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Topic: Medieval weights and measures

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In the News (Tue 22 May 18)

  Weights and Measures - LoveToKnow 1911
This latter is represented by the weight of a column of mercury 760 mm.
By the sextarius of Dresden (2) the amphora is 1695; by the congius of Ste Genevieve (2) 1700 cub.
For common weights and measures this margin (tolerance, remedy or allowance, as it is also called) has been set out by the Board of Trade for all the various kinds of weights and measures in use for commercial purposes in the United Kingdom, and similar margins of error are recognized in other countries.
www.1911encyclopedia.org /Weights_And_Measures   (15527 words)

 Weights and measures Summary
Conner, R. The Weights and Measures of England.
Weights and measures is a term used by legal authorities in English speaking countries such as the United Kingdom for a function related to units of measurement in trade.
Metrology is the science for developing national and internationally accepted units of weights and measures.
www.bookrags.com /Weights_and_measures   (1659 words)

A mile is a unit of length, usually used to measure distance, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, United States customary units and Norwegian/Swedish mil.
The processes of metrication have seen the mile lose favour as a unit of measurement in most countries of the world.
It is also used commonly for measuring vehicle fuel consumption; litre per mil means litres consumed per 10 kilmetres [1].
www.oobdoo.com /wikipedia/?title=Mile   (1081 words)

 Weights, Measures and Money
This is not true of measurement in the medieval era, where even the quantities and the relationships between them could be somewhat variable.
A mile was, if nothing else, very difficult to measure with medieval technology, but this was complicated by the fact that in some areas, notably the north, they used a long mile, which was longer.
It seems that the underlying bases for such measurements were related to the value and ease of working of the land rather than a precise measurement of size, so that the units vary considerably.
medievalwriting.50megs.com /whyread/weight.htm   (918 words)

 Medieval Economic Thought | Book Reviews | EH.Net
The objective of Medieval Economic Thought, a recent contribution to the Cambridge Medieval Textbook series by Diana Wood of the University of East Anglia, is to introduce students and general readers to the key concepts of medieval economics and to suggest how they related to wider developments in economy and society.
Medieval society was one of gross material inequalities, and most writers considered avarice an impediment to salvation, although they also maintained that the moral risks associated with wealth could be obviated by liberality.
Medieval reflection on economic issues was prompted by the "commercial revolution," the extraordinary growth of trade and markets and the associated monetization of the economy evident from about 1100.
eh.net /bookreviews/library/0671   (1200 words)

 Weight - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In the physical sciences, weight is a measurement of the gravitational force acting on an object.
In modern scientific usage, weight and mass are fundamentally different quantities: mass is an intrinsic property of matter, whereas weight is a force that results from the action of gravity on matter.
Since weight is a force, the SI unit of weight is the simply unit of force, namely the newton (N) – which can also be expressed in SI base units as kg·m/s² (kilograms times metres per second squared).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Weight   (1437 words)

 Britain.tv Wikipedia - Ton
The freight ton or measurement ton is a unit of volume used for describing ship capacities (tonnage) or cargo.
Measurements in tons of TNT have been used primarily to express nuclear weapon yields, though they have also been used since in seismology as well.
Conversely in some cases the weight refers to the maximum gross road weight including cargo, for example a British 3.5-tonne van is the largest vehicle that can be legally driven on an ordinary driver's license.
www.britain.tv /wikipedia.php?title=Ton   (1519 words)

 Weights, Measures and Money (and sundry associated matters)
Weights, measures and money are the foundation of commerce and also of taxation.
This standard measure of weight was in use throughout the lower Gulf from Bahrain to the UAE.
Volume measures are not recorded as well as weight measures and seem to have been more variable.
enhg.4t.com /iddison/weights.htm   (1866 words)

Under most circumstances, this ambiguity is not a problem, because the weight of an object is directly proportional to its mass, and the constant of proportionality -- the strength of the gravitational field -- is approximately constant everywhere on the surface of the Earth (around 9.8 m/s²;).
Mass is measured using a balance which compares an item in question to matter of known mass; this method is independent of gravity.
The weight force that we sense is actually the normal force exerted by the surface we stand on, which prevents us from being pulled to the center of the Earth, and not the weight itself.
www.mrsci.com /Physiology/Weight.php   (1129 words)

 Weights and Measures
U.S. Many of these measures are based on those developed in medieval England, when a yard was a measure of King Edward I's waist, a rod was an actual 10-foot pole and a furlong was the width of 32 plowed rows.
One cord is a stack of wood that measures 8 feet by 8 feet by 2 feet, or 128 cubic feet.
A face cord (or short cord) is a stack of logs measuring 8 feet by 4 feet by whatever the length of the logs happens to be.
www.nalcorp.com /glossary/weights.html   (2951 words)

