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Topic: Mahmud of Ghazni

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  Manas: History and Politics, Aurangzeb
Mahmud succeeded his father, a warlord who had carved out an empire in central Asia and had established his capital at Ghazni, south of Kabul, in 998 AD at the age of 27.
Mahmud’s invasions of India, which never extended to the central, south, and eastern portions of the country, were doubtless exceedingly bloody and ruthless affairs.
Muslim chronicles suggest that 50,000 Hindu died in the battle for Somnath, and it is said that the Shiva lingam was destroyed by Mahmud himself; after the battle, Mahmud and his troops are described as having carried away across the desert the equivalent of 6.5 tons of gold.
www.sscnet.ucla.edu /southasia/History/Mughals/mahmud_mughals.html   (820 words)

 Mahmud Of Ghazni   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-11)
Mahmud was the son of a Turkish slave, who in 977 became ruler of Ghazna.
The young and ambitious Mahmud aspired to be a great monarch, and in more than 20 successful expeditions he amassed the wealth with which to lay the foundation of a vast empire that eventually included Kashmir, the Punjab, and a great part of Iran.
Mahmud's example was followed by his nobles and courtiers, and Ghazna soon was transformed into the most brilliant cultural centre in Central Asia.
www.afghan-network.net /Rulers/mahmud-ghazni.html   (589 words)

 AfghanHindu.com - Afghan Hindu Association
Sabuktigin with his later to be infamous son, Mahmud, gorged on the Hindu population with butchery and sorcery, the likes of which had not been seen before in the subcontinent.
Mahmud continued his raid into India on a regular basis (a total of seventeen times over twenty-seven years, from 1001-1027) and the Shahis were the only kings to oppose him, but with little success.
Mahmud had two sons born on the same day to two different wives and a dispute ensued after his death.
www.afghanhindu.com /ghazni.asp   (954 words)

 Somanatha and Mahmud
In 1026, Mahmud of Ghazni raided the temple of Somanatha and broke the idol.
Mahmud's attacks on the Hindus and on the Shias and Isma'ilis was a religious crusade against the infidel and the heretic.
I would argue that Mahmud of Ghazni's raid on the Somanatha temple did not create a dichotomy, because each of the many facets involved in the perception of the event, consciously or subconsciously, was enveloped in a multiplicity of other contexts as well.
www.flonnet.com /fl1608/16081210.htm   (6538 words)

 The City Of Ghazni   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-11)
Capital of Ghazni province with a population of 35,900 on the Lora River.
Mahmud's tomb and two high Ghazni victory columns outside the city escaped destruction.
Ghazni's strong fortress was taken by the British in 1839 and 1842 during the Afghan Wars.
www.afghan-network.net /Culture/ghazni.html   (372 words)

 History of India
Towards the end of the tenth century a satrapy was established at Ghazni and in the year 1001 Mahmud of Ghazni, having declared his independence, began his series of invasions.
Mahmud made twelve expeditions into India altogether, on one of which he carried off the famous gates of Somnat; but he was content to leave subordinate governors in the Punjab and at Guzerat and never sought to organise an empire.
The princes of the house of Ghazni who had taken refuge in the Punjab and Guzarat were overthrown and thus the only Mahometan rivals were removed.
www.asianartmall.com /indiahistory2.htm   (582 words)

 Conquests of Mahmud Ghaznavi   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-11)
He captured a small area in Afghanistan and established his rule in the city-state of Ghazni in 962 with the aim of conquering his own land, a desire that remained in the hearts of his successors.
The most important impact of Mahmud's expeditions was the conquest of Punjab for the first time by Muslims and the establishment of Muslim rule and society in the region.
After the death of Mahmud, the Ghaznavid dynasty lost much of its vigor; yet during the days of his son Masud and grandson Mahmud, Lahore remained an important province of the Ghaznavid Empire.
www.storyofpakistan.com /articletext.asp?artid=A003   (620 words)

 Mahmud of Ghazni - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mahmud of Ghazni (Persian: محمود غزنوی) (October 2, 971–April 30, 1030), also known as Yamin ad-Dawlah Mahmud (in full: Yamin ad-Dawlah Abd al-Qasim Mahmud Ibn Sebük Tigin), was born in Ghazni (modern Afghanistan).
Mahmud turned the former provincial city of Ghazni into the wealthy capital of an extensive empire which included modern-day Afghanistan, Pakistan, most of Iran and parts of northwest India.
The last four years of Mahmud's life were spent contending with the influx of Oghuz Turkic horse tribes from Central Asia, the Buyid Dynasty and rebellions by Seljuqs.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Mahmud_of_Ghazni   (2480 words)

 The Terror That Came from Afghanistan by Neria Harish Hebbar, MD
These two infamous Muslim invaders were from Ghazni in the 11th century and Ghor in the 12th century.
This is the story of Mahmud of Ghazni and Muhammad of Ghor.
Like his predecessor Mahmud of Ghazni, Muhammad of Ghor was not interested in occupying and ruling the land of India.
www.boloji.com /history/004.htm   (1767 words)

