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Topic: Manned Orbiting Laboratory


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 MOL
MOL (Manned Orbiting Laboratory) was the US Air Force's manned space project after Dynasoar was cancelled, until it in turn was cancelled in 1969.
A transition tunnel led from the hatch in the heat shield of the Gemini B to the MOL pressurised quarters.
In the wake of the Air Force's Manned Orbiting Laboratory project and the likelihood of NASA's undertaking some type of manned orbiting research laboratory, Director of Advanced Manned Missions Studies Edward Z. Gray sought to achieve within NASA a better understanding of the utility of such projects as a base for experiments in space.
www.astronautix.com /craft/mol.htm   (4014 words)

  
 Encyclopedia: Manned Orbiting Laboratory
Manned Orbiting Laboratory early 1960 conceptual drawing that did not use the Gemini spacecraft.
In physics, an orbit is the path that an object makes, around another object, whilst under the influence of a source of centripetal force, such as gravity.
In 2005, two MH-7 training space suits from the MOL program were discovered in a locked room in the Launch Complex 5/6 museum at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (Nutter).
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Manned-Orbiting-Laboratory   (2402 words)

  
 Manned Orbiting Laboratory -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
Also codenamed Dorian and given the designation KH-10, the MOL was intended to be a (A manned artificial satellite in a fixed orbit designed for scientific research) space station used for (The act of reconnoitring (especially to gain information about an enemy or potential enemy)) reconnaissance purposes.
MOL was later superseded by the (Click link for more info and facts about KH-9) KH-9 (Click link for more info and facts about reconnaissance satellite) reconnaissance satellite.
After the Gemini was separated for its sub-orbital (The act of entering again) reentry, the MOL mockup continued on into (The (usually elliptical) path described by one celestial body in its revolution about another) orbit and released three (Man-made equipment that orbits around the earth or the moon) satellites.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/M/Ma/Manned_Orbiting_Laboratory.htm   (932 words)

  
 GPN-2003-00094 - Proposed USAF Manned Orbiting Laboratory
A 1960 concept image of the United States Air Force's proposed Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL) that was intended to test the military usefulness of having humans in orbit.
The station's baseline configuration was that of a two-person Gemini B spacecraft that could be attached to a laboratory vehicle.
The first launch of the MOL was scheduled for December 15, 1969, but was then pushed back to the fall of 1971.
grin.hq.nasa.gov /ABSTRACTS/GPN-2003-00094.html   (181 words)

  
 A History of the Manned Orbiting Laboratory
Although the first MOL crew was scheduled to fly sometime between late 1967 and early 1968, full approval of the program was contingent on the DOD's demonstrating a genuine national need to deploy military personnel in space.
By the end of 1966, MOL planners were seeing genuine signs of progress, but these were tempered by several negative trends—most notably, the continued underfunding of the project and the concurrent cost overruns.
MOL's use of Gemini technology, proposed at the time as a useful maneuver to help the program win approval, has its admirers in the space community today because of the widespread perception that Gemini hardware was able to perform its tasks using relatively cheap, yet reliable, technology.
www.aero.org /publications/crosslink/summer2004/02.html   (3368 words)

  
 Dr. Ivan Getting
The MOL program had capabilities necessary to do various unmanned functions, but by having men in the lab it could be more easily maintained and could perform certain functions that do not lend themselves easily to an unmanned system, such as targets of opportunity.
Man is a nuisance from the standpoint of all the equipment needed to supply him with.
So as I mentioned earlier, that led to the conclusion that the MOL should be redesigned from its first iteration to being capable of operating whether it had a man in it or not.
www.aero.org /corporation/getting.html   (4547 words)

  
 Space Cowboy Saloon
MOL was not a permanent space station; it was designed to be launched with the Gemini on top on a big Titan III booster to a polar orbit at 150 mi altitude, operate manned for 30 days (drawback: no shower), and after departure of the crew in the Gemini, it would burn up.
After reaching orbit, the crew would shut down the capsule's systems, leave their seats-no mean feat in the cramped Gemini cockpit, which was about the size of the interior of a Corvette-and float through the hatch into a tunnel that accessed the MOL.
There were no "scientist-astronauts" in the MOL program-they were all pilots, and referred to themselves as such rather than "astronauts." When the first round of MOL pilots was chosen in 1965, they were hand-picked from the ranks of ARPS students, instructors, and graduates by schoolmaster Chuck Yeager and his deputy.
groups.msn.com /SpaceCowboySaloon/yourwebpage3.msnw   (1616 words)

  
 Brooks Air Force Base Interactive CD-ROM - Man-In-Space Program   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
MOL research included space nutrition studies, cabin environment simulations, and the development of specialized equipment, all of which aided the Air Force, as well as NASA's Gemini and Apollo missions.
Utilizing the school's centrifuge in the Bioastronautics and Biodynamics Laboratory, SAM scientists recreated the multiple Gravity (G)-force effects of lift-off and reentry as well as the rotational effects of orbit.
MOL experiments performed by SAM scientists, however, proved to be extremely valuable in the later development of satellite systems and in NASA's orbiting laboratory, Skylab.
www.brooks.af.mil /history/space.html   (1940 words)

