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Topic: Memory management

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  The Memory Management Reference
This is a resource for programmers and computer scientists interested in memory management and garbage collection.
Articles giving a beginner's overview of memory management and explaining specific areas of it.
Ravenbrook are happy to provide advanced memory management solutions to language and application developers through our consulting service.
www.memorymanagement.org   (101 words)

  Memory management - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Virtual memory systems increase the effectively available amount of RAM using disk swapping.
This is generally implemented at the programming language level and is in opposition to manual memory management, the explicit allocation and deallocation of computer memory resources.
In addition to standard memory management, DOS led to the development of programs known as memory managers.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Memory_management   (221 words)

 Memory management unit - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Among the functions of such devices are the translation of virtual addresses to physical addresses (i.e., virtual memory management), memory protection, cache control, bus arbitration, and, in simpler computer architectures (especially 8-bit systems), bank switching.
After blocks of memory have been allocated and freed, the free memory may become fragmented (discontinuous) so that the largest contiguous block of free memory may be much smaller than the total amount.
In early designs memory management was performed by a separate integrated circuit such as the MC 68851 used with the Motorola 68020 CPU in the Macintosh II or the Z8015 used with the Zilog Z80 family of processors.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Memory_management_unit   (1925 words)

 Virtual Memory Management
This method leaves the responsibility of memory management entirely to the programmer; if a program requires more memory than is available, the program must be broken up into separate, independent sections and one ``overlaid'' on top of another when that particular section is to be executed.
In a computer system which supports virtual memory management, the computer appears to the programmer to have its address space limited only by the addressing range of the computer, not by the amount of memory which is physically connected to the computer as main memory.
A physical memory of about 16-64 M bytes is typical for these machines, so the virtual address translation must map the 32 bits of the virtual memory address into a corresponding area of physical memory.
www.cs.mun.ca /~paul/cs3725/material/web/notes/node11.html   (844 words)

 CS 537 - Memory Management   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
Memory allocators are used in a variety of situations.
When the block is deallocated, the memory manager adds the size of the block (which is stored in its header) to the address of the beginning of the block to find the address of the first word following the block.
For example, the memory manager may round all requests up to the next power of two bytes (with a minimum of, say, 64) and then keep lists of holes of size 64, 128, 256,..., etc. Assuming the largest request possible is 1 megabyte, this requires only 14 lists.
www.cs.wisc.edu /~solomon/cs537/memory.html   (2988 words)

 Memory Management in C++
A memory management library written in C++ can be an organizational tool in its own right.
It means that it is impossible to integrate different memory management architectures.
A memory manager project is an opportunity to apply principles of good design: Separate the common case from special cases, and make the common case fast and cheap, and other cases tolerable; make the user of a feature bear the cost of its use; use hints; reuse good ideas.
www.cantrip.org /wave12.html   (4197 words)

 Explore the Linux memory model
Memory management is simpler when all processes use the same segment register values (when they share same set of linear addresses).
Memory management is a large, complex, and time-consuming set of tasks, one that is difficult to achieve because crafting a model how systems behave in real-world, multi-programmed environments is a tough job.
Kernel comparison: Improved memory management in the 2.6 kernel (developerWorks, March 2004) details new techniques to improve the use of large amounts of memory, reverse mapping, storage of page-table entries in high memory, and the greater stability of the memory manager.
ibm.com /developerworks/linux/library/l-memmod/?ca=dgr-lnxw3aMemModel   (4296 words)

 O'Reilly Network -- Memory Management in Cocoa
If, on the other hand, you are coming from a C background, you'll find that Cocoa's memory management is a big step up from the simple malloc/free tools that you've been using.
Memory management is an important subject in programming.
One of the primary places where you will need to be aware of memory management is in the accessor methods of your classes.
www.oreillynet.com /pub/a/mac/excerpt/Cocoa_ch04/index.html   (1421 words)

 D Programming Language - Memory Management
Memory management techniques become more and more important as programs increase in complexity, size, and performance.
No initialization of the memory is necessary, as code is automatically inserted after the call to new() to set the class instance members to their defaults and then the constructor (if any) is run.
If memory is allocated using class specific allocators and deallocators, careful coding practices must be followed to avoid memory leaks and dangling references.
www.digitalmars.com /d/memory.html   (1801 words)

