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Topic: Manchu Empire


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  International Campaign for Tibet: Tibet: History, Politics and Legal Situation: History of Tibet before the Chinese ...
As Genghis Khan's Mongol Empire expanded toward Europe in the west and China in the east in the thirteenth century, the Tibetan leaders of the Sakya school of Tibetan Buddhism concluded an agreement with the Mongol rulers in order to avoid the otherwise inevitable conquest of Tibet.
The Mongol Empire was a world empire; no evidence exists to indicate that the Mongols integrated the administration of China and Tibet or appended Tibet to China in any manner.
Whatever ties existed between the Dalai Lama and the Qing emperor were extinguished with the dissolution of the Manchu Empire.
www.savetibet.org /tibet/history/beforechinese.php   (1501 words)

  
  The Economic History of Manchuria
Although this plain was the core area of Manchu territory, the Manchus historical contolled a portion of northern Korea and the coastal area where the Russian city of Vladivostok (eastern fortress) is located.
The empire established by the Manchus was the Qing Empire that lasted until 1912.
The ethnic afiliations of the Manchus are revealed by the linguistics of their language.
www.sjsu.edu /faculty/watkins/manchu.htm   (561 words)

  
  The Manchus
Manchu was the court language, spoken as well as written, for many years after 1644, and down to quite recent times all official documents were in duplicate, one copy in Chinese and one in Manchu; but a Manchu literature can hardly be said to exist, beyond translations of all the most important Chinese works.
The Manchu soldiers were fighting for their all: their very supremacy was at stake; while many of the Chinese troops were members of the Triad Society, the chief object of which was to get rid of the alien dynasty.
For the empire and everything in it is his; its mountains and rivers, its broad lands and public treasuries; you and all that you have, your family, males and females alike, from yourself to your youngest child, and your property, from your patrimonial estates to the bracelet on your infant's arm.
www.russbo.com /Foundations/manchus.htm   (17197 words)

  
 [No title]
The Mongol Empire of the Mongol feudals was established.
The Mongol Empire comprised northern China, Turkestan, Middle Asia, the territory from the Irtish river to the Volga river, Russia, Ukrain, Kiev area, Caucasia, Iran, Tegeran and Bagdad.
The Manchu occupants instigated the Khalkhi Mongols and the Oiryid Mongols.
www.mongolembassy.com /kor_aboutmongol/kor_history.asp   (9022 words)

  
 Manchu
The Manchu empire originally was formed by three provinces, Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Liaoning.
The Manchu established the Ching dynasty of rulers.
The Manchu were also responsible for the massacre and extermination of the Dzungars, another cultural group of people.
www.mnsu.edu /emuseum/cultural/oldworld/asia/manchu.html   (222 words)

  
 NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Gilyak
For many centuries the Gilyaks were tributary to the Manchu empire.
Their lands extended along the northern coast of Manchuria from the Russian fortress at Tugur eastward to the mouth of the Amur at Nikolayevsk, then south through the Straits of Tatary as far as De Castries Bay.
Gilyak (ethnonym: Nivxi) is a language spoken in Outer Manchuria[?], in the basin of the Amgum, a tributary of the Amur, along the lower reaches of the Amur and on the northern half of Sakhalin.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Gilyak   (522 words)

  
 Manchuria Summary
South of the Stanovoy Mountains, the basin of the Amur and its tributaries belonged to the Manchu Empire.
In 1858, a weakening Manchu China was forced to cede Manchuria north of the Amur to Russia at the Treaty of Aigun, except for a small region known as the Sixty-Four Villages East of the Heilongjiang River.
Manchus form a significant minority, and have been almost completely assimilated into the Han Chinese; the Manchu language is almost extinct, and many Han Chinese in Northeast China, as well as the rest of China, can claim some Manchu ancestry.
www.bookrags.com /Manchuria   (3993 words)