  
 Spaceflight :The International Space Station and Its Predecessors
Oberth conceptualized a human expedition to Mars with an orbiting refueling station (or weltraumstation) to be used as a staging point for the voyage.
After the 1963 cancellation of its winged spaceplane, the X-20 Dyna-Soar, the Air Force shifted its focus to the development of the Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL)-a house-trailer-size laboratory to be launched into orbit atop a Titan 3 booster along with a modified Gemini spacecraft carrying two military astronauts for missions lasting up to 30 days.
Orbiting the Earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour (28,164 kilometers per hour), the International Space Station will eventually become the brightest star in the heavens, visible to almost the entire population of the planet.
www.centennialofflight.gov /essay/SPACEFLIGHT/space_station/SP27.htm   (2031 words)

  
 part1b
Manning would be accomplished through successive flights of six-man, modified Apollo-type spacecraft that would rendezvous with the station in orbit.
In stressing the supreme importance of man's role in the exploration of space-and the uncertainties surrounding the effects of prolonged exposure to the zero-gravity environment of space-the company suggested that an Earth-orbital laboratory would be an ideal vehicle for such long-term experimental evaluation, with missions exceeding a year's duration.
Initial manned astronomy programs should he carried out as soon as possible, and, although primary interest was on Earth-orbital systems, the panel clearly was looking forward to the eventual possibility of lunar surface observatories.
www.hq.nasa.gov /office/pao/History/SP-4011/part1b.htm   (6861 words)

  
 Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL)
A United States Air Force, two-man cylindrical space station, about 12.5 meters long and 3 meters in diameter, which would have been attached to a Gemini spacecraft for 30-day missions in orbit similar to those of the early Salyut space stations.
Approved by President Johnson in 1965, the MOL project went as far as having a mockup launched by a Titan IIIC on Nov. 3, 1966, but was cancelled in 1969.
Much of the technology for MOL is believed to have been transferred to unmanned spy satellites.
www.daviddarling.info /encyclopedia/M/MOL.html   (176 words)

  
 NASA Finds Suits for '60s Space Spies
But here is another picture of the Manned Orbiting Laboratory Suit, dating from 1968 and shown at the National Museum of the United States Air Force (Credit: U.S. Air Force).
If you're interested by this dead MOL program, here is a site with an exhaustive history of the Manned Orbiting Laboratory.
On the left is a rendering of the Manned Orbiting Laboratory in space idf it had be launched (Credit: U.S. Air Force).
www.primidi.com /2005/06/03.html   (748 words)

  
 Manned Orbiting Laboratory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
The US Air Force's Manned Orbiting Laborartory (MOL) was conceived in the early 1960s as a way to exploit space for military purposes.
The goal was to develop a space station manned by two to four astronauts.
The MOL project eas approved by President Johnson in 1965 and cancelled in 1969 as unmanned satellites became more capable.
www.payloadbay.com /misc-664.html   (57 words)

  
 Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
In the spring of 1964, the USAF began work on the Manned Orbiting Laboratory, an evolution of the earlier "Blue Gemini" program which was conceived to be an all Air Force parallel of NASA's Gemini efforts.
The MOL was to incorporate a modified Gemini capsule attached to a cylindrical laboratory and launched as one unit by a Titan IIIC booster.
The model of the MOL on display in the USAF Museum illustrates the configuration proposed for the MOL.
www.wpafb.af.mil /museum/space_flight/sf18.htm   (283 words)

  
 SMC Historical Overview Manned Orbiting Laboratory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
Although most manned space programs were assigned to NASA in 1958, the Air Force retained a modest effort to explore the potential of manned military missions in the upper atmosphere and near-earth orbit.
The module would be called the Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL), and it would provide a shirt-sleeve environment in which military astronauts would be able to conduct experiments in near-earth orbit for up to thirty days.
The white, cylindrical element was the laboratory itself; the darker element was a Gemini capsule that would be used to bring astronauts to the lab and return them to earth after their mission was over.
www.fas.org /spp/military/program/smc_hist/SMCHOV12.HTM   (463 words)

  
 dynasoar main
The Dyna-Soar was America's first manned spacecraft which actually reached the hardware stage.
The USAF saw the Dyna-Soar as their first step into the military use of outer space and planned numerous versions of the ship, including satellite inspection and electronic and photographic intelligence gathering (shown here).
When the project was cancelled in 1963 with only one non-flying mock-up completed, the USAF's astronaut corps shifted into training for the Manned Orbiting Laboratory, or -- in the case of Dyna- Soar trainee Neil Armstrong -- to NASA's civilian projects.
www.deepcold.com /deepcold/dyna_main.html   (147 words)

