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Topic: Marshall Aid

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  What was the Marshall Plan?
Marshall Aid took the form of fuel, raw materials, goods, loans and food, machinery and advisers.
Marshall Aid took the form of fuel, raw materials, goods, loans and food, US machinery to help factories to get back to normal, advisers to help rebuild transport systems.
Marshall Aid had a huge effect on Europe; the years 1948-1952 were a time of massive economic growth.
www.johndclare.net /EC9.htm   (705 words)

  Marshall Aid
Although the Dutch famine of 1944 had abated with an influx of aid, the general devastation of agriculture had led to conditions of starvation in several parts of the continent, which was to be exacerbated by the particularly harsh winter of 1946-1947 in northwestern Europe.
The first substantial aid went to Greece and Turkey in January 1947, which were seen as being on the front lines of the battle against communist expansion and were already being aided under the Truman Doctrine.
While aid from the Marshall Plan eased immediate difficulties and contributed to the recovery of some key sectors, growth from the postwar nadir was largely an independent process.
www.seattleluxury.com /encyclopedia/entry/Marshall_Aid   (6121 words)

 EH.Net Encyclopedia: The Marshall Plan, 1948-1951   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
In this perspective, Marshall Aid appears as a frustrated, economically less-than-significant attempt to influence the course of events in Europe.
To implement a cooperative equilibrium, U.S. policies linked Marshall Aid to free trade within Europe, to an agreement over the economic reconstruction of West Germany, and to a standstill regarding reparations and war debts as long as Germany was divided.
Viewed from this perspective, Marshall Aid and its conditionality were merely the outer shell of a program whose core was a far wider political agenda for economic cooperation in Western Europe.
eh.net /encyclopedia/article/Ritschl.Marshall.Plan   (1891 words)

 The Alger Hiss Story
On June 5, 1947, Secretary of State George Catlett Marshall, speaking at Harvard University, proposed an economic stimulus plan for Europe that was unprecedented in its scope and intent.
The spirit of the Marshall Plan lives on: cooperation among the 16 countries that received Marshall Plan aid led first to the European Common Market, which was set up in the 1950s, and, decades later, to today’s European Union, a unique partnership which now unites 25 nations.
This is not aid of a magnitude to raise the specter of a wrecked United States economy.
homepages.nyu.edu /~th15/marshallplan.html   (3264 words)

 June 23, 1997 - Library of Congress Information Bulletin
Marshall became secretary of state in 1947 and later served as secretary of defense.
To mark the 50th anniversary of Marshall's speech, the Library of Congress is presenting this display on the origins and effects of the Marshall Plan.
The Marshall Plan means work, and you will be one of the workers." During the years of the plan, when much of the money European participants received was spent on U.S.-produced food and manufactured goods, the American economy flourished.
www.loc.gov /loc/lcib/970623/marshall.html   (2131 words)

 Marshall School Admissions
The Marshall Board of Trustees endorses the goal of assisting students who have the academic ability, but not the economic means, to pay for an independent, college-preparatory education.
Marshall School is committed to providing a quality education to all students regardless of ability to pay.
Marshall’s financial aid program is designed to bridge the gap between tuition costs and what a family can reasonably expect to contribute toward their student’s education.
www.marshallschool.org /admissions/afinaid.htm   (917 words)

 Marshall Plan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
To him the Marshall Plan was the centerpiece of the new doctrine of containment.
Marshall gave the address to the graduating class of Harvard University on June 5, 1947.
The West German economic recovery was partly due to the economic aid provided by the Marshall Plan, but mainly it was due to the currency reform of 1948 which replaced the Reichsmark with the Deutsche Mark as legal tender, halting rampant inflation.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Marshall_Aid   (7074 words)

 [No title]
Marshall=s speech received substantial press coverage, including the main headline in the New York Times, and from that point on, aid to Europe was a major public issue.
At the same time that Marshall Plan dollars went to solve microeconomic disputes that were affecting macro performances, the ECA used counterpart funds and bilateral agreements to force governments to stabilize both their monetary and fiscal policy.
Earlier aid had been targeted for specific foreign policy purposes and U.S. leaders were disappointed when Aaid did not fulfill predictions of leading to economic development, democratic government, and political stability....growth was uneven, instability seemed to increase with development, and aid did not necessarily win friends and influence people@ (Spero, 163).
ase.tufts.edu /hemispheres/2000/Sanjana.doc   (5882 words)

 The Quaker Economist #86 - Marshall Plan for Iraq?
The first reason is that the levels of aid provided by the Marshall Plan were small, never exceeding five percent of the GNP of the receiving countries.
Before the Marshall Plan, a sizable share of U.S. aid to Europe was administered by the United Nations, and those U.S. dollars were not required to be spent on American goods.
Manipulating how the aid is given is also an irresistible temptation for the politicians of the donor nation; using it to political advantage is a temptation for the receiving government.
www.quaker.org /clq/2003/TQE086-EN-MarshallPlan.html   (1980 words)

