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Topic: Mammalian embryogenesis

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  ASU SoLS Faculty: Robert W. McGaughey
Past emphasis was on the cytogenetics and hormonal regulation of mammalian oocyte maturation and the influence of the cytoskeleton on fertilization, on cleavage and on early differentiation of trophectoderm in the mammalian embryo.
A role for intermediate filaments in the establishment of the primitive epithelia during mammalian embryogenesis.
Protein Kinase M, the cytosolic counterpart of protein kinase C remodels the internal cytoskeleton of the mammalian egg during activation.
sols.asu.edu /faculty/rmcgaughey.php   (537 words)

 Knocking the Sox off early mammalian development
Scientists have identified a gene that is required during early mammalian embryogenesis to maintain cellular pluripotency — the ability of an embryonic cell to develop into virtually any cell type of the adult animal.
This discovery by Dr. Robin Lovell-Badge and colleagues at the MRC National Institute for Medical Research (London, UK) that the Sox2 gene is necessary to sustain the developmental plasticity of embryonic cells sheds new light on the molecular cues that direct early embryogenesis, as well as the genetic requirements for embryonic stem cell maintenance.
Lovell-Badge and colleagues show that Sox2 is actually expressed in a broader range than Oct4 in the embryo: While the expression of both genes is required in the ICM and epiblast, only Sox2 is also required to sustain multipotential cells derived from the trophoblast lineage.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2002-12/cshl-kts122302.php   (491 words)

 Appendix A: Early Development [Stem Cell Information]
Thus, the regulation of PG cell fate in the mammalian embryo is a result of the local environment of the cells, a recurring theme in mammalian embryogenesis, and the expression of genes in the PG cells [37].
It is difficult to identify the genes and factors in vivo that affect the earliest events in mammalian development; maintain the undifferentiated, proliferating state of inner cell mass or epiblast cells; regulate implantation; and direct the differentiation of cells along specific developmental pathways, or cell lineages.
Gardner, R.L. The early blastocyst is bilaterally symmetrical and its axis of symmetry is aligned with the animal-vegetal axis of the zygote in the mouse.
stemcells.nih.gov /info/scireport/appendixA.asp   (8731 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
During this period, embryogenesis proceeds from a single fertilized egg to the formation of the three embryonic tissues, then to an embryo which has most of its internal organs and all of its external features.
The normal course of mammalian embryogenesis depends on the correct temporal and spatial regulation of a large number of genes and tissues.
In addition to its role in oocyte development and embryogenesis, MATER may also be relevant to the pathogenesis of ovarian immunity, as it is a target of autoantibodies in mice with autoimmune oophoritis (Tong and Nelson, supra).
www.wipo.int /cgi-pct/guest/getbykey5?KEY=03/27263.030403&ELEMENT_SET=DECL   (10924 words)

Abstract: The primary goal of this research project is to delineate genetic controls of development of the embryonic axis and patterning of the neural tube in mammalian embryos.
Genes postulated to play key roles in these processes, including Wnt-1 and 3a; Engrailed-1; nodal: hedgehog; and hepatic nuclear factors alpha and beta, will be disrupted in mouse whole embryo culture during gastrulation and neurulation stages of development using antisense oligonucleotides.
Together these studies will provide information on the functional roles of these genes during embryogenesis, assist in defining genetic signals responsible for key morphogenic events, and identify cellular processes involved in development at stages when many birth defects are induced.
www.med.unc.edu /wrkunits/1dean/research/Sadler341.html   (405 words)

 PIBS Faculty | Roger Pedersen   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
My laboratory is devoted to the developmental genetic analysis of early mammalian embryos, principally the mouse.
Another interest is the analysis of cell lineage and differentiation in a laboratory marsupial, the grey, short-tailed opossum, which has major differences in developmental strategy when com-pared to placental mammals, especially in forma-tion of the extraembryonic lineages.
Burdsal, C.A., Damsky, C.H., and Pedersen, R.A. The role of E-cadherin and integrins in mesoderm differentiation and migration at the mammalian primitive streak.
www.ucsf.edu /pibs/faculty/pedersen.html   (421 words)

 Palis Bio page
The first hematopoietic cells to emerge during mammalian embryogenesis are “primitive” red cells that are necessary for survival of the fetus.
Since differential gene expression precedes morphologic changes during embryogenesis, we determined the temporal and spatial expression patterns of hematopoietic transcription factors in the mouse embryo.
Huber TL, Kouskoff V, Fehling HJ, Palis J, Keller G. Hemangioblast commitment is initiated in the primitive streak of the mouse embryo.
www.urmc.rochester.edu /Aab/geneped/palis.html   (440 words)