 Scottish Archive Network - Scottish Weights and Measures Guide (Background)
Troy weight (the origin of the word troy is obscure but may come from the French town of Troyes) is used by silversmiths to measure gold, silver and gemstones, and was used by apothecaries to measure small amounts of chemicals.
Locally weights and measures were regulated mainly by burghs, where the public weighing machine, the tron (from the old French tronel or troneau, meaning 'balance'), was one of the key places of the burgh.
Scottish weights and measures gradually disappeared only after the Imperial Weights and Measures Act 1824 (local variations were still in use in some areas in the 1840s).
www.scan.org.uk /measures/background.asp   (532 words)

 Trading Standards - Weights and Measures of the City of Winchester
Throughout the ages continuous efforts were made to ensure that measures and weights agreed with the national standards and clauses were included in the Magna Carta of 1215 to that effect.
This was originally based on the weight of the silver penny and consisted of 20 pennyweights to the troy ounce, which was nearly 10% larger than the avoirdupois ounce, although there were only 12 ounces to the troy pound as against 16 in the avoirdupois pound.
The set of 'cup' or 'nesting' weights in the troy series of 256 troy ounces in binary progression down to 1 ounce and the bell shaped weights (56 Ib and 7 Ib) plus the 3 of flat-round shape (8 lb, 2 lb and 1 lb) in the avoirdupois series are from this issue.
www.hants.gov.uk /regulatory/tradingstandards/wmhistory.html   (1535 words)

 Ton - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
As a displacement ton the long ton is normally measured as the mass of 35 cubic feet of sea water.
Measurements in tons of TNT have been used primarily to express nuclear weapon yields, though have also been used since in seismology as well.
Conversely in some cases the weight refers to the maximum gross road weight including cargo, for example a British 3.5-tonne van is the largest vehicle that can be legally driven on an ordinary driver's license.
www.tvwiki.tv /wiki/Ton   (1248 words)

 Weights and Measures
A unit of distance measurement used in nautical and aeronautical navigation equal to the average distance on the earth's surface of one (1) minute of latitude.
A traditional Chinese unit of weight or mass measurement that was equal to 1/16 catty (0.5 pound), the same as a tael.
A unit of power measurement (the amount of work an appliance is capable of) equal to the power used by a current of one ampere across a potential difference of one volt.
www.worldtraderef.com /wtr_nl/WTR_site/weights.asp   (4395 words)

 Informat.io on Mile   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
A mile is the name of a unit of length, usually used to measure distance, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units.
Prior to Roman occupation the English unit of measure was based on a furlong.
A "furlong" was an agricultural unit of measurement, based upon the distance a horse could pull a plough before it needed a rest.
www.informat.io /?title=Mile   (1138 words)

 Epiphanius of Salamis, Weights and Measures (1935) pp.v-xii, 1-9. Foreword and introduction.
This manuscript was the basis for Weights and Measures in the edition of Epiphanius published by Dionysius Petau, or Petavius, in 1622.
The curtailed portion of the Greek dealing with the weights and measures per se may be from the summary of that part.
This is a mere catalogue of measures and is unmistakably interpolated in the midst of the discussion of the kor in both the Greek and the Syriac.
www.tertullian.org /fathers/epiphanius_weights_02_intro.htm   (5143 words)

 Medieval English urban history - Glossary
Medieval Sourcebook: Judicium Pillorie (The Judgment of the Pillory)
What was important about the latter to boroughs, at the time when they were securing their first grants of self-government, was that the holders of burgage tenements owed suit to the borough court and were (at first) an important source of revenue that was put towards payment of the fee farm.
Within the narrower focus of the medieval English mind, a foreigner was someone who was not strictly a member of the local community although was likely to be from some other community in England – often a neighbouring one; an alien was someone from another country.
www.trytel.com /~tristan/towns/glossary.html   (8708 words)

 Measurement in the Middle Ages
After the collapse of the Empire, the definitions of the measurements began to wander a bit until by the 18th C, they were completely different in different countrys and often different in separate regions of the same country.
A measure of weight and mass derived from the ancient Roman libra (which is equal to 327.25 grams), but this ancient standard has been modified variously over the course of time, and in different countries.
A denomination of weight formerly employed (chiefly for gold and silver) throughout western Europe; its actual weight varied considerably, but it was usually regarded as equivalent to 8 ounces (= either 23 or 12 of a pound, according to the meaning given to the latter term).
www.personal.utulsa.edu /~marc-carlson/history/measure.html   (1671 words)

