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Topic: Mesoderm


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  AllRefer.com - mesoderm (Cell Biology) - Encyclopedia
At the end of the blastula stage, cells of the embryo are arranged in the form of a hollow ball.
A third layer, the mesoderm, is formed between the other two by growth of cells derived from a marginal zone.
The mesoderm is the germ layer that forms many muscles, the circulatory and excretory systems, and the dermis, skeleton, and other supportive and connective tissue.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/M/mesoderm.html   (242 words)

  
 Mesoderm Regionalization
The mesoderm is a complex array of tissue-types in three primary domains: dorsal, ventrolateral, and ventral.
BMP-4 induces ventral mesoderm, suppresses induction of dorsal mesoderm by activin and inhibits dorsoanterior development of embryos, suggesting that it is a ventralizing factor.
Brachyury (Xbra) is the Xenopus homolog of a mouse mutation that causes absence of notochord and posterior mesoderm.
www.ucalgary.ca /UofC/eduweb/virtualembryo/meso_induction_II.html   (1612 words)

  
 UNSW Embryology- Musculoskeletal System - Mesoderm
Extraembryonic mesoderm lies adjacent to the trilaminar embryo totally enclosing the amnion, yolk sac and forming the connecting stalk.
Segmentation of the paraxial mesoderm into somites continues caudally at 1 somite/90minutes and a cavity (intraembryonic coelom) forms in the lateral plate mesoderm separating somatic and splanchnic mesoderm.
Mesoderm beside the notochord (axial mesoderm) thickens, forming the paraxial mesoderm as a pair of strips along the rostro-caudal axis.
embryology.med.unsw.edu.au /Notes/skmus6.htm   (924 words)

  
 Mesoderm Induction II
Mesoderm Induction II Mesoderm Induction II As we discussed previously, there is strong evidence favoring involvement of endogenous Vg1 in mesoderm induction.
Thus, endogenous induction of dorsal mesoderm is not inhibited, and a role for activin in dorsal mesoderm induction is not supported by these results.
Overexpression of the receptor in embryos caused mesoderm to be dorsalized.
www.ucalgary.ca /~browder/Induction_2.html   (1211 words)

  
 biniou (FoxF), a central component in a regulatory network controlling visceral mesoderm development and midgut ...
coalescence and segregation of the trunk visceral mesoderm, bap
Expression of biniou in wild-type embryos and morphogenesis of caudal visceral mesoderm.
that the splanchnic mesoderm in insect and vertebrate embryos
www.genesdev.org /cgi/content/full/15/21/2900   (8524 words)

  
 QSulf1, a heparan sulfate 6-O-endosulfatase, inhibits fibroblast growth factor signaling in mesoderm induction and ...
FGF4-dependent mesoderm induction in Xenopus embryos and FGF2-induced
QSulf1 suppression of mesodermal gene (Brachyury) expression was rescued by exogenous heparin.
of QSulf1 inhibition of mesoderm induction and angiogenesis
www.pnas.org /cgi/content/full/101/14/4833   (3888 words)

  
 Mesoderm   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The mesoderm is one of the three germ layers in the early developing embryo, the other two layers being the ectoderm and the endoderm.
The mesoderm is also believed to be responsible for the formation of the central nervous system, for example the notochord is responsible for releasing certain factors which induce the ectoderm to become neural tissue.
Because the mesoderm can form different ways in relation to the developing embryo's ectoderm, this is used as a method of categorizing animals.
www.worldhistory.com /wiki/M/Mesoderm.htm   (313 words)

  
 Drosophila tissue and organ development: Mesoderm and muscle
The conversion of ectoderm to mesoderm due to twist misexpression, and the ability of Snail and Dorsal to repress ectoderm genes, suggests that the B and C clusters should contain primarily neuroectodermal genes.
CG4677 is transcribed in the visceral mesoderm at stages 10-13 and the somatic mesoderm during stages 11-13.
Since mesodermal cells transplanted into the EH anlage do not transform into embryonic hemocytes, the determining factor is not able to induce a hemocyte fate within these cells and seems to function cell-autonomously.
www.sdbonline.org /fly/aimorph/mesoderm.htm   (9045 words)

