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Topic: Mesoamerican calendars

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 Mesoamerican calendars -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
Commonly elaborate rituals would be held at the end of each calendar round, with all fires extinguished, old (Metal or earthenware cooking vessel that is usually round and deep; often has a handle and lid) pots broken, and a new fire kindled symbolizing a fresh start.
This 52 year cycle was by far the most important for most Mesoamericans, with the apparent exception of the Maya elite until the end of the (additional info and facts about Classic Era) Classic Era, who gave equal importance to the Maya Long Count Calendar.
Other calendar cycles were also kept track of, such as a (additional info and facts about lunar) lunar calendar, as well as the cycles of other (additional info and facts about astronomical) astronomical objects, most importanly (Type genus of the family Veneridae: genus of edible clams with thick oval shells) Venus.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/M/Me/Mesoamerican_calendars.htm   (353 words)

 Mesoamerica - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography
Mesoamerican is the adjective generally used to refer to that group of Pre-Columbian cultures.
Mesoamerica is also a canonical example of a Linguistic area: all of the major Mesoamerican languages show some subset of a pool of common traits.
Mesoamerican civilizations included the Olmec, Zapotec, Teotihuacan, Maya, Mixtec, Huastec, Totonac, Toltec, Tarascan, and the Aztec.
www.arikah.net /encyclopedia/Mesoamerica   (255 words)

 Aztec calendar - InfoSearchPoint.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
The Aztec calendar is perhaps the best known Mesoamerican calendar today due to the famous Aztec monument in Mexico, the Piedra del Sol which means the Stone of the Sun.
In other words, the Mexican calendar is twofold, and comprises a ritual calendar, with a round of 260 days, which was employed in divination and in fixing "movable feasts"; and a solar year, with a round of 365 days, according to which the seasonal feasts were held (Muser, 1978:17 and Joyce, 1970:59).
This calendar was essentially the basis for all other calendrical computations, such as the Mayan, the Zapotec, the Mixtec, the Totonac, the Huaxtec, the Teotihuacán, the Toltec and the Aztec.
www.infosearchpoint.com /display/Aztec_calendar   (4812 words)

 Mesoamerican calendars   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
While the Julian calendar came to the region when it was conquredby Spain in the 16th century, andthe Gregorian calendar is now in general use, in a fewcommunities some Native Americans of the area still use the ancientcount of days as well.
This 52 year cycle was by far the most important for most Mesoamericans, with the apparent exception of the elite Maya eliteuntil the end of the Classic Era, who gave equalimportance to the Maya Long Count Calendar.
Other calendar cycles were also kept track of, such as a lunar calendar, as well as thecycles of other astronomical objects, most importanly Venus.
www.therfcc.org /mesoamerican-calendars-83859.html   (272 words)

 Mesoamerican Archaeoastronomy by James Q. Jacobs
The calendar round period endings together with names in the tzolkin and the calendar year produces a unique date within a span of 360 calendar rounds, a period of over 18,707 years.
The calendar dates of events in the lives of rulers are related to similar events of the far distant past or to anniversaries of these events in the distant future.
Calendar dates in the Era (360 x 5200 or 260 x 7200) are found in the obverse of the Vienna Codex, where a span of 4800 years of (12 Tzontli) from 5 Flint 3108 BC to 8 Flint 1692 AD is expressed (Brotherson 1982).
www.jqjacobs.net /mesoamerica/meso_astro.html   (4630 words)

 Prehispanic Calendars
The correlation with the Gregorian calendar is due to Alfonso Caso.
Finally, many other Mesoamerican cultures, notably the Olmecs who are credited with the invention of the Mesoamerican calendar, had adopted similar calendars as the Mayas and the Aztecs.
Their calendar then presents 4 subdivisions of that period of 65 days (Cocijo) with smaller subdivisions of 13 days (Cocij) named according to the name of the first day.
www.public.iastate.edu /~rjsalvad/scmfaq/calendar.html   (442 words)

