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Topic: Maya numerals


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  Maya Numerals
The Maya of Central America understood the concept of zero and place notation hundreds of years before its earliest known use in India and medieval Islam.
In a perfect vigesimal system of numeration, the third term should be 400 but the Maya took 18*20 because 360 was a closer approximation to the length of the solar calendar.
The Maya representation of the numbers using bars and dots was most of the time combined with a set of beautiful head numerals : the Maya glyphs.
mathsforeurope.digibel.be /Numerals.htm   (750 words)

  
  CalendarHome.com - Maya calendar - Calendar Encyclopedia
The essentials of the Maya calendric system are based upon a system which had been in common use throughout the region, dating back to at least the 6th century BCE.
The Maya version is commonly known to scholars as the Tzolkin, or Tzolk'in in the revised orthography of the Academia de Lenguas Mayas de Guatemala.
The Maya numeral system was essentially a vigesimal one (i.e., base-20), and each unit of a given position represented 20 times the unit of the position which preceded it.
encyclopedia.calendarhome.com /Maya_calendar.htm   (3485 words)

  
 Mayan Mathematics - Crystalinks
The Maya discovered Zero value and the golden proportion - advancing them beyond other ancient civilizations and allowing them to create their very detailed calendar, some of the prophecized events unfolding through the centuries, even in our current timeline, though not equated in media coverage.
Maya merchants often used cocoa beans, which they layed out on the ground, to do their calculations.
Also, the preclassic Maya and their neighbors independently developed the concept of zero by 36 BC (This is the first documented use of a true 0, though the Babylonians long before had developed a placeholder-0 that was used only between other digits.).
www.crystalinks.com /mayanmath.html   (401 words)

  
 THE MAYA
Maya art often depicts rulers with trappings indicating they were scribes or at least able to write, such as having pen bundles in their headdresses.
The Maya configured constellations of gods and places, saw the unfolding of narratives in their seasonal movements, and believed that the intersection of all possible worlds was in the night sky.
Maya rulers figured prominently in many religious rituals and often were required to practice bloodletting, such as using sculpted bone or jade instruments to perforate their penises, or drawing thorn-studded ropes through their tongues.
www.solarnavigator.net /history/maya.htm   (5700 words)

  
 The Maya Calendar
The Maya did not use fractions, and thirteen is the closest whole number of lunations in a solar year, so perhaps this is the root celestial connection.
For example, a certain day may be recorded as 2 Chik'chan 5 Pop, indicating that in the Tzolk'in cycle the 13 numbers have come around to 2 and the 20 names to Chik'chan, while in the concurrent Haab cycle the same day is the 5th day of the month of Pop.
This is a chronological sequence of days dating from the beginning of the present great cycle in August 13, 3114 BCE (a date, called by the Maya 4 Ahaw 8 Kumk'u, whose historical or mythic significance is unknown; a minority view holds that the date was actually August 11).
www.rightreading.com /mayan/maya_calendar.htm   (876 words)

  
 Maya Long Count Calendar:
The first unequivocally Maya artifact is Stela 29 from Tikal, with the Long Count date of 292 CE (8.12.14.8.15), more than 300 years after Stela 2 from Chiapa de Corzo.
The commonly-established way of expressing the correlation between the Maya calendar and the Gregorian or Julian calendars is to provide number of days from the start of the Julian Period (Monday, January 1, 4713 BCE) to the start of creation on 0.0.0.0.0 (4 Ajaw, 8 Kumk'u).
According to the Maya, there will be a b'ak'tun ending in 2012, a significant event being the end of the 13th 400 year period, but not the end of the world.
winelib.com /wiki/Maya_Long_Count_Calendar   (2434 words)

  
 Mayan mathematics
We are interested in the Classic Period of the Maya which spans the period 250 AD to 900 AD, but this classic period was built on top of a civilisation which had lived in the region from about 2000 BC.
The Maya of the Classic Period built large cities, around fifteen have been identified in the Yucatán peninsular, with recent estimates of the population of the city of Tikal in the Southern Lowlands being around 50000 at its peak.
With such crude instruments the Maya were able to calculate the length of the year to be 365.242 days (the modern value is 365.242198 days).
www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk /~history/HistTopics/Mayan_mathematics.html   (2414 words)

  
  Maya numerals   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The numerals are made up of three symbols; zero (shell shape), one (a dot) and five (a bar).
In the "Long Count" portion of the Maya calendar, a variation on the strictly vigesimal numbering is used.
This is supposed to be because 360 is roughly the number of days in a year.
www.punweb.com /article/Mayan_numerals   (247 words)

