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Topic: Majority voting

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  Simple majority voting - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This is in contrast with absolute majority voting, where the winner is the option who gets more than half of the votes.
Secondly, simple majority voting satisfies anonymity: it assigns the same value to two lists that are permutations of one another.
Simple majority voting also satisfies neutrality: if everyone reverses their vote, the result is reversed, a tie remains a tie.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Majority_voting   (1110 words)

 Plurality-Majority Systems
The main purpose of these systems is to represent the majority or plurality of voters in a district, and (with the exception of at-large voting) to ensure representation of local geographical areas.
However, because this is a winner-take-all system, at-large voting shares most of the same problems as single-member district plurality voting, including the misrepresentation of parties, manufactured majorities, low voter turnout, high levels of wasted votes, and denial of fair representation to third parties, racial minorities and women.
However, it is still a winner-take-all voting system and so it shares all the basic problems of this approach to voting, including the misrepresentation of parties, manufactured majorities, gerrymandering, high levels of wasted votes, and denial of fair representation to third parties, racial minorities and women.
www.mtholyoke.edu /acad/polit/damy/BeginnningReading/plurality.htm   (1955 words)

 Reconciling Power and Equality in International Organizations:
Voting by count and account is defined as follows: when a vote is taken, two tallies are made.
Voting by count and account is necessarily more conservative than using a straight majority or the account weights alone, since two criteria have to be satisfied rather than one and fewer resolutions get passed.
One proposal for voting by count and account is for the European Council of Ministers, a 1994 document from Germany’s Christian Democratic Party suggesting its use based on count of countries and by size of population.
www.sscnet.ucla.edu /polisci/faculty/boneill/c&a.html   (6736 words)

 brother_X: What's wrong with majority voting?
It is true that majority voting enables even controversial decisions to be taken in a minimum amount of time, however there is nothing to say that this decision will be a wise one or morally acceptable.
Majority rule systems say that the majority is infallible and they have nothing to learn from the minority.
The will of the majority is seen as the will of the whole group, with the minority expected to accept and carry out the decision, even if against their most deeply held convictions and principles.
brotherx.blogspot.com /2005/06/whats-wrong-with-majority-voting.html   (399 words)

 Proportional Representation Systems
One variation of the mixed-member system is called "parallel voting." It uses the same double ballot, but it differs in that the party list seats are simply divided proportionately among the parties then added to the district winners, with not attempt to ensure proportional representation for parties in the legislature.
In the single transferable vote, votes are transferred around just as the students moved from candidate to candidate in the analogy.
All votes are for individual candidates not parties, and this arrangement allows voters to cross party lines with their votes.
www.mtholyoke.edu /acad/polit/damy/BeginnningReading/PRsystems.htm   (2963 words)

 Center for Voting and Democracy
State law is silent as to what voting systems qualify as “consistent with an election by majority vote.” The plain language of the statute suggests that any voting system that is consistent with an election where a candidate must earn more than half of the votes to win would satisfy the requirement.
A plurality vote is commonly understood to mean a voting system where the candidate with the most votes wins the election, regardless of whether he or she earns a majority of the vote.
Thus, this instant runoff voting system where a winner must earn a majority of all the votes cast is unassailably consistent with an election by majority vote, as it is the same construct of a two-round runoff election.
www.fairvote.org /irv/txbrief.htm   (2462 words)

 Comparison of VoteFair Ranking with plurality, majority, instant-runoff, Condorcet, and Borda-count methods   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
Notice that both VoteFair ranking and instant-runoff voting (IRV) produce fairer results than plurality and majority voting, but instant-runoff voting does not always produce fair results, and it cannot handle a ballot on which a voter indicates an equal preference between two choices.
In contrast, plurality voting -- which is used in almost all U.S. elections — declares Clifford to be the winner (because he receives the most first-preference votes).
Majority voting — which is used in U.S. Presidential elections -- would not produce any winner because none of the candidates receives a majority (more than half the votes).
www.votefair.org /compare.html   (680 words)

 BRIA(12:2) South Africa, End of apartheid, voting rights act 1965, Segregrated South, Race, redistricting, ...
As a result of intimidation, violence, and racial discrimination in state voting laws, a mere 3 percent of voting-age fl men and women in the South were registered to vote in 1940.
In June 1995, a 5-4 majority of the Supreme Court ruled that Georgia's redistricting plan was unconstitutional under the 14th Amendment.
The court majority concluded that "race was the predominant factor' in creating at least one of the fl-majority districts.
www.crf-usa.org /bria/bria12_2.html   (5676 words)

 Filings Under the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935; Rel. No. 35-27813 / March 12, 2004
The Charter currently provides that in the election of directors, each holder of shares of stock entitled to vote shall be entitled to as many votes as shall equal the number of shares of stock held multiplied by the number of directors to be elected.
The stockholder may cast all of these votes for a single director or may distribute them among the number of directors to be elected or any two or more of them as the stockholder may see fit.
If the proposal to require majority voting on all matters submitted for a stockholder vote is approved by the stockholders, the Board intends to amend the bylaws or the Charter to exempt Allegheny from the Control Share Act.
www.sec.gov /divisions/investment/opur/filing/35-27813.htm   (2249 words)