 A Mesoamerican Astrology Annotated Bibliography and Book Review
This is the "dungeons and dragons" of Mesoamerican calendars, astrology, and divination.
Jenkins explains the Mayan calendar end-date of December 21, 2012, as the culmination of a 5,000-year cycle of human evolution, and he presents a well-researched and convincing argument that the Maya anchored their great calendar system to the precessional alignment of the winter solstice sun with the center of the Milky Way Galaxy.
He further demonstrates that the Middle American calendar was used for predicting solar astronomy (eclipses) for over 2,500 years, and that the Mesoamericans of the 5th century B.C. calculated the tropical year as accurately as we do today.
www.onereed.com /articles/mesolist.html   (5110 words)

 Mesoamerica - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This refers to an environmental area occupied by an assortment of ancient cultures that shared religious beliefs, art, architecture, and technology that made them exceptional in the Americas for three thousand years.
Mesoamerica is also a canonical example of a Linguistic area: all of the major Mesoamerican languages show some subset of a pool of common traits, despite being made up of many different language families.
Mesoamerican metacivilizations included the Olmec, Zapotec, Teotihuacan, Maya, Mixtec, Huastec, Totonac, Toltec, Tarascan, and the Aztec.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Mesoamerica   (333 words)

 Aztec Calendar: Expert mode preferences
Although most mesoamerican calendars use the same day count, they vary in the date of the New Year.
Mesoamerican calendars vary in their method for naming the year.
Most calendars, as the Aztec calendar, name the year after the last day of the last month (meztli) of the year.
www.azteccalendar.com /prefexpert.html   (230 words)

 Calendars   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
The system used by the ancient Mexicans for measuring time is characterized by the interrelation of their calendars, which have the number thirteen as a common factor.
The 20-day calendar was called Tonalpohualli by the Aztecs and Tzolkin by the Maya, and it correlates the synodic -rs- revolutions of the Moon and some of the planets.
In this way, the 260-day calendar, made up by multiplying thirteen by twenty, combined with the 52 and 104 year counts, the Xiuhmolpilli and the Huehuetiliztli respectively, interconnects the Sun, Mercury, Venus, the Moon and Mars in perfect harmony.
www.tonalpohualli.com.mx /cal2e.html   (392 words)

 Mesoamerican Calendars   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
These calendars had enormous importance in daily life, in ceremonies and festivals, in the agriculture, and in the complexity of their religious thought and cosmovision.
The Mayan Calendar Round is composed of the Tzolkin and the Haab.
The Aztec (also known as Mexica or Nahua) calendar is derived from the Maya but excludes the long count and adds a year name which is also formed with a numeral (1-13) and 1 of 4 signs in a cycle of 52 years (Xiuhmolpilli).
www.geocities.com /a1ma_mia/calendar/mesocal.html   (829 words)

 [No title]
In addition to the calendars already mentioned, the ancient Maya also had an astronomical calendar that was based on the phases of Venus.
In addition to the calendars mentioned above, there were also systems for counting forward to or backwards from significant events, the so-called Supplementary Series, such as the birth, death or enthronement of a significant personage, similar to the reckonings in the Bible: “Jehoshaphat....
Starting from the observation that the calendar inscriptions contain two series—the "wheel" cycle with tzolkin and haab as their basis, and the kin cycle with the tun, katun, baktun, etc., sequence, Lunardi states that the coincidence of the series could only be attained by an automatic, built-in correction system.
the-light.com /cal/themesocal.doc   (5939 words)

 Patterns of Time Cycles and Orbits: Ancient Mesoamerican Calendars
The explanations of the ancient Mesoamerican calendars (260c; 360c; 365c) are also illustrated by a series of turning wheels acting as gears.
The oldest calendar of ancient Mesoamerica is said to be that of the 260 day-count (260c).
From the pattern given by the 260c calendar within the 360c calendar matrix and the 365c, we can see how the possibility exists that the 260c was chosen as of its relationship to the pattern fixed on these other calendars.
www.earthmatrix.com /calendar/mesoamerican.htm   (2194 words)