  
 Free Tibet Campaign File - The Legal Status of Tibet
As Genghis Khan's Mongol Empire expanded toward Europe in the west and China in the east in the 13th century, the Tibetan leaders of the Sakya school of Tibetan Buddhism concluded an agreement with the Mongol rulers in order to avoid the otherwise inevitable conquest of Tibet.
The Mongol Empire was a world empire; no evidence exists to indicate that the Mongols integrated the administration of China and Tibet or appended Tibet to China in any manner.
At the height of Manchu power, which lasted for a few decades, the situation was not unlike that which can exist between a superpower and a neighbouring satellite or protectorate.
www.freetibet.org /info/file/file18.html   (1960 words)

  
 Manchu: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library
The Manchu claim of relation to the Ch'in dynasty of China was the justification for conquering China in the 17th cent.
The Manchu tried to keep themselves from being absorbed by the Chinese, but when the dynasty was overthrown in the 20th cent.
Manchus and Han by Edward J. Rhoads is a...study of the relationship between the Manchus and the Han Chinese from the middle...
www.questia.com /library/encyclopedia/manchu.jsp   (1707 words)

  
 Manchu Invaders
The fact that they were barbarians who had been kept beyond the empire's north-east border, and were so weak numerically compared with the Han Chinese, must have made the fall of the Ming all the more humiliating to the Hans.
Marriage between Manchus and Hans was forbidden, and the Han were obliged to adopt Manchu dress and wear the pigtail as a sign of their subjugation.
The famous writer and dramatist Lao She, who was murdered during the Cultural Revolution, was a Manchu, and it is possible that the attack was racially motivated.
sacu.org /manchu.html   (1521 words)

  
 LEARN A LITTLE ABOUT TIBET
At the height of Manchu power, which lasted a few decades, the situation was not unlike that which can exist between a superpower and a satellite or protectorate, and therefore one which, though politically significant, does not extinguish the independent existence of the weaker state.
Following the 1911 revolution in China and the overthrow of the Manchu Empire, the troops surrendered to the Tibetan army and were repatriated under a sino-Tibetan peace accord.
What ever ties existed between the Dalai Lama and the Manchu emperors of the Qing Dynasty were extinguished with the fall of that empire and dynasty.
www.umass.edu /rso/fretibet/education.html   (2211 words)

  
 The Itgel Foundation - History of Mongolia
His empire stretched from the eastern edge of Asia to the far reaches of central Europe, and from parts of southern Indonesia to the fridged arctic of Siberia.
He viewed diversity of talent, culture, and language as strengths of his empire, and strived for global peace through the unification and integration of every culture he came across.
After the fall of the empire in the 14th century, Mongolian history was dotted with few significant events for nearly two centuries.
www.itgel.org /history_of_mongolia.htm   (906 words)

  
 Political Status
At the height of Manchu power, which lasted a few decades, the situation was not unlike that which can exist between a superpower and a satellite or protectorate, and therefore one which, though politically significant, does not extinguish the independent existence of the weaker state.
Manchu influence did not last very long and was entirely ineffective by the time Britain invaded Lhasa and concluded a bilateral treaty with Tibet (Lhasa Convention, in 1904).
Following the 1911 revolution in China and the overthrow of the Manchu Empire the troops surrendered to the Tibetan army and were repatriated under a sino-Tibetan peace accord.
www.tibettruth.com /status.html   (2341 words)

  
 Chinese Dynasties
In 1644 the Manchus took Beijing from the north and became masters of north China, establishing the last imperial dynasty, the Qing (1644-1911).
Under Manchu rule the empire grew to include a larger area than before or since; Taiwan, the last outpost of anti-Manchu resistance, was also incorporated into China for the first time.
The empire's inability to evaluate correctly the nature of the new challenge or to respond flexibly to it resulted in the demise of the Qing and the collapse of the entire millennia-old framework of dynastic rule.
chinatravelz.com /china/chinese-history   (2064 words)

  
 Students for a Free Tibet : History and Culture
As Genghis Khan's Mongol Empire expanded towards Europe in the West and China in the East in the 13th Century, Tibetan leaders of the powerful Sakya school of Tibetan Buddhism forged an agreement with the Mongol rulers in order to avoid the conquest of Tibet.
The Mongol Empire was a world empire and, whatever the relationship between its rulers and the Tibetans, the Mongols never integrated the administration of Tibet and China or appended Tibet to China in any manner.
Whatever ties existed between the Dalai Lama and the Manchu emperors of the Qing Dynasty were extinguished with the fall of that empire and dynasty.
www.studentsforafreetibet.org /article.php?list=type&type=29   (1407 words)