  
  Learn more about Maya civilization in the online encyclopedia.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
With the decipherment of the Maya script it was discovered that the Maya were one of the few civilizations where artists attached their name to their work.
The Maya (or their Olmec predesessors) independently developed the concept of zero (indeed, they seem to have been using the concept centuries before the Old World), and used a base 20 numbering system (see Maya numerals).
The Maya calculation of the length of the solar year was somewhat superior to the Gregorian Calendar.
www.onlineencyclopedia.org /m/ma/maya_civilization.html   (2569 words)

  
 Maya numerals - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The numerals are made up of three symbols; zero (shell shape), one (a dot) and five (a bar).
In the "Long Count" portion of the Maya calendar, a variation on the strictly vigesimal numbering is used.
This is supposed to be because 360 is roughly the number of days in a year.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Maya_numerals   (343 words)

  
 Numerals, Numeration, and Numerical Notation Bibliography
Corbett, G.G. Universals in the syntax of cardinal numerals.
Krippes, Karl A. A Linguistic Enigma, the Altaic Numerals.
The decimal place-value numeration and the rod and bead arithmetics.
phrontistery.info /nnsbib.html   (8618 words)

  
 The Maya Civilization, Maya Numerals and Calendar - BY LUIS DUMOIS
This means that the Maya counted from zero to nineteen before they had to move to the next order, instead of using 10 digits, from zero to nine, as we do.
Maya numerals were written with only three symbols: a dot for one; a line, which is a five, and the glyph of a sea shell to represent zero.
Every date expressed in long count terms contained five numerals, that is, the number of baktuns, katuns, tuns, uinals and kins elapsed from the "beginning of time", according to the Maya system.
www.mexconnect.com /mex_/travel/ldumois/maya/ldmayanumbers.html   (970 words)

  
 Jim Lutz/BolaMan - Maya Glyph Jewelry
While a frog may or may not have been what the maya meant to represent, frogs are unique in that a human can witness the development of the frog from fertile egg to adult in a short period of time and is often used as a symbol for fertility and birth in many cultures.
They are used by the maya to record time intervals on the long count calendar which is their record of the total number of days since the beginning of the maya calendar in 3114 BC.
The Maya World link bracelet consisting of CR date (your birthdate or anniversary date etc), lord of the night, head variants for the #7, 9 and 13 is $295.
www.clearlight.com /bolaman/mayaglph.htm   (1523 words)

  
 Maya Calendar
Maya civilization emerged during the pre-Classical, perhaps as early as 400 BC, but the earliest long count that is unequivocally Maya is early Classical, found on Tikal stelae 29.
Since the Maya often aligned buildings to sunrise on the solstices, it is clear that they were aware that the solar year is not exactly 365 days long.
Maya Mathematics --- Although the Maya number system was functionally a modified base-20 system, the Maya scribes may have conceived of it in a more complicated fashion, as a composite of three distinct counts.
members.shaw.ca /mjfinley/calnote.htm   (3496 words)

  
 mayanpaper
Based on twenty, the numerals in their vigesimal system (in contrast to our decimal system) had many representations.
The Mayan numeral system is unique in that it is a vigesimal system, which means it is based on twenty instead of ten like our decimal system.
The Maya have a place value system much like our decimal system, but instead of reading the numbers left to right with the left being the largest place value spot, Mayan numbers are read from top to bottom with the top place being the largest place value spot.
filebox.vt.edu /j/jtoffene/mayanpaper.htm   (2049 words)

  
 FAMSI - John Pohl's Mesoamerica - Maya Hieroglyphic Writing
The earliest surviving European study of Maya hieroglyphic writing was made around 1566 by a Spanish bishop named Diego de Landa.
Dates are the easiest glyphs to spot on stone inscriptions, because they contain numerical “bars and dots.” The bars represent counts of five, and the dots represent single digits.
The Maya's messages were therefore so imbedded in ancient mysticism, ritual, and poetic metaphor as to be hopelessly undecipherable.
www.famsi.org /research/pohl/pohl_mayawrite.html   (895 words)

  
 Numbers and Numerals mathematics,Numbers and Numerals, primitive man counting, Egyptian Babylonian, Early Roman, ...
Numbers and Numerals mathematics,Numbers and Numerals, primitive man counting, Egyptian Babylonian, Early Roman, Chinese, Early Hindu, Maya, Ancient Egyptians wrote their numerals on papyrus...,by Anand Singh,Pre School maths,preschool maths,nursury maths for kids,Numbers and Numerals, primitive man counting, Egyptian Babylonian, Early Roman, Chinese, Early Hindu, Maya, Ancient Egyptians wrote their numerals on papyrus...
Their simple numerals, 1, 2, 3, were copies of the cave man's sticks or notches.
It is interesting to note that in many of the numeral systems found throughout the world, 1 was written as a single stroke (like a stick) or as a dot (like a pabble).
www.4to40.com /activities/mathemagic/index.asp?article=activities_mathemagic_numerals   (885 words)