 Crucial gene found for embryonic stem cell maintenance
Scientists from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine have identified a gene necessary for the normal progression of early mammalian embryogenesis and the establishment of embryonic stem cell lines.
Critical to the use of embryonic stem cells in therapeutic applications is a thorough understanding of the genetic factors that regulate stem cell fate and preserve the delicate balance between the maintenance of a pluripotent cell population and the differentiation of more specialized cell types.
Further analysis by Dr. Labosky and colleagues revealed that the previously identified critical regulators of embryonic pluripotency (Oct4 and Fgf4) appear to be properly expressed in Foxd3-mutant embryos.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2002-10/cshl-cgf101002.php   (413 words)

 Searle Scholar Profile : Daniel I. H. Linzer (1985)
The development of the mammalian fetus within the mother requires that mammalian reproduction and development be tightly linked.
Proper development of the placenta is essential for embryonic development, for without the placenta the embryo would be unable to attach to the uterus, it would be unable to obtain nutrients and discard wastes, and it would be subject to attack by the maternal immune system.
Since the placenta forms from the first cells to differentiate in the mammalian embryo, the characterization of how the placenta develops will also provide a window on how the earliest cell fate decisions are made in mammalian embryogenesis.
www.searlescholars.net /people/1985/linzer.html   (372 words)

 Characterization of a Novel Drosophila melanogaster Galectin. EXPRESSION IN DEVELOPING IMMUNE, NEURAL, AND MUSCLE ...
be vital in embryogenesis and to function in innate immunity (1-5).
G, at the end of embryogenesis (stage 16, ventral view), Dmgal expression remains in the somatic musculature (arrowhead) and becomes strongly expressed in the central nervous system (arrow).
As embryogenesis continued, Dmgal expression was concentrated in the somatic and visceral musculature and in the central nervous
www.jbc.org /cgi/content/full/277/15/13091   (4980 words)

 Richard R. Behringer, Ph.D.
Our primary interest is to understand, at the molecular level, the events leading to the establishment of the mammalian body plan and how growth and differentiation of various tissues and organs are regulated during embryogenesis and disease.
Finally, we are investigating developmental processes in divergent mammalian systems, including those of marsupials and chiropterans (bats).
Marsupial embryogenesis and reproduction are quite different from the same processes in mice, thereby providing novel views of axis formation and organogenesis.
www.mdanderson.org /~genedev/behringer.html   (946 words)

 Interactive Fly, Drosophila
In spite of its expression in embryogenesis, it is not required for viability of embryos.
Mammalian Tolloid-like 1 (mTLL-1) is an astacin-like metalloprotease, highly similar in domain structure to the morphogenetically important proteases bone morphogenetic protein-1 (BMP-1) and Drosophila Tolloid.
To investigate possible roles for mTLL-1 in mammalian development, gene targeting in ES cells was used to produce mice with a disrupted allele for the corresponding gene, Tll1.
www.sdbonline.org /fly/torstoll/tolloid2.htm   (4972 words)

 Eppley Institute
A major goal of the work in this laboratory is to understand the fundamental mechanisms and signaling pathways that both orchestrate the early stages of mammalian embryogenesis and control the self-renewal and pluripotency of ES cells.
Toward this objective we are studying a gene regulatory network used to coordinately control the transcription of genes that play key roles during mammalian embryogenesis and cancer.
EC and ES cells are employed in our studies, because they serve as excellent model systems for early mammalian development and because differentiation of these cells suppresses their ability to form tumors.
www.unmc.edu /Eppley/faculty/f_rizz.html   (1458 words)

 Abstract List
Vgl-1 and Vgl-3 transcripts are enriched in the placenta, whereas Vgl-2 is expressed in the differentiating somites and branchial arches during embryogenesis and is skeletal muscle-specific in the adult.
During embryogenesis, somite progenitor cells ingress through the primitive streak, move laterally to a paraxial position (alongside the body axis) and segment into epithelial somites.
These results demonstrate that there are lineage- and developmental-specific differences in the pattern of the B cyclins in mammalian germ cells, in contrast to the co-expression of B cyclins in the early conceptus.
www.pitt.edu /~biohome/Dept/Frame/Faculty/chapmanabstract.htm   (4691 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
This laboratory is engaged in the identification and study of genes that play a role in mammalian embryogenesis.
A major effort is directed at determining the effects of gene dosage imbalance on embryogenesis, as occurs in Down Syndrome.
Mice transgenic for cloned genes or chromosomal segments from human chromosome 21 are being produced and examined for features of the syndrome, particularly neurobiological and behavioral parameters.
www.mbg.jhmi.edu /FacultyDetails.asp?PersonID=740   (115 words)

