahmud II in June 1926," (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Princeton University, 1951); Shaw and Shaw, Volume II, pp.
www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil /airchronicles/aureview/1982/jan-feb/johnson.html   (8511 words)

 MSN Encarta - Search Results - Mahmud II   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
MSN Encarta - Search Results - Mahmud II MSN Home
Mahmud II (1785-1839), sultan of the Ottoman Empire (1808-1839), dedicated to the failing effort of strengthening the empire.
Mahmud II sought to abolish the old army and replace it with a new European-style force.
uk.encarta.msn.com /Mahmud_II.html   (120 words)

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