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Topic: Marshall Plan


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In the News (Sun 19 Nov 17)

  
  Marshall Plan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
It should be noted that when the Marshall Plan was initiated, the wartime alliances were still somewhat intact and the Cold War had not yet truly begun, and for most of those who developed the Marshall Plan, fear of the Soviet Union was not the overriding concern it would be in later years.
The Soviet Union's "alternative" to the Marshall plan, which was purported to involve Soviet subsidies and trade with eastern Europe, became known as the Molotov Plan, and later, the COMECON.
Another unofficial goal of ECA (and of the Marshall Plan) was the containment of growing Soviet influence in Europe, evident especially in the growing strength of communist parties in Czechoslovakia, France, and Italy.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Marshall_Plan   (6311 words)

  
 Global Marshall Plan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Global Marshall Plan is a plan first devised by Former American Vice-President Al Gore in his bestselling novel Earth in the Balance which gives specific ideas on how to save the global environment.
For example, a Global Marshall Plan must focus on strategic goals and emphasize actions and programs that are likely to remove the bottlenecks presently inhibiting the healthy functioning of the global economy.
The idea is based on the post-WWII Marshall Plan that saw the United States send billions of dollars to Europe to rebuild their war shattered economies.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Global_Marshall_Plan   (299 words)

  
 EH.Net Encyclopedia: The Marshall Plan, 1948-1951
The origin of the Marshall Plan lay precisely in a crisis of the previous aid schemes.
Still today, economic folklore credits the Marshall Plan with everything that improved in Europe after the war: the restoration of decent food supplies, the opening of supply bottlenecks in industry, and most importantly, the reconstruction of capital equipment and housing stocks in the devastated economies of Western Europe.
Viewed from this perspective, Marshall Aid and its conditionality were merely the outer shell of a program whose core was a far wider political agenda for economic cooperation in Western Europe.
eh.net /encyclopedia/article/Ritschl.Marshall.Plan   (1891 words)

  
 Marshall Plan
The so-called Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan are particularly glaring examples of the manner in which the principles of the United Nations are violated, of the way in which the organization is ignored.
Moreover, this plan is an attempt to split Europe into two camps and, with the help of the United Kingdom and France, to complete the formation of a bloc of several European countries hostile to the interests of the democratic countries of Eastern Europe and most particularly to the interests of the Soviet Union.
Marshall Plan aid, essentially intended to keep the post-war economies of the West Europe countries within the capitalist world, was also intended to dominate their economy.
www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk /USAmarshallP.htm   (1419 words)

  
 The Marshall Plan
The Big Apple was under a cloud today as the city's residents waited by their radios for reports on the prognosis for Rachel Marshall, the 23-year-old whose tragic fall has captured the sympathy of Jews and Gentiles alike.
Marshall was the latest victim of toxic heel syndrome, a condition responsible for myriad near-fatalities of women from ages 13-28.
Marshall prepares for her metamorphosis from a one-ankle diva to the hopping and skipping two-legged Ankle Awareness president.
marshallplan.blogspot.com   (314 words)

  
 Marshall Plan Myth, The
The Plan's legacy was the egregious and perpetual use of foreign aid for domestic political and economic purposes.
When the plan passed, as it easily did (with even Taft's vote), the ink was hardly dry on the legislation when the ships full of goods hit the high seas.
The actual legacy of the Marshall Plan was a vast expansion of government at home, the beginnings of the Cold War rhetoric that would sustain the welfare-warfare state for 40 years, a permanent global troop presence, and an entire business class on the take from Washington.
www.mises.org /freemarket_detail.asp?control=120&sortorder=articledate   (2255 words)

  
 What was the Marshall Plan?
The European Recovery Programme (nicknamed the ‘Marshall Plan’) was set up because the economic infrastructure of Europe had been destroyed by the Second World War and because this – and the coldest winter on record – had by 1947 reduced the people of Europe to starvation.
The British foreign secretary Ernest Bevin called the Plan ‘a lifeline to sinking men, bringing hope where there was none’ and by 12 July he had organised a meeting of European nations in Paris, which asked for $22 billion of aid.
Marshall Aid had a huge effect on Europe; the years 1948-1952 were a time of massive economic growth.
www.johndclare.net /EC9.htm   (705 words)

  
 WashingtonPost.com: Marshall Plan Changed the Face of Europe
For Americans who were alive then, the Marshall Plan is a warm but fading memory of a time when the United States -- inspired in part by a large injection of anti-communism -- meant more than an unwelcome Yankee.
Marshall, a former general, and the great minds that worked for and with him -- Dean Acheson, George Kennan, Charles Bohlen, William Clayton -- were deeply disturbed by the reports of devastation and began talking soon after the war of a massive aid program.
In addition, the Marshall Plan created a mechanism that allowed each European nation to exchange its currency freely with all the others -- a commonplace occurrence now -- to replace the damaged system of bilateral exchange controls that had prevailed before the war.
www.washingtonpost.com /wp-srv/inatl/longterm/marshall/marshall.htm   (2894 words)