  
 An SP1-like transcription factor Spr2 acts downstream of Fgf signaling to mediate mesoderm induction -- Zhao et al. 22 ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
of mesoderm in vertebrates (Schier and Shen, 2000).
Kimelman,D. and Kirschner,M. (1987) Synergistic induction of mesoderm by FGF and TGF-ß and the identification of an mRNA coding for FGF in the early Xenopus embryo.
Mizuno,T., Yamaha,E., Wakahara,M., Kuroiwa,A. and Takeda,H. (1996) Mesoderm induction in zebrafish.
embojournal.npgjournals.com /cgi/content/full/22/22/6078   (6589 words)

  
 Mesoderm Induction by Heterodimeric AP-1 (c-Jun and c-Fos) and Its Involvement in Mesoderm Formation through the ...
Mesoderm Induction by Heterodimeric AP-1 (c-Jun and c-Fos) and Its Involvement in Mesoderm Formation through the Embryonic Fibroblast Growth Factor/Xbra Autocatalytic Loop during the Early Development of Xenopus Embryos -- Kim et al.
Inhibition of eFGF- and Xbra-induced mesoderm induction by DN-ras and DN-jun.
Inhibition of AP-1-induced mesoderm induction by coinjection of DN-Xbra.
www.jbc.org /cgi/content/full/273/3/1542   (4390 words)

  
 pyramus and thisbe: FGF genes that pattern the mesoderm of Drosophila embryos -- Stathopoulos et al. 18 (6): 687 -- ...
ths expression was detected by in situ hybridization and is misexpressed in the ventral mesoderm in cellularizing embryos (data not shown) and during the formation of the ventral furrow (A).
Staining is first detected in the ventral mesoderm during cellularization (B) and persists in the mesoderm during formation of the ventral furrow (C) and germ-band elongation (D).
Mesoderm that reaches the dorsal ectoderm is induced by Dpp to form cardiac tissues (bottom diagram).
www.genesdev.org /cgi/content/full/18/6/687   (7936 words)

  
 Sloan-Kettering - Developmental Biology: Mary K. Baylies   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
In addition, the mesoderm becomes progressively determined, resulting in a number of morphologically distinct tissues, such as the heart and body muscles.
Failure to specify or properly differentiate mesodermal cell types can lead to a number of congenital abnormalities, ranging from heart malformations to cranial and limb defects, and can often result in death.
Twist, a basic Helix-loop-Helix (bHLH) transcription factor, plays a critical role at 4 different times during mesoderm development: the specification of the mesoderm; the subdivision of the mesoderm into progenitors of different tissues; the patterning of one of these tissues -- the body muscles; and the differentiation of the adult muscle progenitors.
www.mskcc.org /mskcc/html/10198.cfm   (552 words)

  
 The VT+ and VT- Isoforms of the Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Type 1 Are Differentially Expressed in the ...
Mesoderm Induction Assays-- Recombinant Xenopus FGF-2 was expressed and purified according to Kimelman et al.
The VT+ and VT isoforms have differential effects on mesoderm induction in vitro.
Mesoderm induction was scored by morphological criteria as described in Ref. 2.
www.jbc.org /cgi/content/full/275/13/9581   (3471 words)

  
 Animal - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
It first invaginates to form a gastrula with a digestive chamber, and two separate germ layers - an external ectoderm and an internal endoderm.
In most cases, a mesoderm also develops between them.
In most protostomes cells simply fill in the interior of the gastrula to form the mesoderm, called schizocoelous development, but in deuterostomes it forms through evagination of the endoderm, called enterocoelic pouching.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Animal   (1889 words)

  
 High-throughput functional screen of mouse gastrula cDNA libraries reveals new components of endoderm and mesoderm ...
High-throughput functional screen of mouse gastrula cDNA libraries reveals new components of endoderm and mesoderm specification -- Chiao et al.
either the presumptive mesoderm or the ectoderm of one-cell
stage by in situ hybridization with endoderm or mesoderm markers.
www.genome.org /cgi/content/abstract/15/1/44   (250 words)