 Foreign aid Summary
One major type of foreign aid, development aid, is aid given by developed countries to support economic development in developing countries.
Humanitarian aid, on the other hand, is short-term foreign aid used to alleviate suffering caused by a humanitarian crisis such as genocide, famine, or a natural disaster.
Tied aid is aid which the donor requires the recipient to spend on goods made in the donor country.
www.bookrags.com /Foreign_aid   (1901 words)

 Foreign Affairs - Marshall Plan Commemorative Section: The European Response: Primacy of Politics - David Reynolds
Roughly two-thirds of Marshall aid went to four countries: nearly one-quarter to Britain, one-fifth to France, and roughly one-tenth each to Italy and West Germany.
Food also constituted a high proportion of Marshall aid to Germany, Austria, and Ireland, but, across much of continental Europe, over 20 percent of the assistance took the form of vehicles, machinery, iron, and steel.
The primary impact of Marshall aid was not economic or institutional but political.
www.foreignaffairs.org /19970501faessay3823-p30/david-reynolds/marshall-plan-commemorative-section-the-european-response-primacy-of-politics.html   (1605 words)

 Marshall Plan Myth, The
Marshall himself played the role of a patsy, delivering prepackaged speeches written by the players behind the plan.
The Plan's legacy was the egregious and perpetual use of foreign aid for domestic political and economic purposes.
The actual legacy of the Marshall Plan was a vast expansion of government at home, the beginnings of the Cold War rhetoric that would sustain the welfare-warfare state for 40 years, a permanent global troop presence, and an entire business class on the take from Washington.
www.mises.org /freemarket_detail.asp?control=120&sortorder=articledate   (2255 words)

 Powell Fellow Tiffany Marshall to Aid Mississippi's Disadvantaged Children
Marshall, a Winchester, Va., native, decided when looking for her first job as a public-interest attorney to focus on the Deep South.
Marshall, a Hollins University graduate in political science and Spanish, has been working on behalf of children since college, when she began tutoring girls in detention centers in Roanoke, Va. She also instructed children in an after-school program for at-risk youth in the area.
Marshall plans to increase awareness of mental illness in incarcerated children among legislators and advocates, but also in communities, where she hopes to build a coalition of support for treatment.
www.law.virginia.edu /html/news/2005_fall/marshall.htm   (1196 words)

 Marshall University Financial Aid
Many students pursue student aid opportunities to make college more affordable.
In fact, approximately 60% of Marshall University students receive financial assistance in the form of grants, loans, student employment, and/or academic scholarships.
Marshall University - One John Marshall Drive - Huntington, WV 25755
www.marshall.edu /sfa   (103 words)

 WashingtonPost.com: Marshall Plan Changed the Face of Europe
The economic rise of this continent in the 1950s and 1960s, jump-started by Marshall aid, was built on smokestack industries and infrastructure.
Marshall, a former general, and the great minds that worked for and with him -- Dean Acheson, George Kennan, Charles Bohlen, William Clayton -- were deeply disturbed by the reports of devastation and began talking soon after the war of a massive aid program.
Marshall said something else important: "The initiative, I think, must come from Europe." He was inviting the nations of Western Europe to draw up a shopping list -- but, crucially, a joint shopping list.
www.washingtonpost.com /wp-srv/inatl/longterm/marshall/marshall.htm   (2894 words)

 USAID: The Marshall Plan Study Guide
One of the legacies of the Marshall Plan is that our nation has been joined in these international aid efforts by an increasing number of nations, many of which once received help from the Marshall Plan or subsequent U.S. aid programs.
Secretary of State Marshall believed that countries whose people do not go hungry and who trade with each other are less likely to go to war.
After he proposed the Marshall Plan in 1947, many Americans thought the $13 billion over four years proposed to be spent was too much money.
www.usaid.gov /multimedia/video/marshall/study.html   (586 words)

 Glossary of Events: Ma
The Marshall Plan was the program of massive economic aid given by the United States to favoured countries in Western Europe for the rebuilding of capitalism.
In conjunction with the monetary arrangements set up at Bretton Woods in 1944, Marshall Aid was used systematically to pressure governments and voters in countries like Britain, France and Italy into rejecting Communism in exchange for Aid, while Keynesian economic policies were used to provide welfare and jobs for workers.
Thus the Cold War was fought by a combination of dollars and guns, and the Marshall Aid program was the foundation of the dollars side of the war.
www.marxists.org /glossary/events/m/a.htm   (1508 words)

 Marshall Plan
The so-called Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan are particularly glaring examples of the manner in which the principles of the United Nations are violated, of the way in which the organization is ignored.
Moreover, this plan is an attempt to split Europe into two camps and, with the help of the United Kingdom and France, to complete the formation of a bloc of several European countries hostile to the interests of the democratic countries of Eastern Europe and most particularly to the interests of the Soviet Union.
Marshall Plan aid, essentially intended to keep the post-war economies of the West Europe countries within the capitalist world, was also intended to dominate their economy.
www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk /USAmarshallP.htm   (1419 words)