  
 Marshall Plan
The Marshall Plan generated a resurgence of European industrialization and brought extensive investment into the region.
Thus the Marshall Plan was applied solely to western Europe, precluding any measure of Soviet Bloc cooperation.
The Marshall Plan also institutionalized and legitimized the concept of U.S. foreign aid programs, which have become a integral part of U.S. foreign policy.
future.state.gov /when/timeline/1946_cold_war/marshall_plan.html   (343 words)

  
 Foreign Affairs - Marshall Plan Commemorative Section: Lessons of the Plan: Looking Forward to the Next Century - Walt ...
The first is the plan's role in producing a postwar global economy that would avoid the problems that plagued the West between the two world wars, including those that led to the Great Depression.
Second, the Marshall Plan helped shape the military and political events of the late 1940s and early 1950s and was in turn shaped by them.
Seen from a broad perspective, the Marshall Plan reflected the conviction, shared by a good many -- though not all -- Americans, that the isolationism and acute nationalism that had flourished from the presidential election of 1920 until Pearl Harbor, especially during the Great Depression, must not again hold sway.
www.foreignaffairs.org /19970501faessay3824/walt-w-rostow/marshall-plan-commemorative-section-lessons-of-the-plan-looking-forward-to-the-next-century.html   (1129 words)

  
 Marshall Plan Speech   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The text of the speech given by United States Secretary of State, George C. Marshall at Harvard University on 5 June 1947.
The Organisation for European Economic Co-operation, predecessor to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, was created to co-operate with the government of the United States in planning for the distribution of the aid.
Marshall's speech was followed quickly by the creation of the Conference for European Economic Co-operation.
www.oecd.org /document/10/0,2340,en_2649_201185_1876938_1_1_1_1,00.html   (1452 words)

  
 HPOL Record
Borne from the mind of a wise and diplomatically skilled visionary, the Marshall Plan was the phoenix on whose wings war ravaged Europe would begin its ascent from the ashes of World War II.
While the flow of aid given under the Marshall Plan came to an end in 1951, its mission was accomplished.
The Marshall Plan revitalized the economies of the seventeen countries whose membership formed the OEEC.
www.hpol.org /record.php?id=7   (405 words)

  
 Online NewsHour: The Marshall Plan at 50 -- June 5, 1997
The Marshall Plan was something that was very important, and he was central in it.
LARRY BLAND: Marshall was very well liked in Europe partially because the leadership elite over there recognized that during World War II he had been devoted to keeping the allied coalition together.
I mean, there's no question that had it not been for Marshall's prestige and the kind of presence that he carried, it was very difficult for Truman to imagine getting that plan through.
www.pbs.org /newshour/bb/europe/june97/marshall_6-5.html   (1909 words)

  
 George C. Marshall - Biography
Marshall's father owned a prosperous coal business in Pennsylvania, but the boy, deciding to become a soldier, enrolled at the Virginia Military Institute from which he was graduated in 1901 as senior first captain of the Corps of Cadets.
In July, 1938, Marshall accepted a post with the General Staff in Washington, D. C., and in September, 1939, was named chief of staff, with the rank of general, by President Roosevelt.
Marshall, George C., The Winning of the War in Europe and the Pacific: Biennial Report of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army, July 1, 1943, to June 30, 1945, to the Secretary of War.
nobelprize.org /peace/laureates/1953/marshall-bio.html   (731 words)

  
 t r u t h o u t - Robert Byrd | Marshall Plan to Bush Iraqi Plan: No Comparison
The Marshall Plan was not a huge bill presented to Congress for its rubber-stamp approval.
When the Congress considered the Marshall Plan to rebuild Europe, the Foreign Relations Committee held one-month of hearings, from January 8 to February 5, 1948, with the Chairman calling ninety witnesses to testify.
Great Britain, with undeniable cultural and political similarities to America, alone received 24.7 percent of the Marshall Plan funds over the course of four years, the equivalent of $21.1 billion in 1997 dollars.
www.truthout.org /docs_03/092603E.shtml   (803 words)

  
 Marshall's plan - The Boston Globe - Boston.com - Music - A&E
DJ Wayne Marshall is writing a dissertation on the connection between hip-hop and reggae.
Marshall wears an olive green shirt with Larry Bird -- Marshall is a devoted Boston sports fan -- on which the Celtics icon is outlined with the red, gold, and green colors associated with Rastafarians.
Marshall, who is married, hopes to have his dissertation completed later this year, and then get what he calls ''a real job" in the field of ethnomusicology.
www.boston.com /ae/music/articles/2005/07/29/marshalls_plan   (1031 words)

  
 Marshall Plan on Encyclopedia.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
MARSHALL PLAN [Marshall Plan] or European Recovery Program, project instituted at the Paris Economic Conference (July, 1947) to foster economic recovery in certain European countries after World War II.
The Marshall Plan took form when U.S. Secretary of State George C. Marshall urged (June 5, 1947) that European countries decide on their economic needs so that material and financial aid from the United States could be integrated on a broad scale.
Completed in 1952, the Marshall Plan was one aspect of the foreign aid program of the United States and greatly contributed to the economic recovery of Europe.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/m/marshalp1l.asp   (499 words)