  
 table2.47
The laboratory, which would be launched by a Saturn V, would accommodate a crew of 24 and be operational for I to 5 years.
NASA requested that the MOL food and diet contract with Whirlpool Corp. and the spacesuit development contract with Hamilton Standard Div., United Aircraft Corp., be transferred to it.
The laboratory was placed in the desired near-circular orbit, but its internal temperature increased beyond acceptable limits for habitability.
history.nasa.gov /SP-4012/vol3/table2.47.htm   (3099 words)

  
 mol   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
Beginning in 1963, MOL was a proposed series of five (or more) two-man flight in polar orbit to begin in 1968.
The path reads "Manned Orbiting Laboratory" and "United States Air Force" with a stylized helmeted aerospace research pilot next to a globe encircled by a MOL orbit vector.
The only public display of the original MOL patch is at the USAF Museum in Dayton, Ohio where the patch can be found sewn onto the right shoulder of a MOL suit in their pressure suit exhibit.
www.spacepatches.info /gemini/mol.html   (657 words)

  
 SPACE.com -- New ISS Duty: A Military Outpost?
The Air Force Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL) was a 1960's Cold War space station.
Cost growth in the MOL, technology advances in automated military spacecraft, as well as the expensive Vietnam war, helped force cancellation of the project in mid-1969.
Similarly, MOL experiments were later flown onboard NASA’s Skylab space station in the early 1970s.
www.space.com /news/iss_military_010924-1.html   (961 words)

  
 Spy Satellites   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
The MOL was a cylinder with roughly 34 cubic yards of work space.
A broad array of tasks were assigned to the MOL but ELINT and reconnaissance duties were certainly intended to be paramount.
The spacecraft entered an orbit with an inclination of 57 degrees, with an perigee of 680 km and an apogee of 690 km, and has not maneuvered significantly since launch.
www.danshistory.com /spysats.shtml   (2017 words)

  
 MOL -  Manned Orbital Laboratory
On the same day in 1963 that Secretary of Defense Robert MacNamara cancelled Dyna Soar, he formally re-committed to another USAF space project originally announced in 1960: the Manned Orbiting Laboratory, or MOL.
Boosted aloft atop a Titan III booster and capped with a Gemini spacecraft, the Douglas-built MOL station would be able to support a crew of 2 during long duration military surveillance missions.
He was selected to be an astronaut in a proposed Air Force space program called Manned Orbiting Laboratory.
www.aerospaceguide.net /spacestation/mol.html   (168 words)

  
 session 1-7
It is my hope that this discussion will facilitate understanding of the problem of feeding man in a spacecraft in light of a total spacecraft system rather than by a shotgun approach of developing individual improved food items or hardware components.
As mentioned in other papers, the MOL baseline system emerged in the contract as an exact replica of the late Gemini feeding system, insofar as packaging and food items were concerned.
The baseline MOL foods were acceptable from both the nutritional and organoleptic standpoint if properly used, but under actual previous system application they left something to be desired.
www.hq.nasa.gov /pao/History/SP-202/sess1.7.htm   (1842 words)

  
 DefenseLINK News: First African-American Astronaut Finally Acknowledged
Lawrence became the 17th astronaut to be named on the Space Mirror Memorial at Kennedy Space Center, Fla. The NASA memorial, completed in 1991, honors U.S. astronauts who died while in training or on a mission into space.
A test pilot assigned to the Air Force Manned Orbiting Laboratory Program, Lawrence died in an F-104 Starfighter crash at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif., on Dec. 8, 1967.
Manned Orbiting Laboratory Program participants were not considered astronauts even though they had the same skills and the two programs eventually merged.
www.defenselink.mil /news/Feb1998/n02051998_9802056.html   (473 words)

  
 Almaz - Part 2   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
A similar arrangement was to be used in Gemini B for the USAF MOL (Manned Orbiting Laboratory).
However the overall results of the Salyut 3 and 5 flights were said to have demonstrated to the Soviet military that manned reconnaissance was not worth the expense.
A decree of 19 December 1981 halted further work on manned flights of the TKS and reoriented the flights as tests of modules for the Mir station.
www.astronautix.com /articles/almpart2.htm   (7421 words)

  
 ESA Portal - Press Releases - Spacelab D-2 ready for launch   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
This Spacelab flight- the 7th for the ESA developed manned orbiting laboratory- will carry 92 experiments.
The ESA facilities on board Spacelab include Anthrorack, a laboratory for research in human physiology in space developed for ESA by Aerospatiale (France) as prime contractor.
Anthrorack will be used to perform an integrated screening of the human body in space as it is able to take simultaneous measurements of the respiratory, cardiovascular and endocrine systems.
www.esa.int /esaCP/Pr_11_1993_p_EN.html   (622 words)

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