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Topic: Metacognition

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  Metacognition: An Overview
Metacognitive strategies are sequential processes that one uses to control cognitive activities, and to ensure that a cognitive goal (e.g., understanding a text) has been met.
Metacognitive and cognitive strategies may overlap in that the same strategy, such as questioning, could be regarded as either a cognitive or a metacognitive strategy depending on what the purpose for using that strategy may be.
While there are several approaches to metacognitive instruction, the most effective involve providing the learner with both knowledge of cognitive processes and strategies (to be used as metacognitive knowledge), and experience or practice in using both cognitive and metacognitive strategies and evaluating the outcomes of their efforts (develops metacognitive regulation).
www.gse.buffalo.edu /fas/shuell/cep564/Metacog.htm   (1585 words)

Metacognition, or awareness of the process of learning, is a critical ingredient to successful learning.
Metacognition is an important concept in cognitive theory.
The task of educators is to acknowledge, cultivate, exploit and enhance the metacognitive capabilities of all learners.
coe.sdsu.edu /eet/Articles/metacognition/start.htm   (545 words)

 Futurelab - Viewpoint article - What is metacognition?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Metacognitive knowledge can refer to learners' recognition of their general learning processes, their recognition of the demands of a particular task, as well as their recognition of which strategies are most appropriate during any given task.
The metacognitive act, then, would be interpreted as the learner's realisation, firstly, that there are limitations on their knowledge to complete a task, and, secondly, that they possess strategies for rectifying that situation.
Far from seeing metacognition as polysyllabic nonsense, then, educators need to be able to promote the young people in their care to become more reflective and self-evaluative, and to be able to recognise that when learning gets tough, they have strategies for tackling it.
www.futurelab.org.uk /viewpoint/art62.htm   (854 words)

 Metacognition - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Metacognition refers to thinking about cognition (memory, perception, calculation, association, etc.) itself.
Metacognition can be divided into two types of knowledge: explicit, conscious, factual knowledge; and implicit, unconscious, procedural knowledge.
Metacognition is practiced to attempt to regulate one's own cognition, and maximize one's potential to think, learn and process stimuli from the surroundings.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Metacognition   (324 words)

 Metacognition   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Metacognition is an awareness of oneself as "an actor in his environment, that is, a heightened sense of the ego as an active, deliberate storer and retriever of information" (p.
The first is when the student gains the metacognitive knowledge of how her knowledge of calculating the area of a rectangle can be used to obtain an approximation of the total area under the roller coaster by adding all the rectangular areas under the track.
Metacognitive knowledge of the task would be required to provide understanding of how she had previously managed the demands of tasks that she perceived to be similar to the one at hand; and metacognitive knowledge of herself would be required to provide understanding of whether she, as a problem solver, could meet those demands.
www.psyc.memphis.edu /trg/meta.htm   (8189 words)

 Metacognition and Reading To Learn. ERIC Digest.
In a summary of research on metacognition from the Center for the Study of Reading at the University of Illinois, Armbruster et al (1983) present reading to learn from a metacognitive perspective as it relates to four variables: texts, tasks, strategies, and learner characteristics.
A related index of metacognitive development with regard to the task is the reader's ability to accurately predict his or her performance on the task.
A final category of metacognition in reading to learn is the awareness of the learner of his or her own characteristics--such as background knowledge, degree of interest, skills, and deficiencies--and of how these affect learning.
www.ericdigests.org /1995-2/reading.htm   (1393 words)

 metacognition   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Metacognition is a key variable which differentiates effective thinkers from less effective thinkers.
Metacognition is cognition directed at monitoring and controlling the process of cognition.
The benefits of metacognition would be realized when the ball returns to the smaller, inner orbit and manages itself in a new way, appropriate to the times and situation.
www.gre-secrets.com /strategic/metacognition.htm   (507 words)

Metacognitive awareness of their learning processes is as important as their monitoring of their learning of the course content.
Metacognition includes goal setting, monitoring, self-assessing, and regulating during thinking and writing processes; that is, when they’re studying and doing homework.
An essential component of metacognition is employing study strategies to reach a goal, self-assessing one’s effectiveness in reaching that goal, and then self-regulating in response to the self-assessment.
academic.pg.cc.md.us /~wpeirce/MCCCTR/metacognition.htm   (3187 words)