 3.5 Memory management   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
All the memory management algorithms described in this chapter, except for the virtual memory management, have the basic requirement: the entire logical address space of a process must completely be in physical memory space before the process can execute.
Because the operating system is managing the memory, it must be sure about the nature of physical memory, for example: which frames are available, which are allocated; how many total frames there are, and so on.
Otherwise, a memory reference to the page table must be performed and the obtained frame number is used to access memory.
www.netnam.vn /unescocourse/os/35.htm   (4720 words)

 Emotional Memory Management   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
A psychologist does not need to inform individuals about memory, we all know what memory is. Memory allows us to recognize faces of old classmates, remember old songs, remember good times and bad times, and remember important information about events/experiences in our life.
Memory files thus contain two parts, the information about the event and the feeling we had at the time of the event.
Memories that are not important are usually "dumped" or erased after the five day waiting period.
www.burnsurvivorsttw.org /memory.html   (1119 words)

 ONLamp.com -- Modern Memory Management
Despite this enormous increase in memory capacity, many of the problems that exist on today's machines are the same as those of their early predecessors--namely, running out of memory.
Memory management is an important concept to grasp regardless of which programming language you use.
The contents of the memory generally remain intact, although with C programs compiled in debug mode, for example, you can have memory zeroed automatically after freeing to aid in debugging.
www.onlamp.com /pub/a/onlamp/2005/10/27/memory-management.html   (1126 words)

 UNIX Memory Management
The memory manager considers pages to be the atomic (indivisible) unit of memory.
Since moving data to and from disks takes a significant amount of time, the goal of the memory manager is to minimize the number of page faults.
If no programs were sharing memory or mapping files, you could just add up their resident sets to get the amount of real memory in use and their virtual memories to get the amount of swap space in use.
dataexpedition.com /~sbnoble/Tips/memory.html   (2186 words)

 Memory Management
Sometimes this amount of memory is equal to the physical number of bytes of RAM in the computer.
Although virtual memory allows you in principle to use large amounts of memory space, it is usually hundreds or even thousands of times slower to access than physical memory.
On most computer systems, the memory used by a running program is divided into two parts: memory explicitly allocated by the program, and "stack space".
documents.wolfram.com /v4/MainBook/2.13.4.html   (688 words)

 Memory Management   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
This chapter is a journey through the various Intel microprocessors and the memory management changes each one brought along with it in the operating system that used it.
Considering that a large number of the readers would be interested in a similar discussion that focuses on Intel processors, we discuss the topic in the context of the Intel 80386 processor (whose memory management architecture is mimicked by the later 80486 and Pentium series).
If you are already conversant with the memory management features of the 80386 processor, you may skip this section entirely.
www.windowsitlibrary.com /Content/356/04/1.html   (2558 words)

 [No title]
Memory mapping is used to map image and data files into a processes address space.
The whole buffer management scheme is supported by this mechanism and so far as the code is concerned, the size of the page and physical paging mechanisms used by the processor are irrelevant.
For example, one of the virtual memory operations performs the correct actions when the process has attempted to access this virtual memory but finds (via a page fault) that the memory is not actually in physical memory.
www.tldp.org /LDP/tlk/mm/memory.html   (8338 words)

 Python Memory Management
One benefit is that it automatically manages memory, as any high level language worth the name should.
This computation needs very little memory, but for some reason, my program was not releasing any memory, which slowed down the whole system.
In Python or Java, a memory leak is created when you accidentally leave a reference to some massive data structure hanging around, so the entire thing cannot be freed.
evanjones.ca /python-memory.html   (770 words)

 Mathtools.net : C,C++/Memory management
The debug memory allocation or dmalloc library has been designed as a drop-in replacement for the system's malloc, realloc, calloc, free and other memory management routines while providing powerful debugging facilities configurable at runtime.
Memory management is only one component of a system's dynamic performance, however, it can quickly become the dominant one.
Rather than using malloc and free to obtain and reclaim memory, it is possible to link in a garbage collector and allow it to reclaim unused memory automatically.
www.mathtools.net /C_C__/Memory_management/index.html   (1400 words)

 Memory Management Schemes
Unify is a library and run-time package that provides a distributed shared memory abstraction for multiple processes.
Managing memory "by hand" tends to be tedious and error-prone.
Memory management tends to be strongly tied to
cbbrowne.com /info/memorymgmt.html   (322 words)