  
 MANCHU EMPIRE : Encyclopedia Entry
The Qing Dynasty (Chinese: 清朝; Pinyin: Qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: Ch'ing ch'ao; Manchu:
Fortunately the Manchus' nemesis the Ming Dynasty was fighting for its own survival against a long drawn peasant rebellion and was unable to capitalise on the Qing court’s political uncertainty over the succession dispute and installation of a minor as Emperor.
The Manchu court keenly aware its own minority status reinforced a strict policy of racial segregation between the Manchus and Mongols from Han Chinese for fear of being sinitized by the latter.
www.bibleocean.com /OmniDefinition/Manchu_Empire   (8800 words)

  
 Joanna Waley-Cohen.  Military Culture in Eighteenth-Century China
The empire ruled from Beijing after 1760 was the most extensive in Chinese history, encompassing not only China itself, but also Mongolia, Tibet, Taiwan, Xinjiang (Chinese Turkestan), and the northeastern homelands of the Manchu ruling house of the Qing, whose rule over China lasted from 1644 to 1912.
The 1760 addition of Xinjiang to the empire marked the culmination of the expansionist phase of the Qing empire, and was commemorated by the production of a series of maps of newly-conquered regions that were created in part with assistance from European Jesuit missionaries resident at the Qing court.
Qianlong’s passionate attention to both the minutiae of military affairs and the larger picture of empire meant that during his reign, war and devotion to military power surpassed their practical role as the main means of imperial expansion to emerge as very metaphors for the Qing at its height.
people.cohums.ohio-state.edu /grimsley1/dialogue/aha2004/waley_cohen/waley_cohen.htm   (2667 words)

  
 Historical Path of Mongolia's Statehood and Independence
The Manchu state, that was established on the foundations of the Zurchid Empire, was gaining strength and at that time was considered to be the most dangerous enemy of the Mongolian state.
To cite just a few, 18 years after Mongolia had voluntarily joined the Manchu empire, the "Khalkha Juram" law was drafted in 1709 (on the 28th day of mid-summer month of the year of Ox) and adopted at the meeting of all-Mongolian princes and ministers, headed by Tusheet khan.
Thus, a powerful Asian empire called the Great Mongolia was born on the vast territory extending from the Great Khingan Mountains in the east to the Tenger (Tian Shan) mountains in the west, from the Sayan Mountains and Lake Baikal in the North to the Great Wall in the South.
mongoluls.net /historicalpathofmongolianstatehood.shtml   (4616 words)

  
 Qing Empire 1644-1799 by Sanderson Beck
Just as the Chinese empire was ruled by the edicts of the emperor without a legislature, the local counties were under the jurisdiction of the magistrates, who acted as investigators, judges, and juries.
In the late 1750s the Manchu bannerman Zhaohui led the Qing army in the conquest of extensive western territory that was named Xinjiang, meaning "new territories." When the cities of Kashgar and Yarkand were captured in 1759, many Dzungars were slaughtered.
The Manchus allowed the Muslims to keep their religious traditions, and they did not have to shave their heads and wear a queue.
www.san.beck.org /3-8-QingEmpire1644-1799.html   (13185 words)

  
 The Manchu Empire
The Qing Empire, established by the Manchus in China, gained control over eastern Xinjiang after defeating the Dzungars in 1697.
In 1755, the Manchu Empire attacked Gulja and captured the khan of the Dzungars.
By the mid-19th century, the Russian Empire began encroaching the northern frontier of China.
www.mtholyoke.edu /~aycui/manchus.htm   (208 words)

