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Topic: Manitoba Schools Question

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In the News (Fri 19 Apr 19)

  Manitoba Schools Question - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Manitoba Schools Question was a political crisis in Manitoba and more generally in Canada in the late 19th century involving separate schools and the deeper question of whether French would survive as a language or a culture in the west.
The "Schools Question", as it was known, had divided the Conservative government since 1890, and especially after Macdonald's death in 1891 when no strong leader replaced him.
The Schools Question, along with the execution of Louis Riel in 1885, was one of the incidents that led to strengthening of French Canadian nationalism in Quebec in the late 19th century.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Manitoba_Schools_Question   (752 words)

 MSN Encarta - Search View - Manitoba
Manitoba is lower in elevation than areas to the east, west, and south, and serves as a drainage basin for several major rivers.
School attendance is compulsory for all children from the ages of 7 to 16.
Manitoba is represented in the Canadian Parliament by 14 elected representatives in the House of Commons and by six senators who are appointed by the federal government.
encarta.msn.com /text_761559392__1/Manitoba.html   (7170 words)

 Quebecers, the Roman Catholic Church and the Manitoba School Question: A Chronology - Quebec History
Manitoba's population was estimated at 152,506 in 1891 and grew to 255,211 in 1901.
In a revisionist article, printed in 1973, historian J. Miller demonstrated that this was not the case and that the cause of the Manitoba School Question ought to be found, instead, in the erosion of the province's cultural duality, between 1870 and 1890.
Essentially, Manitoba recognized that the two sides were at cross purposes: the federal proposals were predicated on the view that the Roman Catholics of Manitoba had a right to separate schools and that, consequently, the Manitoba laws had infringed on such rights while the Government of Manitoba felt that no such right existed.
www2.marianopolis.edu /quebechistory/chronos/manitoba.htm   (12664 words)

 Manitoba - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Manitoba is located in the longitudinal centre of Canada, although it is considered part of Western Canada.
In 1890 the Manitoba legislature passed a law abolishing French as an official language of the province, and removing funding for Catholic schools.
John A. Macdonald introduced the Manitoba Act in the House of Commons and pretended that the question of province or territory was of no significance.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Manitoba   (2464 words)

 Mr. Laurier and Manitoba - Les Québécois, le clergé catholique et l'affaire des écoles du ...
A number of elementary schools existed, but they owed their foundation entirely to voluntary effort, and were supported exclusively by private contributions, either in the form of fees paid by some of the parents or of funds supplied by the Churches.
Thus it was arranged that the annual public grant for common school education was to be appropriated equally between the Protestant and the Catholic schools.
In that year the provincial legislature boldly broke all moorings with the past, and, abolishing the separate denominational schools, introduced a system of free compulsory and unsectarian schools, for the support of which the whole community was to be taxed.
www2.marianopolis.edu /quebechistory/docs/manitoba/cox.htm   (5275 words)

 Manitoba Schools Question   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The Manitoba Schools Question was the most complex and far-reaching of Canada's several crises involving minority school rights.
The Laurier-Greenway compromise of late 1896, prompting an amendment to the Schools Act in 1897, did not restore separate schools, but it did allow Catholic teachers to be employed in certain circumstances and it did give some religious-instruction privileges within the public schools.
In modern Québec, the Manitoba Schools Question is viewed as Canada's most significant loss of French and Catholic rights outside Québec.
www.canadianencyclopedia.ca /index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&ArticleId=A0005073   (270 words)

 Post-Confederation history of Canada - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In 1890, the provincial government passed the Manitoba Schools Act, abolishing government funding for Catholic schools and abolishing French as an official language - contrary to the Manitoba Act that created the province.
The question actually asked whether Quebec should negotiate for sovereignty, not whether Quebec should simply declare independence, but it was vaguely worded and confused many voters.
The "no" side won by a margin of 60% to 40% when the question was put to the voters on May 20.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Post-Confederation_history_of_Canada   (5203 words)

 North-West Schools Question   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
North-West Schools Question, a conflict between church and state for control of education in the North-West Territories (now Saskatchewan and Alberta).
In 1875 the federal NORTH-WEST TERRITORIES ACT introduced the principle of SEPARATE SCHOOLS for Protestant (mostly anglophone) and Roman Catholic (mostly francophone) religious groups in the region.
A compromise clause proposed by Sifton after his resignation was accepted by PM Laurier to avoid the impending split; the clause, which became part of the new provinces' constitutions, preserved the educational conditions of 1892.
thecanadianencyclopedia.com /index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0005803   (278 words)