 ISS Governance Center | Director Elections: Majority Vote Standard   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
Under the majority vote standard being proposed by a number of shareholders, a director nominee would have to receive support from holders of a majority of the votes cast in order to be elected (or re-elected) to the board.
Majority voting might have the unintended effects of deterring director candidates or narrowing the talent pool.
A majority vote standard transforms the director election process from a symbolic gesture to a meaningful voice for shareholders.
www.issproxy.com /governance/elections.jsp   (646 words)

 ISS Governance Center | Publications   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
Majority voting (MV) in corporate board elections was the governance issue of the week, as the Council of Institutional Investors (CII) unanimously adopted a proposal calling for directors to be elected by majority vote.
Voting requirements for the election of directors are controlled by the corporation law in the jurisdiction of incorporation, in the U.S. by state corporation law.
In the absence of specified requirements, directors are elected by a plurality of the votes cast at the meeting.
www.issproxy.com /governance/publications/2005archived/061.jsp   (1718 words)

 Qualified Majority Voting - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Qualified Majority Voting (QMV) is a voting procedure employed in the Council of the European Union for some decisions.
If the new Treaty establishing a constitution for Europe comes into force, the conditions for passing a vote will be simplified.
In this case, a QMV decision will require a 'double majority' of 55% of member states representing 65% of citizens.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Qualified_Majority_Voting   (376 words)

Measures including a requirement for more than a majority of votes cast by the electorate to approve any change in law or government action would become effective only if approved by at least the same percentage of voters specified in that proposed voting requirement.
Vote yes on Measure #63 because it protects the principle of majority rule and returns the ballot measure process to you and me, the citizens of Oregon.
Voting yes on Measure 63 protects the principle of majority rule and returns the ballot measure process to you and me, the citizens of Oregon.
www.sos.state.or.us /elections/nov398/guide/measure/m63.htm   (3466 words)

 Unidimensional Voting And Multidimensional Issues:
In the simple case in which voting issues are defined unidimensionally, social choice theory has shown that a majority rule produces an equilibrium under the condition that voter's preferences are single-peaked within the dimension the issue is defined (Black, 1948; see Enelow and Hinich, 1984, for a proof).
The point is that in cases in which candidates or interest groups cannot credibly possess the median ideological position, they have an incentive to complicate the voting process in an attempt to increase their respective chances of winning a majority vote (or to reduce their opponent's chance of winning).
Interest groups that expect to lose the vote, however, have an incentive to splinter the single unidimensional issue by claming their position does not fit the ideology or that the ideology is misguided.
econwpa.wustl.edu /eps/pe/papers/9612/9612001.html   (1987 words)

 Radical Centrism: Maximum Majority Voting
Voter participation and majority rule are often considered the heart of democracy.
Maximum Majority Voting is based on the latest research into election reform, but is still designed to be as simple as possible to use and understand.
While there are several forms of ranked voting[2], Maximum Majority Voting is one of the best at reducing the need for strategic voting[3].
radicalcentrism.org /majority_voting.html   (1880 words)

 Qualified Majority Voting in the EU Council of Ministers   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
Such changes include the increased applicability of qualified majority voting after the Single European Act of 1987, the re-definition of what is considered a “qualified majority,” and the re-weighting of votes within the Council.
The purpose of all of the changes to the voting system is to prevent legislative gridlock that may otherwise arise due to the necessity of unanimity.
While the number of votes “represent” the populations of each member state, by a strict person:vote ratio, a citizen in a “small” state receives more representation than a citizen in a “big” state.
www.geocities.com /chongjoc/eu   (1522 words)

 A Concise Encyclopedia of the European Union --Q--   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
Designed by the Treaty of Rome to be the principal method of reaching decisions in the Council of Ministers, qualified majority voting (QMV) allocates votes to member states in part according to their population, but heavily weighted in favour of the smaller states.
In 1965, in protest against majority voting, France mounted a boycott on all Community business, lifting it only when the national right of veto was restored by the 'Luxembourg Compromise'.
Common to all is that a majority both of states and of the populations represented by those states would be required for most types of decision, with unanimity being reserved for matters of the most fundamental national importance.
www.euro-know.org /dictionary/q.html   (877 words)

 EUABC A dictionary on words related to the EU   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
An absolute majority requires more than 50% of all members, irrespective of the number of those voting.
Decision by qualified majority in the Council of Ministers currently requires 232 out of 321 votes.
Qualified majority voting is the most common form of voting in the EU Council of Ministers.
www.euabc.com /index.phtml?word_id=783   (218 words)

 Disney Adopts Majority Voting - - CFO.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
The Walt Disney Co. has become the latest major company to require that directors receive a majority of the votes cast in order to secure their seats.
Under this structure, shareholders can vote "for" a director or they can withhold their votes; there is no "against" option.
Under Disney's newly adopted policy, any director who fails to attain a majority of votes in his or her favor would be required to submit a letter of resignation to the board's governance and nominating committee, which would recommend to the full board whether the resignation should be accepted.
www.cfo.com /article.cfm/4312140/c_4311679?f=home_todayinfinance   (472 words)