 Mahmud Ghaznavi [979-1030]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-11)
Born in 979, Mahmud became the Sultan of Ghazni in 998.
Mahmud was also a deeply religious man. He himself wrote a book on Fiqh.
Mahmud attacked the Hindu Temples in India because of political and not religious reasons.
www.storyofpakistan.com /person.asp?perid=P042   (482 words)

 Mahmud of Ghazni Biography | Encyclopedia of World Biography
Mahmud of Ghazni (971-1030) was the first sultan of the Ghaznavid dynasty in Afghanistan.
Mahmud is chiefly remembered as the plunderer of India.
It is estimated that Mahmud took from India jewels, gold, and silver in excess of 3 billion dinars, in addition to hundreds of thousands of slaves.
www.bookrags.com /biography/mahmud-of-ghazni   (487 words)

 ENSLAVEMENT OF HINDUS BY ARAB AND TURKISH INVADERS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-11)
So that in Mahmud’s attack on Ninduna in the Punjab (1014), Utbi says that “slaves were so plentiful that they became very cheap; and men of respectability in their native land (India) were degraded by becoming slaves of common shop-keepers (in Ghazni)”.
It may be argued that Mahmud of Ghazni could enslave people in hundreds of thousands because his raids were of a lightning nature when defence preparedness was not satisfactory.
Mahmud of Ghazni had marched into Hindustan again and again to wage jihad and spread the Muhammadan religion, to lay hold of its wealth, to destroy its temples, to enslave its people, sell them abroad and thereby earn profit, and to add to Muslim numbers by converting the captives.
www.bharatvani.org /books/mssmi/ch3.htm   (2213 words)

 Elst on Habib
Habib does not attribute Mahmud's behaviour to his being a Turk "barbarian", but (to the extent that background can be blamed) to the spirit of the `Persian Renaissance' and the subsequent submission of the Islamic ideal to the whims and desires of the rulers.
To say Mahmud patronised Alberuni is a bit of a stretch - for Alberuni was a captive from one of Mahmud's western campaigns and, while he travelled in Mahmud's train, he enjoyed no special privileges.
Habib's thesis is that Mahmud's desire was to expand his empire to the west, and the raids in the east were to provide finance as well as the mantle of a religious warrior.
www.geocities.com /a_habib/Dada/elst.html   (2047 words)

 Ghazni - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ghazni (Ğazni, Ghazna, Pashto: غزنی) is a city in eastern Afghanistan, with an estimated population of 149,998 people.
It is the capital of Ghazni province, situated on a plateau at 7,280 feet (2,219 m) above sea level.
The population of Ghazni are mostly Pashtuns and Hazaras.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Ghazni   (395 words)

 Utman Khel - LoveToKnow 1911
Their country lies between the Mohmands and the Ranizais of Swat, to the west and south-west of the junction of the Swat and Panjkora rivers.
They claim to be descendants of Baba Utman, who accompanied Mahmud of Ghazni in his expedition into India in 997.
The Utman Khel are a tall, stout and fair race, but in their dress and general customs have assimilated themselves to the neighbouring peoples of Bajour.
www.1911encyclopedia.org /Utman_Khel   (171 words)

 Rewriting  History and Mahmud Ghaznavi
It is because Mahmud Ghaznavi is a pivotal figure in Indian history who invaded India numerous (14 - 17) times, laid the groundwork for future Muslim rule in India, and forever changed the course of its history.
Utbi's account details how Sultan Mahmud "purified Hind from idolatry and raised mosques" and how after the victory, Mahmud directed the polluted infidel Jaipal (the King of Shahi dynasty of Peshawar) be paraded about in shame and disgrace so that the fear of Islam might fly about through the country.
Also, after the conquest of Nardin Mahmud returned with immense booty and slaves were so "plentiful that they became very cheap; and men of respectability in their native land, were degraded by becoming slaves of common shopkeepers." Historians record that the streets of Ghazni looked like an Indian town.
www.kashmirherald.com /featuredarticle/rewritinghistory.html   (1492 words)

 History of THE TURKS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-11)
Subuktigin, popular with the Turkish troops in the region, inherits the same position and extends his control over an increasingly large district - all in the name of his overlord, a Persian emperor of the Samanid dynasty.
But by the time Subuktigin is succeeded by his son Mahmud, in 997, the military district of Ghazni has acquired almost the status of a kingdom.
Mahmud's rule coincides with the crumbling of the Samanid dynasty in Persia.
www.historyworld.net /wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=aa98   (1347 words)

 Language of the armies, Urdu: A Derivative of Persian and Avestan
"The birth of Urdu language was the direct result of the synthesis between the invading armies of Mahmud of Ghazni with the civilian population of the Indian cities.
Ghazni is geographically located within the traditional Dari-speaking area of Afghanistan.
Mahmud was thus proud of his Iranian heritage - the blood of Cyrus the Great which flowed in his veins - and deliberately fashioned his empire in the mould of his Achaemenid and Sassanid ancestors.
www.iranchamber.com /literature/articles/language_of_armies.php   (1160 words)