 Units: A
The activity, or potency, of vitamin E in a food or food supplement is measured by the quantity (in milligrams) of alpha tocopherol (the most active of the forms of the vitamin) which would be equivalent to the compounds present in the food or supplement.
Because it's easier to measure the ratio between two X-ray wavelengths than it is to measure the wavelengths themselves, the wavelengths are usually stated as multiples of a standard wavelength.
The measure may have originated as the number of beads that could comfortably be strung on one inch of cord; with present sizes a string of n beads of size n/0 occupies about 0.8 inch (20 mm).
www.unc.edu /~rowlett/units/dictA.html   (5441 words)

 Weights of Coins   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
The value of medieval coins was their weight in precious metal.
Medieval weights and measures are a real mess, as there were many different standards.
To illustrate the potential problem, the weight of an early 14th C. penny was officially 32 grains of wheat, (dry, in the midst of the ear), which was equal to 22 1/2 grains of barley.
www.pomian.demon.co.uk /weights.htm   (461 words)

 The Ultimate Foot (unit of length) Dog Breeds Information Guide and Reference
The first known standard foot measure was from Sumeria, where a definition is given in a statue of Gudea of Lagash from around 2575 BC.
The imperial foot was adapted from an Egyptian measure by the Greeks, with a subsequent larger foot being adopted by the Romans.
The original measurement was from King Henry I, who had a foot 12 inches long; he wished to standardise the unit of measurement in England.
www.dogluvers.com /dog_breeds/Ft   (374 words)

 Mile | Koordinaten / Informationen / Encyclopedia of terms - Mile
The processes of metrication have seen the mile lose favour as a unit of measurement in most countries of the world.
The Scottish mile was equal to 1976.5 yards (1807.3116 metre).
'Of Divers Measures', in Laurence Echard, 1741, The Gazetteer's or Newsman's Interpreter, London: Ballard et al.
www.koordinaten.de /english/encyclopedia/mile.shtml   (662 words)

 English weights and measures: Legal matters
A lot of the Imperial/Customary measures trace their origins back to Roman times (which explains the similarity of most pre-metric European measures), and no doubt laws were enacted in those times relating to weights and measures.
Weights and Measures acts per se were passed in 1824, 1834, 1835, 1861, 1878, 1889, 1892, 1893 and 1904.
A recent court case has agreed with Brussels, and decided that the weights and measures act 1985, which allows trading in Imperial units is overruled by the 1972 European Communities act - an act which in effect says that whatever Brussels wants Brussels gets.
home.clara.net /brianp/law.html   (666 words)

 Introduction - Weights and Measures - Skills Resources - Manuscripts & Special Collections- The University of Nottingham
A few old measurements are still in current use in the UK, such as pints and miles, but most people will now need to consult reference works in order to understand the measurements used in the past.
Standardisation of weights and measures in England and Wales was a long and complicated process.
The measurements referred to here are predominantly those used from the late sixteenth and early 17th centuries onwards, and those in force after the Weights and Measures Act of 1824.
www.nottingham.ac.uk /mss/online/skills/measures/index.phtml   (513 words)

 Cariadoc's Miscellany: Shield and Weapon Weights
Since the weight of a basket hilt or counterweight counts towards satisfying the requirement, fighters can and do make swords which have light blades and heavy hilts; such swords handle quite differently from real medieval swords, which are typically blade heavy.
Lowering the weight requirement is only a partial solution; as long as the restriction is defined in terms of the total weight of the sword it encourges swords with unrealistic balance.
In the case of a sword with a basket hilt or with both a cross and a pommel weight this point would be at about the center of the handle-see figure 1.
www.pbm.com /~lindahl/cariadoc/shield_and_weapon_weights.html   (1708 words)

 Mile Summary
In accepting Snell's measurement of the circumference of Earth, Gunter defined his "nautical mile"; to be equal to 6,080 feet, the length of one minute of arc at 48°.
The term knot comes from the original method of measuring speed at sea, which was to throw a shaped log overboard attached to a rope with equally spaced knots.
The log was weighted so that the shaped face gave the maximum resistance to towing, and was practically stationary in the sea.
www.bookrags.com /Mile   (2159 words)

 The Ultimate Mile - American History Information Guide and Reference
When the international mile became legal in mid-1959, the survey mile was retained for measurements derived from U.S. cadastral surveys.
In Denmark and most of Germany the mile in the 19th century was an approximately 7.5 km geographical mile (determined by 4 minutes of arc) specified by Ole Rømer.
In Ireland the Irish mile of 2240 yards (about 2048.3 meters) was used legally until 1826, and by some reports survived until the conversion to the meter as the unit measurement for distance, in early January 2005.
www.historymania.com /american_history/Mile   (601 words)

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