 Y2K Bibliography of Experimental Economics and Social Science: Voting
Abstract This is a detailed survey of voting experiments, mostly in the context of the spatial model of voter preferences.
Votes failed in a significant proportion of the cases.
Voting is affected by changes in social distance.
www.people.virginia.edu /~cah2k/votey2k.htm   (1088 words)

 A method and device for supervising and testing majority voting (EP0466224B1)
The invention relates to a method and a device for testing and supervising majority votes in a multiplane digital time selector with essentially identical equipment in each of at least three planes (A,B,C) working in parallel.
These outgoing data streams are compared to each other and a majority voted outgoing data flow based upon the comparison is delivered from the unit.
An error is periodically introduced in accordance with a predeterimed pattern in the three planes and the data streams arriving at the majority vote and the majority voted data flow are compared.
www.delphion.com /details?pn=EP00466224B1   (276 words)

 Majority Voting
MAJORITY VOTE shall be elected, and their appointment shall become effective immediately.
Since we will have five or more candidates for three positions, it is not likely that three candidates will receive a majority on one round of voting.
         If fewer than three candidates get a majority, any candidate who does receive a majority will be considered elected and his/her name will be removed from the next ballot.
auburn.edu /administration/governance/senate/majority_voting_proc.htm   (341 words)

 ipedia.com: Qualified Majority Voting Article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
Voting weights in the Council of the European Union today: Country Votes Population Germany 10 82,0 United Kingdom 10 59,4 France 10 59,1 Italy 10 57,7 Spain 8 39,4 Poland 8 38,6 Netherlands 5 15,8 Gr...
Qualified Majority Voting (QMV) is a voting procedure employed in the Council of the European Union for some decisions, under which each member state has a fixed (weighted) number of votes.
Under this new rule, any QMV decision will require a 'double majority' of at least 55% of member states representing 65% of citizens.
www.ipedia.com /qualified_majority_voting.html   (380 words)

 Pfizer to Install Some Majority Voting - - CFO.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
The drugmaker amended its corporate-governance principles to require that any director who gets a majority of withheld votes must submit his or her resignation to the board.
Most companies only allow "yes" and "withhold" votes, and they operate under the plurality system, which renders a director elected if he or she receives one yes vote.
At Career Education's annual meeting earlier this year, the company reported that about 62 percent of the shares of common stock outstanding were voted in favor of withholding authority to elect the three director nominees — Dennis Chookaszian, Robert Dowdell, and CFO Patrick Pesch.
www.cfo.com /article.cfm/4123447/c_4123606?f=archives&origin=archive   (546 words)

 Allegheny Energy, Inc.; Rel. No. 35-27857 / June 15, 2004
The Proposed Amendments cover matters related to stockholder rights that were proposed by Allegheny's management or stockholders and that were approved at the annual meeting of stockholders on May 13, 2004.
Since the proposal to require majority voting on all matters submitted for a stockholder vote was approved by the stockholders, the Board intends to amend the bylaws or the charter to exempt Allegheny from the Control Share Act.
An Allegheny stockholder proposed that each Allegheny director be elected annually, which would have the effect of declassifying the Board effective as of the 2005 annual meeting of stockholders.
www.sec.gov /divisions/investment/opur/filing/35-27857.htm   (1383 words)

 FindLaw's Writ - Hayden: Majority-Minority Voting Districts and Their Role in Politics
This, however, is less the fault of the majority-minority districts than of the second aspect of voting rights: the strict application of the one person, one vote standard.
Minority voting rights advocates, then, face a choice between pushing districting plans that increase the number of minority representatives and those that increase the number of Democratic representatives.
Given the role of the one person, one vote standard in forcing this tradeoff, one potential way out is to relax the application of the one person, one vote standard.
writ.news.findlaw.com /commentary/20041007_hayden.html   (1833 words)

 FairVote - Home
In an advisory ballot measure placed on the ballot by a 7-0 vote of the Takoma Park city council, fully 84% of voters voted for the proposal to have future city elections use instant runoff voting.
A majority of the city council is committed to implementing the new system in time for the mayoral and city council races in 2007.
The report finds further evidence that a vast gulf has developed between a handful of swing states that are zealously courted by major political campaigns, and the rest of the country, which is effectively shut out of the process.
www.fairvote.org   (521 words)

 Majority-Plurality Systems   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
In a First Past the Post system, sometimes known as a plurality single-member district system, the winner is the candidate with the most votes, but not necessarily an absolute majority of the votes (see First Past the Post (FPTP)).
When this system is used in multi-member districts it becomes the Block Vote (see Block Vote).
Voters have as many votes as there are seats to be filled, and the highest-polling candidates fill the positions, regardless of the percentage of the vote they actually achieve.
www.aceproject.org /main/english/es/esd.htm   (163 words)

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