  
 Marshall Plan
But Marshall starts the book out with how to decide what to write about, and does a great job of going through the process of decision-making including the plot, characters and theme.
Marshall refers in this chapter to the “five fiction modes: action, summary, dialogue, thoughts/feelings and background.” In this section he also covers the details of how to set up the writing area and setting goals (and rewards) for the writing itself.
Marshall is an agent, editor and novelist, and he even conducts workshops based on this book.
www.absolutewrite.com /novels/marshall_plan.htm   (798 words)

  
 A Concise Encyclopedia of the European Union --M--
The Marshall Plan, named after General Marshall, a US army chief of staff in World War II, was a unique act of American generosity and enlightened self-interest.
Under the Plan, which was overseen by what later became the OECD, the USA distributed some $12,500 million over three years, starting in 1947, to 16 European states, on condition that they set about dismantling trade barriers and systematically organising their own recovery.
Together with NATO, the Plan signalled the emergence of the USA as a European power and set Europe on a path to freedom and prosperity on a hitherto undreamed of scale, creating a debt of honour which France alone has sometimes been reluctant to acknowledge.
www.euro-know.org /dictionary/m.html   (3106 words)

  
 George C. Marshall - THE MARSHALL PLAN FILMOGRAPHY
As described in the last Marshall Plan films catalogue, this film depicts the economic interdependence of the "West German States of Europe" and the world as seen through the eyes of several German children.
Albert Hemsing's history of the Marshall Plan's European Film Unit and his accompanying filmography (see Source Material) was the inspiration and basis for this filmography.
Marshall Plan films are scattered all over The Netherlands, and there are many people to thank: Marja Roholl, Thunnis van Oort, Piet van Wijk, Rian Romme, Bert Hogenkamp, Peter Westervoorde, Rob Hogeslag, Joke Vriezekolk, Olivia Buning, Jasper Koedam, Ronny Temme, Emile Poppe, Tony van Maren, Noel van Rens, Ferry Bos, and Jose Kooyman.
www.marshallfilms.org /mpfdetail.asp   (4536 words)

  
 America and the West: Lessons from the Marshall Plan - FPRI
The Marshall Plan was described by Winston Churchill as the “most unsordid act in history.” By linking the United States and the economic recovery of Western Europe through a formal program that required a joint European approach, the plan inaugurated the “modern” era.
The impetus for the Marshall Plan came in part from impatience with this seemingly endless “emergency;” the breakdown of U.S.-Soviet cooperation at the March 1947 Moscow conference; and Great Britain’s bankruptcy, which led to the Truman Doctrine, i.e.
Clayton persuaded both Secretary of State George C. Marshall and Deputy Secretary of State Dean Acheson that a European economic recovery plan sponsored by the U.S. was necessary but, unlike UN food aid, it should be administered by a pan-European organization.
www.fpri.org /ww/0103.199801.sicherman.lessonsfromthemarshallplan.html   (1384 words)

  
 George C. Marshall Speech - 'The Marshall Plan'
Two years after the defeat of Nazi Germany, U.S. Secretary of State George C. Marshall returned home from a visit to Europe and reported, "The recovery of Europe is far slower than had been expected.
When asked to deliver the 1947 commencement address at Harvard University, Marshall accepted the invitation and used the opportunity to suggest an economic recovery plan to revitalize Europe.
The Marshall Plan spurred European re-industrialization and brought much needed humanitarian relief to the war-torn countries.
www.historyplace.com /speeches/marshall.htm   (1528 words)

  
 Glossary of Events: Ma
The Marshall Plan was the program of massive economic aid given by the United States to favoured countries in Western Europe for the rebuilding of capitalism.
Under the Marshall Plan, using the institutions set up at Bretton Woods, the US provided ‘friendly’ governments in Europe with $17 billion in investment between 1948 and 1952 and succeeded in stimulating the reconstruction of capitalism, while bringing them heavily into US debt.
The rationale of the Marshall Plan as part of a plan to destroy the Soviet Union was quite explicit:.
www.marxists.org /glossary/events/m/a.htm   (1508 words)

  
 Truman Doctrine/ Marshall Plan
Marshall said that it was up to the countries of Europe to decide what they needed.
American cartoon of 1949 about the Marshall Plan represents America as a generous 'dad', teaching his clumsy son 'Europe' to support himself economically.
General Marshall holds guns, and harnesses labelled ‘for the French’ and ‘for the Germans’.
www.johndclare.net /cold_war8.htm   (725 words)

  
 THE MARSHALL PLAN (1947)
Marshall also offered aid to the Soviet Union and its allies in eastern Europe, but Stalin denounced the program as a trick and refused to participate.
The Marshall Plan, it should be noted, benefited the American economy as well.
In many ways, the Marshall Plan satisfied both those who wanted our foreign policy to be generous and idealistic and those who demanded realpolitik; it helped feed the starving and shelter the homeless, and at the same time stopped the spread of communism and put the European economy back on its feet.
www.usinfo.state.gov /usa/infousa/facts/democrac/57.htm   (1423 words)

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