 R Pedersen   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
The major research goal of our laboratory is to understand the mechanisms whereby tissue layers and organ rudiments originate during normal mammalian embryogenesis.
An initial objective was to describe the cell lineage relationships in the mouse embryo during the formation of the primary germ layers, endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm at the time of gastrulation.
An additional goal is to understand the mechanisms in the early mammalian embryo for dealing with environmentally-induced damage.
anatomy.ucsf.edu /Pages/pedersen.html   (579 words)

 research   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
In contrast, when embryogenesis is aligned using the conserved stages surrounding gastrulation, remarkable parallels are seen among the embryos of diverse species.
We suggest that the comparison should be made to the rapid peri-gastrulation cycles of the mammalian embryo.
We propose that these cycles are related by evolutionary descent to the early cleavage stages of embryos such as those of frog and fly.
www.colorado.edu /MCDB/sulab/embryo.html   (299 words)

 ARC Centres of Excellence   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
Early development of the mammalian embryo has two goals: the generation of diverse populations of cells and the arrangement of these to form the blueprint for subsequent development.
Critical to achieving these goals are the temporally and spatially precise execution of genetic programs and the regulation of cellular phenotype through cell to cell interactions and intercellular signalling.
This knowledge is not only fundamental to the elucidation of how embryonic development is accomplished, it will also have an immediate impact on our ability to direct the differentiation of uncommitted stem cells for application in cell-based therapies.
www.arc.gov.au /grant_programs/EOI/C070.HTM   (226 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
The methods include contacting the mammalian cell with an amount of an isolated Smad6 nucleic acid or polypeptide, or an agonist thereof, effective to reduce heteromerization of Smad2 with Smad3 or Smad4 in the mammalian cell.
It is now well-established in the art that the non-CDR regions of a mammalian antibody may be replaced with similar regions of conspecific or heterospecific antibodies while retaining the epitopic specificity of the original antibody.
Especially useful are mammalian cells such as human, mouse, hamster, pig, goat, primate, etc. They may be of a wide variety of tissue types, and include primary cells and cell lines.
www.wipo.int /cgi-pct/guest/getbykey5?KEY=98/56913.990408&ELEMENT_SET=DECL   (12012 words)

 Relationship Between p62 and p56, Two Proteins of the Mammalian Cortical Granule Envelope, and Hyalin, the Major ...
Relationship Between p62 and p56, Two Proteins of the Mammalian Cortical Granule Envelope, and Hyalin, the Major Component of the Echinoderm Hyaline Layer, in Hamsters -- Hoodbhoy et al.
Relationship Between p62 and p56, Two Proteins of the Mammalian Cortical Granule Envelope, and Hyalin, the Major Component of the Echinoderm Hyaline Layer, in Hamsters
Dandekar P, Talbot P. Perivitelline space of mammalian oocytes: extracellular matrix of unfertilized oocytes and formation of a cortical granule envelope following fertilization.
www.biolreprod.org /cgi/content/full/62/4/979   (5469 words)

The second project concerns analysis of the role of cell surface lysosomal associated membrane proteins (csLAMPs) in mammalian embryogenesis and tumor metastases.
One of these, which is specifically expressed by the mutant cell line, is apparently a component of the mammalian proteosome complex involved in protein degradation.
However, we have also been able to detect prominent cell surface expression of the molecule(s) on early mammalian embryos, embryonal carcinoma cells, and metastatic tumor cells from humans, mouse, and rat tumors.
www.albany.edu /~pmc/what.html   (1437 words)

Changes in requirements and utilization of nutrients during mammalian preimplantation embryo development and their significance in embryo culture.
Developmental toxicity induced during early stages of mammalian embryogenesis.
It is subsequently proposed that optimal development of the mammalian embryo in culture requires the use of two or more media, each designed to cater for the changing requirements of the embryo.
home.cfl.rr.com /chaosdriven/EmbryoCulture.html   (2763 words)

 Faculty Profile
My lab is interested in how the mammalian body plan is generated during early pregnancy.
Our results show that mammalian neural induction and head initiation are more complex than models based on lower vertebrates suggest, and imply the existence of other means of neural induction and patterning.
Stottmann, R.W., Choi, M., Mishina, Y., Meyers, E. and Klingensmith, J. BMP Receptor IA is required in mammalian neural crest cells for development of the cardiac outflow tract and ventricular myocardium.
note.cellbio.duke.edu /Faculty/Research/Klingensmith.html   (865 words)

 CSIRO PUBLISHING - Reproduction, Fertility and Development
Developmental complexity of early mammalian pluripotent cell populations in vivo and in vitro
Early mammalian embryogenesis is characterised by the coordinated proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis of a pluripotent cell pool that is able to give rise to extraembryonic lineages and all the cell types of the embryo proper.
The construction of mouse mutants by gene targeting, mapping of gene expression in vivo, and modelling of cell decisions in vitro are providing insight into the cellular origin, identity and action of key developmental regulators, and the nature of pluripotent cells themselves.
www.publish.csiro.au /nid/44/paper/RD98084.htm   (242 words)

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