 Terrace: Learning Support   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Metacognition must be one of the core thinking skills and so must be included in a course of thinking and indeed in any excellent study of a subject discipline.
Metacognitive practices are learnt and realised in the community of inquiry and are progressively internalised with practice and reinforcement.
Metacognitive strategies in the community of inquiry include: makes the effort to clarify, strives for consistency, allows for degrees of commitment, is prepared to explore disagreement, considers alternatives, appeals to criteria, makes appropriate distinctions, sees implications, engages in self-correction, shares the discussion, respects others, focuses on inquiry.
www.terrace.qld.edu.au /academic/learnsup/gregpapr.htm   (6107 words)

 APIC Workshop 2005
Examples of metacognition include : judging the adequacy of a particular response and correcting it when necessary (retrospective monitoring), evaluating one's ability to carry out a new task (prospective monitoring), the difficulty of items to be learnt (ease of learning judgments), or the past acquisition of a given memory (feeling of knowing judgments).
Metacognition refers to the ability to control and monitor the various ways in which relevant pieces of information are being selected and processed given the current task-load and needs of the system.
Metacognition thus involves control and monitoring of memory, of perceptual attention, of action, of arousal level and of emotion.
bsylvand.free.fr /workshop/work.html   (1962 words)

 The Role of Metacognition in Second Language Teaching and Learning
Learners who are metacognitively aware know what to do when they don't know what to do; that is, they have strategies for finding out or figuring out what they need to do.
It seems that metacognitive strategies, that allow students to plan, control, and evaluate their learning, have the most central role to play in this respect, rather than those that merely maximize interaction and input … Thus the ability to choose and evaluate one's strategies is of central importance.
Metacognition is not a linear process that moves from preparing and planning to evaluating.
www.cal.org /resources/digest/0110anderson.html   (1643 words)

Metacognition is often described as multi-dimensional and has been used as a general term about a range of disparate higher level cognitive skills (Thorpe and Satterly, 1990).
Metacognitive Awareness relates to an individual's awareness of where they are in the learning process, their knowledge about content knowledge, personal learning strategies, and what has been done and needs to be done.
This sort of activity is metacognitive in character, but the application of this reflection on an individual's affective functioning was not the subject of this research and consequently not within the parameters of the data collection.
www.aare.edu.au /99pap/wil99527.htm   (6275 words)

Performance on measures of metacognitive procedures depends upon task complexity and may be heavily influenced by a student's prior experience with the task and familiarity with the type of information required of the task (Torgesen, 1994).
Metacognitive knowledge and reading comprehension were related significantly in all studies reported in secondary sources (Idol; Idol and Croll; Wong and Jones, cited in Billingsley and Wildman, 1990; Pressley, cited in Harris and Pressley, 1991; Schunk and Rice; Weisberg and Balajthy Study 2, cited in Weisberg, 1988; Taylor, cited in Paris, et al., 1991).
Because metacognitive instruction incorporates multiple and varied metacognitive components and instructional features, future research is required to identify parsimonious and effective instruction that maintains comprehension gains and improves motivation for diverse learners.
idea.uoregon.edu /~ncite/documents/techrep/tech23.html   (17258 words)

 Unskilled and Unaware of It: How Difficulties in Recognizing One's Own Incompetence Lead to Inflated Self-Assessments   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
We focus on the metacognitive skills of the incompetent to explain, in part, the fact that people seem to be so imperfect in appraising themselves and their abilities.
The central proposition in our argument is that incompetent individuals lack the metacognitive skills that enable them to tell how poorly they are performing, and as a result, they come to hold inflated views of their performance and ability.
Finally, and most important, deficits in metacognitive skill predicted inflated self-assessment on the all three self-ratings we examined (general logical reasoning ability, comparative performance on the test, and absolute score on the test)–even after objective performance on the test was held constant.
www.phule.net /mirrors/unskilled-and-unaware.html   (11065 words)

 TIP: Concepts
Metacognition has to do with the active monitoring and regulation of cognitive processes.
Metacognition is relevant to work on cognitive styles and learning strategies in so far as the individual has some awareness of their thinking or learning processes.
Piaget is also relevant to research on metacognition since it deals with the development of cognition in children.
tip.psychology.org /meta.html   (257 words)