 Sun Calendars of Aztec, Inca, and Maya Civilizations
Mesoamerican calendars achieved longer time projections by using consecutive spans of the 400-year l/s cycle.
Patterns of the ancient Egyptian Calendar emphasize 365-days of the solar year were identified with a 365-year-solar cycle.
Although an exact equality between the Sun Kingdoms' Calendars of Mesoamerica and the 19-year l/s calendars cannot be determined, the probabilities of distant ties are extremely high and require analysis.
timeemits.com /skc/skcal.htm   (3370 words)

The Model calendar measures time based on the solar or tropic year, the Academic Hypothesis measures time based on a “historic count” of basic periods of 520 years, and the Mexican Venusian calendar that counts synodic cycles of Venus in periods of 104 years.
The Mexican Venusian calendar uses the Count of Destiny consecutevly without the interruption of the nemontemi that is used in the Mexican Solar calendar.
The term Mesoamerican calendar, refers the calendars in Mesoamerica that are based on the mechanism of 360 days in 18 months of 20 days each, that is based on a repeating count of 260 days.
homepage.mac.com /villas1/Calendar   (11908 words)

 Amazon.com: Mesoamerican Writing Systems: Propaganda, Myth, and History in Four Ancient Civilizations: Books   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
Marcus's volume is the most comprehensive book on the market in the field of Mesoamerican epigraphy, the study of ancient writing systems among four high cultures that arose in what was later to become Mexico and Guatemala: the Aztec, Zapotec, Mixtec, and Maya.
Thus she is more than capable of pushing the field of Mesoamerican epigraphy forward, and the present volume demonstrates adequately that she has done so.
In short, she views Mesoamerican writing systems as part propaganda, part myth, and part history; thus, as she states, it was both a tool and a by-product of competition for prestige and leadership positions.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0691094748?v=glance   (918 words)

 Some Topics bearing the Mesoamerican Calendars
More precisely, the Mesoamerican civilizations calculated the great year in 13,000 years, one-half of the precessional period (26,000 years), thereby more closely approximating the actual duration of that cycle, which is 25,920 years.
It was the storage of maize that made it possible to create ever more complex structures, culminating in the high Precolumbian civilizations—although this process of the storing of grain that made foodstuffs available without the anxieties of the harvest, and instituted an orderly control of resources, is common to all of the great civilizations.
This assumes a very particular importance in light of the fact that the number thirteen, like fifty-two (and of course four: 52 = 13 x 4) are key numbers in the native cosmogonic conception, as manifested in the Mesoamerican calendars.
www.geocities.com /indoamerica/sacred19.htm   (4876 words)

 Myths of Mesoamerican Cultures Reflect a Knowledge and Practice of Astronomy
For example, the priests used their knowledge of astronomical events to "predict" that a lunar or solar eclipse would occur upon the ascension of king so-and-so to the throne and that this would be proof of his legitimacy as ruler.
First thing to notice about most of these calendars is the partition of them into four quadrants depicting the four regions of the world, or the cardinal directions of east, north, west and south.
The ancient Mesoamericans were aware of these motions, and some of their stories of cosmogony seem to hinge on them.
www.unm.edu /~abqteach/ArcheoCUs/99-01-08.htm   (7712 words)

 Ages of Adam Prologue
Ages of Adam develops calendar tools from the ancient lunar/solar calendars.
The Holy of Holies sequel to Ages of Adam continues the Antediluvian calendar sequence.
Calendars are a novel way to teach religious history.
timeemits.com /Prologue.htm   (724 words)

 Mayan Links
PC software for Maya Calendar conversion which allows a variety of different kinds of conversion, and accommodates user settings for the correlation number, the yearbearer system and the haab month base number.
Mesoamerican Calendars Another great site, with an introduction by Jenkins, loads on the correlation issue, with replies from Arguelles over his Dreamspell count, which misses a day every leap year, unlike the Tzolkin count still used in Guatemala, which is unbroken.
Mesoamerican Archaeoastronomy A comprehensive essay on the calendarical achievements of the Maya, including some of Gordon Brotherston's work.
www.guatemalaweb.com /mayalinks.htm   (308 words)