 Marshall Scholarships
Marshall Scholarships finance young Americans of high ability to study for a degree in the United Kingdom.
Marshall Scholars are talented, independent and wide-ranging, and their time as Scholars enhances their intellectual and personal growth.
They are funded by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office and administered by the Marshall Aid Commemoration Commission in the UK (for which the Association of Commonwealth Universities provides the Secretariat).
www.marshallscholarship.org   (263 words)

 Marshall Plan Summary
The establishment of the Marshall Plan marked a fundamental shift in American culture from isolationism to internationalism, and from a minor role in world affairs to world leadership.
A number of bilateral aid agreements had been signed, perhaps the most important of which was the Truman Doctrine's pledge to provide military assistance to Greece and Turkey.
The European nations had all but exhausted their foreign exchange reserves during the war, and the Marshall Plan aid represented almost their sole means of importing goods from abroad.
www.bookrags.com /Marshall_Plan   (7195 words)

 British Marshall Fellowships & Scholarships
British Marshall Scholarships finance young Americans of high ability to study for a degree in the United Kingdom in a system of higher education recognized for its excellence.
As a British Marshall Scholarship is intended to give the holder an opportunity to see as much as possible of the United Kingdom, meet its people, and observe its institutions, Scholars should be prepared to spend a reasonable proportion of their vacation time in the country.
British Marshall Scholars choosing undergraduate programs in the United Kingdom will therefore find that a considerable measure of specialized attainment is expected in their chosen subject, especially as they will have to complete their work in two years instead of the three normally taken by British undergraduates.
www.bu.edu /bufellow/undergraduate/marshall.htm   (1867 words)

 MIT Scholarships and Fellowships: Marshall Scholarships
The Marshall Scholarship Program was established by the British government in 1953 as its official gesture of thanks to the U.S. for its assistance in recovering from World War II.
Marshall Scholarships are awarded annually to approximately 40 U.S. citizens for two years of undergraduate (second undergraduate degree) or graduate study (with the possibility of a third year) in any discipline at any university in the United Kingdom.
Marshall applicants with a strong preference for Cambridge University should also consider applying for the Gates Scholarship, which aims at similar selectivity, but is tenable only at Cambridge.
web.mit.edu /scholarships/details/marshall.htm   (1083 words)

 AID plagued by staffing problems (9/23/03) Government Executive
AID was created in 1961 to provide assistance to strategic U.S. allies, provide humanitarian relief and help foster economic growth in the world's poorest countries.
On Tuesday, Marshall outlined the agency's problems for the committee, pointing to AID's aging workforce and an ever-widening gap in critical skills needed to meet the agency's various missions.
According to the General Accounting Office, while officials at AID are taking the necessary steps to better manage its workforce and recruit new employees to shore up shortfalls in skills at the agency, AID needs to ramp up its efforts.
www.govexec.com /dailyfed/0903/092303t1.htm   (538 words)

 Time for a new Marshall plan, by Ignacio Ramonet
Indeed, the aid was originally intended for all European countries involved in the war (except for Franco’s Spain), including the Soviet Union and the countries of Eastern Europe.
Because of Marshall aid, trade between the countries of Europe was able to expand, economic integration was encouraged and the earliest foundations of the future European Community laid.
Jacques Delors had earlier done the same, saying that behind the Marshall Plan had been the idea that, if economic recovery relied on market forces alone, it had to be backed by a voluntary system of aid and assistance able to resolve the main structural difficulties (4).
mondediplo.com /1997/06/lead2   (996 words)

 Marshall Democrat-News: Story: Marshall approves aid pact, OATS contract
The Marshall City Council made short work of a scant agenda Tuesday, approving a utility mutual aid agreement and renewing a contract with OATS.
Paul Jensen, general manager for Marshall Municipal Utilities, was on hand Tuesday to explain the proposed mutual aid agreement with the Missouri Public Utilities Alliance.
Marshall resident David Kemm was also present to remind the council that he would once again be leading a litter pickup.
www.marshallnews.com /story/1135981.html   (214 words)

 Marshall Plan: Segment Summaries and Discussion Questions
Marshall proposes aid to Europe on a vast scale and summons the European nations to the Paris Conference.
During the four years of the Marshall Plan, Greece receives nearly $700 million in economic assistance, including Missouri mules to assist in farming.
Describe Marshall Tito's activities with respect to Josef Stalin and the Soviet Union.
turnerlearning.com /cnn/coldwar/marshall/mpln_dis.html   (956 words)

 Marshall Plan: Segment Summaries and Discussion Questions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Marshall proposes aid to Europe on a vast scale and summons the European nations to the Paris Conference.
During the four years of the Marshall Plan, Greece receives nearly $700 million in economic assistance, including Missouri mules to assist in farming.
Describe Marshall Tito's activities with respect to Josef Stalin and the Soviet Union.
learning.turner.com /cnn/coldwar/marshall/mpln_dis.html   (956 words)

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