  
 Drosophila Mesoderm
Shortly after invagination, the invaginated mesoderm transforms itself into a single cell layer that extends to the border of the amnioserosa (see the accompanying figure, 1A-1B).
The dpp protein causes these dorsal mesoderm cells to retain the expression of the tinman gene (a homeobox-containing gene that was one of those genes originally activated by the twist protein).
Later in development, the visceral mesoderm (surrounding the gut) will secrete dpp, and this secretion will cause the midgut cells to express the labial homeobox-containing gene and to differentiate (Panganiban et al., 1990).
zygote.swarthmore.edu /droso3.html   (355 words)

  
 Untitled Document
BMP-related growth factors cause both mesoderm induction in the blastula stages and pattering of ventral mesoderm in the gastrula stages (73).
The induction and development of mesoderm can also be carried out in vitro for further study of differentiation factors.
Thus BMP-4 is the major signaling molecule responsible for the induction of ventral mesoderm in the Xenopus gastrulae, the site where hematopoietic induction occurs and all hematopoietic stem cells are derived (67).
www.brown.edu /Courses/BI0032/stemcell/meso.htm   (375 words)

  
 Cooperative Effects of Growth Factors Involved in the Induction of Hematopoietic Mesoderm -- Huber et al. 92 (11): 4128 ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
induced mesoderm to a ventral fate (Figs 3 and 4).
Hemmati-Brivanlou A, Thomsen G: Ventral mesodermal patterning in Xenopus embryos: Expression patterns and activities of BMP-2 and BMP-4.
Maeno M, Ong R, Suzuki A, Ueno N, Kung H-F: A truncated bone morphogenetic protein 4 receptor alters the fate of ventral mesoderm to dorsal mesoderm: Roles of animal pole tissue in the development of ventral mesoderm.
www.bloodjournal.org /cgi/content/full/92/11/4128   (5855 words)

  
 Functional subdivision of trunk visceral mesoderm parasegments in Drosophila is required for gut and trachea ...
Functional subdivision of trunk visceral mesoderm parasegments in Drosophila is required for gut and trachea development -- Hosono et al.
Functional subdivision of trunk visceral mesoderm parasegments in Drosophila is required for gut and trachea development
In Drosophila, trunk visceral mesoderm, a derivative of dorsal mesoderm,
dev.biologists.org /cgi/content/abstract/130/3/439   (309 words)

  
 A crucial role for the Anaplastic lymphoma kinase receptor tyrosine kinase in gut development in Drosophila ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Visceral mesoderm does not form in Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (Alk) mutant animals, as visualized by loss of several visceral mesoderm markers.
Drosophila Anaplastic lymphoma kinase regulation of Fasciclin III and extracellular-signal-related kinase in the visceral mesoderm.
Nguyen, H.T. and Xu, X. Drosophila mef2 expression during mesoderm development is controlled by a complex array of cis-acting regulatory modules.
emboreports.npgjournals.com /cgi/content/full/4/8/781   (3040 words)

  
 Control of embryonic Xenopus morphogenesis by a Ral-GDS/Xral branch of the Ras signalling pathway -- Lebreton et al. ...
kinase (ERK) pathway in the induction of mesoderm (Carballada
Green, J. A., New, H. and Smith, J. Responses of embryonic xenopus cells to activin and FGF are separated by multiple dose thresholds and correspond to distinct axes of the mesoderm.
Kimelman, D. and Kirschner, M. Synergic induction of mesoderm by FGF and TGF-ß and the identification of an mRNA coding for FGF in the early Xenopus embryo.
jcs.biologists.org /cgi/content/full/116/22/4651   (7259 words)