 MacDevCenter.com -- Memory Management in Objective-C
Today we are going to learn about a seemingly intimidating programming topic: memory management in Objective-C. Memory management allows you to make sure that precious memory space isn't taken up by objects that no longer have a purpose in your application, and that objects that are still needed continue to exist.
This waste of memory is called a memory leak, and if you have too many memory leaks in a large application, your application will go from running at a clip to becoming a sluggish mess.
Objective-C uses another form of memory management known as "reference counting." In this system, each object is associated with a count of how many other objects are currently using it, but the reference counts of objects in an application must be actively managed by the developer.
www.macdevcenter.com /pub/a/mac/2001/07/27/cocoa.html?page=1   (603 words)

 Technorati Tag: memory management   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
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www.technorati.com /tag/memory+management   (466 words)

 The Memory Management Reference: Articles: Memory management in various languages
Each language and its memory management facilities are characterized briefly, with links to additional reference material, such as the glossary, the bibliography, and useful web sites.
String management resembles BASIC: there's no way to manually deallocate strings created by string concatenation and string methods (one hopes they are garbage-collected, but some browsers have been known to leak them instead).
Modula-3 is mostly garbage-collected, although it is possible to use manual memory management in certain modules.
www.memorymanagement.org /articles/lang.html   (2623 words)

 Memory Management
Virtual memory is a sleight-of-hardware that makes a computer appear to have more physical memory than it does.
These tables also manage critical bookkeeping functions such as determining whether a page is associated with a physical memory page and, if so, when it was last accessed.
The MMU typically uses demand paging to implement virtual memory; that is, it only swings into action when an application demands a resource (perhaps a function call to a shared library, or a spreadsheet reading in more numbers) that isn't in physical memory.
www.computerworld.com /printthis/2001/0,4814,60855,00.html   (802 words)

 Memory Management
It is sometimes useful to not use the default memory allocator, either for debugging, analysis or to implement a specific behaviour on memory management (like on embedded systems).
I used to use a commercial tool to debug libxml2 memory problems but after noticing that it was not detecting memory leaks that simple mechanism was used and proved extremely efficient until now.
If you need to work with fixed memory requirements or don't need the full DOM tree then using the xmlReader interface is probably the best way to proceed, it still allows to validate or operate on subset of the tree if needed.
www.xmlsoft.org /xmlmem.html   (817 words)

 Ravenbrook Memory Management Services
Among our services, we offer software and consultancy to resolve memory management problems in compilers, language runtimes, virtual machines, embedded systems, and other applications.
Memory management analysis and advice from a team of experts.
Ravenbrook also provides the Memory Management Reference as a resource for memory management engineers and researchers.
www.ravenbrook.com /services/mm   (187 words)

 An Overview of Memory Management
Memory and the PC In the early days of personal computers, most machines could access only 64 KB of memory.
Not only is the 8088 CPU limited to addressing one megabyte of memory, but the design of the original PC reserved some of those addresses, making them unavailable.
Extended memory is only available for computers based on the 286 and later chips.
www.qualitas.com /product/max/history.htm   (1215 words)

 Mac OS memory management in TutorGig Encyclopedia
Palm OS uses a similar scheme for memory management.
While the Mac OS memory model, with all its inherent problems, remained this way right through to Mac OS 9, due to severe application compatibility constraints, the increasing availability of cheap RAM meant that by and large most users could upgrade their way out of a corner.
A subset of the older memory model APIs still exist for compatibility as part of Carbon, but map to the modern memory manager (a threadsafe malloc implementation) underneath.
www.tutorgig.com /ed/Mac_OS_memory_management   (1666 words)

 The Fishbowl: Memory Management
The virtual machine carves out a gigantic chunk of memory and manages it all itself, because the virtual machine’s requirements for memory management are completely at odds with the assumptions of the OS.
Which is why you have to fiddle around annoyingly with every Java application’s memory allocation like it’s some kind of 1990’s-era Mac app; and why crippling the operating system’s memory manager can sometimes make your Java appserver run faster.
The idea of the ephemeral garbage collector, generalized to manage "generations" of garbage was designed to both minimize the cost of garbage collection and to improve the locality of Lisp programs.
fishbowl.pastiche.org /2005/03/18/memory_management   (546 words)

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