
 Shafer and Vovk "Probability and Finance" 
  This is a mathematical introduction to the gametheoretic framework. 
  Our main mathematical result is that for any continuous (in particular, any computable) gambling strategy used for detecting disagreement between the forecasts and the actual labels, there exists a forecasting strategy whose forecasts are ideal as far as this gambling strategy is concerned. 
  Finance: 1, 2, 5, 12; history: 4, 6; general: 3, 15; defensive forecasting: 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 17. 
 www.probabilityandfinance.com (3676 words) 