 The Honourable Sir Mackenzie Bowell
The extremely volatile nature of the Manitoba Schools Question effectively divided the new Dominion of Canada, pitting friend against friend, province against province, Catholics against Protestants, English against French, Liberals against Conservatives, the Church against the State.
When Manitoba became a province in 1870, a system of Protestant and Catholic Schools was established based on a provision in the British North America Act to ensure minorities the right to education.
In June 1895, legislation was drafted to force Manitoba to reinstate Catholic School support under the BNA Act, but Cabinet opposition caused Bowell to postpone the issue for 6 months.
www3.sympatico.ca /goweezer/canada/bowell.htm   (467 words)

 MSN Encarta - Manitoba
In 1812 Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk, a major stockholder in the Hudson’s Bay Company, brought a group of Scottish emigrants into the fertile Red River Valley to settle near Lake Winnipeg.
Led by premier Edward Schreyer the NDP government enacted a variety of social and economic reforms, including placing Manitoba’s telephone and power systems under public control and introducing a government-run automobile insurance program.
The court ruled that Manitoba’s School Act of 1871 violated minority language rights guaranteed by Canada’s 1982 Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761559392_9/Manitoba.html   (1279 words)

 Lecture Four
In Manitoba, in 1891, French accounted for 7% of the population, and 4-5% for the rest of the Northwest.
The question was being raised by the English Protestants such as D’Alton McCarthy, a fiery anti-Catholic and MP from Ontario, who made a speech at Portage La Prairie, Manitoba, in 1889 stating that sectarian schools were preventing Canada from achieving the greatness it could reach.
This, however, was an impossible tactic for the government as it would be political suicide, and would be opposed by many in the House for fear that it opened legislation from their own provinces to disallowance.
www.nipissingu.ca /faculty/davidc/History/lecture_4.htm   (3333 words)

 manitoba school question and other manitoba related information   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Extensive documentation of Manitoba school legislation of 1890, which was regarded as anti-Catholic, and involvement of Quebecers in the controversy.
Louis Riel, the Manitoba School Question, French language rights, the 1919 Winnipeg General Strike, and the dramatic collapse of the Meech Lake Accord...
Railways and the Manitoba School Question by James A. Jackson Number 31 (1974-75 Season) Honorary Secretary's Report Changes in Rural Manitoba's "Ethnic Mosaic" 1921 to 1961 by Phillip D. Keddie On the Street...
www.nethorde.com /manitoba/manitoba-school-question.html   (339 words)

 Manitoba Schools Question   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
However, the Privy Council in Britain overruled them, favouring the Schools Act.
In 1896 the government created a new school board for the Catholics; this was very unpopular, and Prime Minister Mackenzie Bowell was forced to resign in April of that year.
The Schools Question, along with the execution of Louis Riel in 1885, was one of the incidents that led to increased French Canadian nationalism in Quebec in the late 19th century.
www.sciencedaily.com /encyclopedia/manitoba_schools_question   (691 words)

 The Prime Ministers of Canada - Mackenzie Bowell Biography
By 1890, however, the French population was in a minority, and Manitoba's government abolished public funding of Catholic schools.
The 1896 federal election was fought mainly on this issue, where Charles Tupper's ruling anglophone Conservatives found themselves defending the rights of francophone Catholics against Wilfrid Laurier's defense of provincial jurisdiction and promises of a congenial compromise.
The Manitoba Schools Question gathered force as the symbol of the great divide in Canadian politics between English and French-Canadians and between federal and provincial rights.
www.primeministers.ca /bowell/bio_3.php   (241 words)

 MSN Encarta - Search View - Bowell, Sir Mackenzie
With considerable force of character but no special capacity in administration, he was unable either to command the respect of his colleagues or to avoid committing his government to a politically dangerous question of public funding for religious schools in Manitoba.
Even the governor-general, who was constitutionally obliged to reserve his confidence for the prime minister, was in fact in closer touch with both the minister of justice and the leader of the Opposition.
On March 19, 1895, an order to reestablish separate schools was issued and ignored by the Manitoba government.
encarta.msn.com /text_761569795__1/Bowell_Sir_Mackenzie.html   (1263 words)

 Wilfrid Laurier
One of Laurier's first acts as Prime Minister was to implement a solution to the Manitoba Schools Question, which had brought down the government of Mackenzie Bowell earlier in 1896.
His compromise stated that French-speaking Catholics in Manitoba could have a Catholic education if there were enough students to warrant it, on a school-by-school basis.
On November 1, 1973, Waterloo Lutheran University was renamed and became Wilfrid Laurier University, one of Ontario's publicly funded universities.
www.brainyencyclopedia.com /encyclopedia/w/wi/wilfrid_laurier.html   (909 words)