 A Concise History of India, Chapter 3
Mahmud's greatest conquest was the temple of Somnath, on the shores of Gujarat.
In 1024 Mahmud brought 30,000 avaricious volunteers from Central Asia to attack the temple and the fort that surrounded it.
Though an able warrior, the garrisons of Ghazni and Delhi refused to have him because of a unique physical feature--his arms were so long that he could touch his calves without bending.
xenohistorian.faithweb.com /india/in03.html   (9056 words)

Mahmud took special precautions, for his army was breaking down under the charge of the warlike Khokhars when a fortunate accident decided the day in his favor.
Mahmud returned laden with booty, and for the rest of his life the ancient Hindu religious centers with their treasure hoards accumulated over centuries were to exercise a powerful fascination over him.
The example set by Mahmud of Ghazni of raiding India and sacking its wealth, particularly that stored in the great temples, was repeated by his successors whenever the opportunity arose.
www.columbia.edu /itc/mealac/pritchett/00islamlinks/ikram/part1_02.html   (4702 words)

 The Hub :: View topic - The Legacy of Chatrapathi Shivaji Maharaj!   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-11)
Mahmud of Ghazni raced into the temple walls to find the wealth, which mesmerized him, and took him almost to insanity.
Mahmud's vision was inside the alter, (Gharbagraha) where a Shiva lingam was seen standing in mid air, with no foundation to sit it on.
Mahmud of Ghazni picks it up with the help of a few of his soldiers and carries it out.
www.mayyam.com /hub/viewtopic.php?t=4893   (4416 words)

 The Age of Conflict quiz -- free game
Mahmud of Ghazni is usually associated with __ raids in India.
The most celebrated expedition of Mahmud was the sacking of the temple of __________.
Mahmud is said to have posed as a great 'but shikan' for the glory of Islam.
www.funtrivia.com /playquiz.cfm?qid=63105   (282 words)

After Mahmud's death, Afghanistan was ruled by various princes until the invasion of the great Mongol leader, Genghis Khan, in the early 13th century.
One Ghazni resident told a Salaam Watandar journalist, "I was listening to Radio Ghaznawiyaan when the broadcasts about the Sultan Water Dam began, so I turned the volume up and I understood that we had to run." The station was also credited with saving lives in the village of Zamin Kola.
Members of the Ghazni Provincial Reconstruction Team and the local government are looking at long-term improvements to be made in their region, adding to the redevelopment taking place throughout Afghanistan.
www.globalsecurity.org /military/world/afghanistan/ghazni.htm   (1590 words)

 History Punjab, Hindu kingdoms, Shia Multan, Turkic invasions, Ghauri, Ghaznavi, Slave Trade, Afghanistan, Pakistan, ...
Just prior to the invasion of Mahmud of Ghazni, all of the Kabul valley, the Peshawar region and Punjab were united in the Hindushahi kingdom of Jaipal, which for two centuries had successfully resisted onslaughts from the West.
For the court at Ghazni, the pirate-like attacks on India and the conquest of Punjab came as a huge boon, and Ghazni flourished as an important cultural center during Mahmud's reign.
Unsurprisingly, Ghazni's rise was itself short-lived and the city was ransacked a decade after Mahmud's death by the  ruler of Ghur (whose clan had a history of trading in slaves).
india_resource.tripod.com /Punjab.html   (2454 words)

Mahmud of Ghazni and Mohammed Ghori and their fanatical followers poured down across the Khyber and Bolan passes of the Himalayan ranges into the fertile Indo-Gangetic plains.
Mohmud Ghazni carried out 17 raids in northern India, but this shock treatment did not produce any unified plan of resistance among the Indian rulers.
997- 1030 A.D. Raids of Mahmud of Ghazni.
www.indianmirror.com /history/hist4.html   (725 words)

This was in India that a king named Mahmud Ghazni (Mahniud Ghaznvid) came and attacked India about seventeen times between 1001-1026 A.D. Mahmud Ghazni ruled from Ghazni, a city in Afghanistan.
The Kingdom of Ghazni at the time of Mahmud's accession consisted of the country called Afghanistan and Khorason, the eastern province of Persia.
Mahmud Ghaznvi's first attack was in 1001 near Peshawar and he took away with him as many as 500,000 people as slaves.
www.romani.org /rishi/retygajo.html   (1355 words)

 [No title]
For example, despite the rapidity of Mahmud of Ghazni’s conquests—spurred by shock-tactics and the religious zealotry of Islamic jihad—his successors, for almost 150 years, could not extend their domain beyond the Punjab frontiers.
Mahmud of Ghazni, according to the British historian Sir Henry Elliot, launched some seventeen jihad campaigns into India between 1000 and his death in 1030 C.E. [14] Utbi, Mahmud’s court historian, viewed these expeditions to India as a jihad to propagate Islam and extirpate idolatry.
In his attack on Waihind (Peshawar) in 1001-3, Mahmud is reported to have captured the Hindu Shahiya King Jayapal and fifteen of his principal chiefs and relations some of whom like Sukhpal, were made Musalmans.
www.faithfreedom.org /oped/AndrewBostom50714.htm   (1494 words)

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