  
 Abnormal mesoderm patterning in mouse embryos mutant for the SH2 tyrosine phosphatase Shp-2 -- Saxton et al. 16 (9): ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Abnormal mesoderm patterning in mouse embryos mutant for the SH2 tyrosine phosphatase Shp-2 -- Saxton et al.
Amaya, E., Musci, T.J. and Kirschner, M.W. Expression of a dominant negative mutant of the FGF receptor disrupts mesoderm formation in Xenopus embryos.
Gotoh, Y., Masuyama, N., Suzuki, A., Ueno.N. and Nishida, E. Involvement of the MAP kinase cascade in Xenopus mesoderm induction.
embojournal.npgjournals.com /cgi/content/full/16/9/2352   (7821 words)

  
 Evolution of gene expression patterns in a model of branching morphogenesis -- Pavlova et al. 277 (4): 650 -- AJP - ...
Homeobox genes from clusters A and B demonstrate characteristics of temporal colinearity and differential restrictions in spatial expression domains in the branching mouse lung.
A graded response to BMP-4 spatially coordinates patterning of the mesoderm and ectoderm in the zebrafish.
Mesodermal subdivision along the mediolateral axis in chicken controlled by different concentrations of BMP-4.
ajprenal.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/277/4/F650   (6992 words)

  
 Activated Mutants of SHP-2 Preferentially Induce Elongation of Xenopus Animal Caps -- O'Reilly et al. 20 (1): 299 -- ...
Inhibition of Xbra transcription activation causes defects in mesodermal patterning and reveals autoregulation of Xbra in dorsal mesoderm.
Abnormal mesoderm patterning in mouse embryos mutant for the SH2 tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2.
Mesoderm induction in Xenopus caused by activation of MAP kinase.
mcb.asm.org /cgi/content/full/20/1/299   (7238 words)

  
 Screening of FGF target genes in Xenopus by microarray: temporal dissection of the signalling pathway using a chemical ...
Amaya, E., Musci., T.J. and Kirschner, M.W. (1991) Expression of a dominant negative mutant of the FGF receptor disrupts mesoderm formation in Xenopus embryos.
Amaya, E., Stein, P.A., Musci., T.J. and Kirschner, M.W. (1993) FGF signaling in the early specification of mesoderm in Xenopus.
Gotoh, Y., Masuyama, N., Suzuki, A., Ueno, N. and Nishida, E. (1995) Involvement of the MAP kinase cascade in Xenopus mesoderm induction.
www.genestocellsonline.org /cgi/content/full/9/8/749   (5562 words)

  
 Computation-Based Discovery of Related Transcriptional Regulatory Modules and Motifs Using an Experimentally Validated ...
Additional mesodermal cells expressing Hbr but not Eve can be seen on both sides of the Eve progenitors.
Pictured is antibody staining showing mesodermal expression of DMEF2 (A) and whole mount in situ hybridization of KP78b RNA (B), a gene not previously known to be expressed in the mesoderm.
One is expressed in mesodermal primordium in early embryos.
www.genome.org /cgi/content/full/12/7/1019   (5914 words)

  
 D-mef2 is a target for Tinman activation during Drosophila heart development -- Gajewski et al. 16 (3): 515 -- The EMBO ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
of the anterior procephalic region and the dorsal mesoderm of
Dunin Borkowski,O.M., Brown, N.H. and Bate, M. Anterior-posterior subdivision and the diversification of the mesoderm in Drosophila.
Taylor, M.V., Beatty, K.E., Hunter, H.K. and Baylies, M.K. Drosophila MEF2 is regulated by twist and is expressed in both the primordia and differentiated cells of the embryonic somatic, visceral and heart musculature.
embojournal.npgjournals.com /cgi/content/full/16/3/515   (5356 words)

  
 Mesoderm definition - Medical Dictionary definitions of popular medical terms
Mesoderm: One of the three primary germ cell layers -- the other two are the ectoderm and endoderm -- in the very early embryo.
It differentiates to gives rise to a number of tissues and structures including bone, muscle, connective tissue, and the middle layer of the skin.
Some cells in mesodermal tissues retain the capacity to differentiate in diverse directions.
www.medterms.com /script/main/art.asp?articlekey=20839   (234 words)

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