 Speech by Charles Tupper   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
I cannot do better, in view of the position in which we stand on this question, than to draw the attention of the committee to what the constitution of the country is with regard to the position of the Manitoba and the Dominion Government.
Provision shall be made by this legislation that schools wherein the majority of children are Catholics should be exempted from the requirements of the regulations as to religious exercises.
That text-books be permitted in Catholic schools such as will not offend the religious views of the minority, and which from an educational standpoint shall be satisfactory to the advisory board.
collections.ic.gc.ca /discourspm/anglais/ct/1404896a.html   (3893 words)

Wilfrid Laurier was born in St. Lin, Quebec in 1841, the son of a farmer.
After a few years at the local elementary school, Laurier was sent to New Glasgow, a nearby town, to learn English.
He had seen how divisive the issues of Riel and the Manitoba schools had been, and he sought to reconcile the interests of French and English Canada with his policies.
schools.tdsb.on.ca /laurier/bio.htm   (793 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Coastal landscapes%2C characterized by high%2C snow-covered mountains rising above narrow fjords and inlets%2C contrast with the broad forested upland of the central interior and the plains of the northeast.
His conditions were that Manitoba be established as an independant province%2C that total recognition go to the metis people%2C and that Manitoba would be administered much like Quebec as a French province.
The Manitoba Schools Question was important for one reason.
www.democraticunderground.com /duforum/DCForumID62/Data/1381.txt   (10688 words)

 Life of Robert Machray, by Robert Machray (1909)
There is nothing to prevent in our schools the daily recognition of the necessity of the divine blessing, and of the Word of God as the source of all wisdom and knowledge, in the opening and closing of the school by a simple form of prayer and the reading of God's Word.
Pinkham, was Superintendent of the Protestant schools of the Province.
The Bishop's chief feeling regarding this Conference was one of deep satisfaction with the substantial unity displayed on all questions of moment, and the decided witness borne to the great principles on which the reformation of the Church of England was conducted.
justus.anglican.org /resources/pc/canada/machray/bio/13.html   (5058 words)

 Sir John A. Macdonald - Canadian Confederation
He added Manitoba, Prince Edward Island and British Columbia as provinces, and acquired the territory that would eventually become Alberta and Saskatchewan.
The arrest and execution of Louis Riel as a result of this rebellion caused Macdonald to lose political ground with both French Catholics and English Protestants.
He also faced difficulties with the Manitoba Schools Question, a problem eventually decided by the courts.
www.collectionscanada.ca /confederation/023001-2360-e.html   (806 words)

 Justifying the End of Official Bilingualism: Canada’s North-West Assembly and the Dual Language Question, 1889-1892
Section 35 of the same Act provided that the lieutenant-governor of Manitoba would also serve as lieutenant-governor for the North-West Territories, a vast region that included most of present-day Manitoba as well as the future provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta.
  Girard hoped to restore Manitoba’s earlier role in the North-West’s governance, but when he failed to garner support for this option he proposed instead that English and French be entrenched as the official languages of the North-West Council and the courts.
Both Cayley and Haultain justified their proposals for an end to official bilingualism with the assertion that it was a simple question of economy.
www.ualberta.ca /~eaunger/pubs/Justifying2001.htm   (6513 words)

 Philosophy and culture   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Questions of wealth and its distribution are made irrelevant.
The Liberal school, which is not independentist, says the Québec people have themselves to blame, that they could have used a great deal more economic initiative, and they could have been much more significant in the economy.
A similar schools problem in New Brunswick in the 1870s might have contributed, as might the hanging in 1885 of Louis Riel - leader of the Metis people and founder of the province of Manitoba.
www.ola.bc.ca /online/cf/module-2/phil.html   (14099 words)

 Chapter 2: A Nation Emerges
Which language did the Manitoba Schools Act make the official language of instruction in Manitoba schools.
Although Laurier's compromise in the Manitoba Schools Question did not support Catholic Schools, he did allow the following to occur.
In the Manitoba Schools Question the conflict began over the funding of public schools.
www.sulysse.com /chap02.htm   (843 words)

 ipedia.com: Charles Tupper Article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
He was Canada's High Commissioner to the United Kingdom from 1884 to 1887, and later served as one of Sir John A. Macdonald's key lieutenants.
In 1895, he returned from service as Canada's representative in Britain to take over the leadership of the Conservative party, replacing Mackenzie Bowell, in whose leadership the party was "dissatisfied" because of the controversial Manitoba Schools Question.
Tupper led the Conservatives into the 1896 election; however, the question of the educational rights of French-speaking Manitobans turned voters, especially in Quebec, towards the Liberals under Wilfrid Laurier, and Tupper's Conservatives were defeated.
www.ipedia.com /charles_tupper.html   (343 words)

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