 Mesoamerican Writing Systems: Propaganda, Myth, and History in Four Ancient Civilizations   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
This is an anthropological study of the role of hieroglyphic writing in the prehispanic Aztec, Mixtec, Zapotec, and Maya states.
Her basic contention is that ancient Mesoamerican writing was a tool used by an elite minority in their competition for positions of leadership, prestige, territory, tribute, and advantageous marriages.
Marcus convincingly demonstrates that while it may have been based on actual persons and events, this body of prehistoric writing is a deliberately created tangle of what we could call propaganda, myth, and fact, written for political purposes, and not (as many contemporary scholars have come to believe) reliable "history" in a modern sense.
www.textkit.com /0_0691094748.html   (234 words)

 Strange Horizons Articles: Mesoamerican Calendars, by Marie Brennan
What all of these calendars have in common is a structure consisting of twenty day names and thirteen day numbers, fitting together in an interlocking cycle that lasts for 260 days (the lowest common multiple of twenty and thirteen).
In addition, it is important to realize, in the light of what we know about the essence of Mesoamerican spiritual thought, that the ages existed in a complex pattern of juxtaposition to each other, an essentially quadripartite pattern in which the Fifth Sun served as the center or hub of the cosmos.
A different calendar, therefore, can be far more than just window dressing on a story; it can totally reorganize some of the basic principles of the setting.
www.strangehorizons.com /2004/20040830/calendar-a.shtml   (3718 words)

 Comments on Nephite Chronology - FARMS JBMS
I pointed out that the statement in the Book of Mormon about "600 years" intervening between the departure of Lehi from Jerusalem and the signs of the birth of Jesus Christ reported in 3 Nephi could not be reconciled with the secular calendar.
Any resolution of the discrepancy required recognition that the Nephites were using a "year" of different length than the solar year used in secular history in the tradition of Western civilization.
Rather, Spackman appears to be right that the departure took place shortly before the fall of Jerusalem, over a decade later, because assumptions I made about the timing of events reported in 1 Nephi 1-18 are less likely than those he advances.
farms.byu.edu /display.php?id=42&table=jbms   (1432 words)

 Read about Mesoamerican calendars at WorldVillage Encyclopedia. Research Mesoamerican calendars and learn about ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
Mesoamerica kept track of time with calendars which had ritual and religious meaning.
All of the Mesoamerican cultures shared a 260 day ritual calendar, for example, the
Other calendar cycles were also kept track of, such as a lunar calendar, as well as the cycles of other astronomical objects, most importanly
encyclopedia.worldvillage.com /s/b/Mesoamerican_calendars   (308 words)

The most important Mesoamerican ritual period was the Tzolkin, a calendar of great age in Mesoamerica, with a period of 260 days; made up of a repeating sequence of the numbers one to 13, and 20 day names.
In these cases the Mesoamericans have accurately replaced a multiple of a non-commensurate astronomical period with a multiple of a ritual period.
The ritual significance of the 52 year Calendar Round and the ceremonial binding of the years is now explained, because it was at these times that calendrical corrections were noted and the solar and Venus calendars, within the Calendar Round, were again exactly locked together.
www.spiderorchid.com /mesoamerica/mesoamerica.htm   (4563 words)

 Mesoamerica   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
Mesoamerica is the region extending from central Mexico through Central America that produced a set of culturally related civilizations before the discovery of the New World by Columbus.
Mesoamerican is a general adjective to refer to that group of Pre-Columbian cultures.
In some writings from the 1920s and 1930s the alternative term Middle America has been used to refer to Mesoamerica, but that has generally fallen out of favor.
www.sciencedaily.com /encyclopedia/mesoamerica   (159 words)

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