  
 Maya mathematics
In the Maya system, this would be 1*20+12, because they used 20 as base.
Maya merchants often used cocoa beans, which they layed out on the ground, to do these calculations.
Base twenty was also used in their calendar, which is a major portion of these pages because calendars are developed by astronomers for keeping track of time.
www.michielb.nl /maya/math.html   (308 words)

  
 The Maya Civilization, Maya Numerals and Calendar - BY LUIS DUMOIS
This means that the Maya counted from zero to nineteen before they had to move to the next order, instead of using 10 digits, from zero to nine, as we do.
Maya numerals were written with only three symbols: a dot for one; a line, which is a five, and the glyph of a sea shell to represent zero.
Every date expressed in long count terms contained five numerals, that is, the number of baktuns, katuns, tuns, uinals and kins elapsed from the "beginning of time", according to the Maya system.
mexconnect.com /mex_/travel/ldumois/maya/ldmayanumbers.html   (970 words)

  
 Ancient Maya - Ancient Civilization
Immediately outside of this ritual center were the structures of lesser nobles, smaller temples, and individual shrines, essentially, the less sacred and important, the greater the degree of privacy.
All stone for Maya structures appears to have been taken from local quarries; most often this was limestone which, while being quarried remained pliable enough to be worked with stone tools, only hardening once removed from its bed.
As is the case with many other Maya relief, those on the platforms often were related to the intended purpose of the residing structure.
www.ancient-civilization.info /ancient-maya   (2480 words)

  
 Maya civilization - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Maya civilization is a culture Mesoamerican civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas, its spectacular art and monumental architecture, and sophisticated mathematical and astronomical systems.
Some archaeological evidence shows the Maya had started to build ceremonial architecture by approximately 1000 BC and by the period known as the mid-Preclassic (or mid-Formative), around 600 BC, some of the earliest Maya complexes had been constructed.
In the case of the common Maya houses, wooden poles, adobe, and thatch were the primary materials; however, instances of what appear to be common houses of limestone have been discovered as well.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Maya_civilization   (6271 words)

  
 Armageddon Online - The Mayan Calendar - End of the World 2012?
The birthday of Ak’abal was also thought to give the child the ability to communicate with the supernatural world, so he or she might become a priest shaman or a marriage spokesman.
They Maya believed that the fourth world would end in catastrophe and the fifth and final world would be created that would signal the end of mankind.
The Venus cycle was especially important because the Maya believed it was associated with war and used it to divine good times for coronations and war.
www.armageddononline.net /mayan_calendar.php   (862 words)

  
 Tulum, Coba: Archaeological Site of Mayan World, Hotels, Tour Operators and Dive Centers, Quintana roo, Mexico
The city was as large in area as any of the cities of the Maya and maintained a metropolitan population of upwards of 70,000 people within an area of 44 square miles.
The ruins are from the post-classic era of the Maya civilization and are fortified.
During the Maya uprising of the War for the Castes, which began in 1847 and lasted until 1901, Tulum served as a fortress for the rebels.
www.mayan-world.com /ruinas/quinroo.htm   (1908 words)

  
 A Brief History of the Mayan Civilization
We have only hints of the advanced painting of the classic Maya, mostly what has survived on funerary pottery, and a building at Bonampak where the ancient murals survived by fortunate accident.
The Maya writing system (often called hieroglyphics from a vague superficial resemblance to the Egyptian writing, to which it is not related) was a combination of phonetic symbols and ideograms.
The Maya (or their Olmec predesessors) independently developed the concept of zero (indeed, they seem to have been using the concept centuries before the Old World), and used a base 20 numbering system (see Mayan numerals).
www.art-poster-online.com /maya.htm   (972 words)

  
 Maya numerals Summary
Sometime during their Preclassic stage, the Maya invented a system of mathematics, a numbering system, and a calendar sufficient for their purposes that were unique in the ancient world.
What can be said is that, during their time, the Maya developed a remarkably accurate and sophisticated system of numbers that gave them one of the most complex, and accurate calendars of the ancient world.
The numerals are made up of three symbols; zero (shell shape), one (a dot) and five (a bar).
www.bookrags.com /Maya_numerals   (1651 words)

  
 Chapter1
The difference is that for the maya the dots and bars are already the numbers and not marks or signals only.
This problem was resolved by all, with the exception of the Mayas and Indostanos, with conventional symbols for the sets of 10, 20, 100, 1000, etc. At that moment, the advantage that every numeral had an operative or intrinsical value was lost.
Another example of numerical writing that started using the principle of accumulation and modified to represent quantities graphically is the Chinese numeration, and adopted by the Japanese in its modern style before the introduction of arabic numerals to that country.
www.fortunecity.com /tattooine/replicant/29/chapter1.htm   (1374 words)

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