  
 Tibet : An Occupied Country, Free Tibet, Free Tibet, Free Tibet
By the middle of the 19th century, the Munchu influence in Tibet had waned considerably as the Manchu empire began to disintegrate.
In 1842 and 1856 the Manchus were incapable of responding to Tibetan calls for assistance against repeated Nepalese Gorkha invasion.
Its claims are based solely on the alleged subjection of Tibet to a few of China's strongest foreign rulers in the thirteenth and eighteenth centuries.
www.friends-of-tibet.org.nz /occu.html   (1096 words)

  
 International Campaign for Tibet: Tibet: Culture
Good relations with the Tibetans were considered important by Mongol emperors, such as Kublai Khan, and Manchu emperors, especially K'ang-hsi and Ch'ien Lung, who considered the Tibetans the key to staying on the good side of the redoubtable Mongols.
The Mongols and Manchus were different in this respect, and that is why the famous "priest-patron" relationship was only formed between Sakyapa Lamas and Mongol emperors in the thirteenth century, and between Gelukpa Dalai Lamas and Manchu emperors in the seventeenth century.
The Manchu emperors were quite aware of the lack of common identity between Manchus, Mongols, Uighurs, Tibetans and Chinese, and so they tried to draw their legitimacy from their role as conqueror and mediator between these hereditary enemies.
www.savetibet.org /tibet/culture.php   (1770 words)

  
 China's Dragon Flags 1872 - 1912
The Qing, C’hing, or Manchu Empire banner used by China as a national flag from 1872 until 1890.
A blue five-toed dragon reaching for the red Sun on a yellow triangular field.
The Qing, C’hing, or Manchu Empire banner used by China as a national flag from 1890 until 1912.
www.geocities.com /Vienna/5047/QINGFLAG.html   (244 words)

  
 Mongolian Nature | History | Climate | Fauna | Flora | Culture
But it does not mean that Mongols are all nomads living in their gers (traditional dwelling), also they have developed their own urban civilization and architecture.
The first Mongolian Empire the Khunnu had its capital city on the bank of the River Orkhon.
Ancient Empires of the Mongols- The first Mongol and the first nomadic empire Khunnu was established 209 BC on the vast land of Central Asia for the first time- till the 13th Century AD.
www.selenatravel.com /about-mongolia.html   (2930 words)

  
 Tales of Old China
The present extensive home of the Manchus is usually spoken of as the Three Eastern Provinces, namely, (1) Shêng-king, or Liao-tung, or Kuan-tung, (2) Kirin, and (3) Heilungchiang or Tsitsihar.
In 1799, Ho-shên, a high Manchu official who had been raised by Ch`ien Lung from an obscure position to be a Minister of State and Grand Secretary, was suspected, probably without a shadow of evidence, of harbouring designs upon the throne.
It was then that force of circumstances changed his status from that of a religious reformer to that of a political adventurer; and almost simultaneously with the advent of Hsien Fêng to the Imperial power, the long-smouldering discontent with Manchu rule, carefully fostered by the organization of the Triad society, broke into open rebellion.
www.talesofoldchina.com /library/giles-chinamanchus.cfm   (17505 words)

  
 Taiwan belongs to Taiwanese
As a result of the Manchu-led Empire’s expansion, the island of Taiwan was also bought within the fold of the new empire in 1683.
Defeated militarily, the Empire, for example, lost Hong Kong to Great Britain in 1842, lost Outer Manchuria north of the Amur to Czarist Russia in 1858-60, and Taiwan was ceded to Imperial Japan in 1895.
Ultimately when the Manchu Ching Dynasty fell in 1912, the bulk of what was left of the Manchu empire became a republic while both Outer Mongolia and Tibet declared independence.
www.taiwancenter.com /sdtca/articles/7-05/10.html   (886 words)

  
 Tibet Environmental Watch - Geography
When the Manchus invaded China and established the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) they established a new frontier policy regarding Tibet and especially, the mountainous borderland of western Kham and Amdo.
Although surrounding local people and their daily lifeways were not controlled by the colonies, the system did act to lessen the chances of strong local chieftains establishing themselves as a threat to Chinaís border and economic activities.
Manchu administrative hegemony in eastern Tibet linked these island of Chinese control to the courier route form Sichuan to Lhasa, itself established in the 18th Century.
www.tew.org /geography/historical.map3.html   (1046 words)

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