 Institut | Nicod ----- Activities: Metacognition as a precursor to self-consciousness
Nicod ----- Activities: Metacognition as a precursor to self-consciousness
Metacognition as a precursor to self-consciousness: evolution, development & epistemology (METACOGNITION)
This project critically examines the existence and nature of metacognitive abilities in non-human primates and develops comparative knowledge of metacognitive processes, by exploring how similar these capacities are in non-human animals, human children and human adults.
www.institutnicod.org /act.php?n=104   (121 words)

 Metacognition & Study Strategies
Metacognition is defined as "Knowing what I know and what I don't know." It is the first step and the key to success in applying appropriate study strategies effectively.
Metacognitive awareness is a powerful tool in establishing conscious control and monitoring of your own learning and success.
Evaluate the continued use of chosen strategies and the need to add other strategies (go back to step 1) and re-assess.
www.paradisevalley.edu /~sheets/lmw/meta.htm   (146 words)

 Metacognition - Thinking about thinking
Because metacognition plays a critical role in successful learning it is important for both students and teachers.
Metacognition has been linked with intelligence and it has been shown that those with greater metacognitive abilities tend to be more successful thinkers.
Metacognition is often referred to as "thinking about thinking" and can be used to help students “learn how to learn.” Cognitive strategies are used to help achieve a particular goal while metacognitive strategies are used to ensure that the goal has been reached.
members.iinet.net.au /~rstack1/world/rss/files/metacognition.htm   (440 words)

 AAAI Spring Symposium on Metacognition in Computation
Humans use metacognitive monitoring and control to choose goals, assess their own progress, and, if necessary, adopt new strategies for achieving those goals, or even abandon a goal entirely.
Thus, understanding human metacognition has been an important part of work on automated tutoring systems, and has led to the design of methods for using computer assistants to help improve human metacognition.
Metacognition is no panacea, and therefore one of the issues that require further inquiry is the scope and limits of its usefulness.
www.cs.umd.edu /~anderson/ASSMC   (604 words)

 New Page 1
Metacognition is conceptually closely related to consciousness, as noted Roberts and Erdos (1993).
Metacognition can dramatically enhance learning, but the question is how to form and control the metacognitive processes.
Metacognition refers, among other things, to the active monitoring and consequent regulation and orchestration of these processes in relation to the cognitive objects or data on which they bear, usually in the service of some concrete goal or objective" (Flavell, 1976, p.
www.ioe.ac.uk /cdl/CHAT/chatmeta1.htm   (2326 words)

 CW t/a Child Development and Education Chapter 5 -- Chapter Outline and Summary   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
In general, children are less efficient learners than adults are; they have shorter attention spans, a smaller working memory capacity, and a smaller and less integrated knowledge base to which they can relate new information.
The term metacognition refers both to the knowledge that people have about their own cognitive processes and to their intentional use of certain cognitive processes to facilitate learning and memory.
Children’s metacognitive knowledge and intentional cognitive strategies improve throughout the school years.
cwx.prenhall.com /bookbind/pubbooks/mcdevitt/chapter5/objectives/deluxe-content.html   (451 words)

 ASMS - Content   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Education systems and schools are frequently based on a model that teaches to a monoculture of students the same ‘pack’ of information and expect all students to progress at the same pace in the same way.
These strategies, however, do not always encourage students to relate what they are learning to their life, allow them to understand why they are learning a topic or enable them to judge how well they are learning.
The ASMS is incorporating thinking skills into the curriculum so students will have an understanding of what metacognition means and an understanding of their own ways of learning.
www.asms.sa.edu.au /modules/icontent/index.php?page=18   (341 words)

 Metacognition and Reading to Learn
Armbruster et al (1983) present reading to learn from a metacognitive perspective as it relates to four variables: texts, tasks, strategies, and learner characteristics.
The researchers suggest that learners must first become aware of structures of text, as well as knowledge of the task and their own characteristics as learners, before they can strategically control the learning process to optimize the influence of these factors (Armbruster, 1983).
"Metacognitive Theory Applied: Strategic Reading Instruction in the Current Generation of Basal Readers." Reading Research and Instruction, 32(3), 13-24.
www.indiana.edu /~reading/ieo/digests/d96.html   (1411 words)

 Developing Self-Directed Learners   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Teachers, parents, administrators, and students must understand the concepts of student motivation, metacognition, self-efficacy, self-regulation, locus of control, and goal orientation.
[86] Metacognition is the ability of the student to analyze, reflect on, and understand her own cognitive and learning processes.
Students who are aware of their own cognitive strengths and weaknesses are more likely to be able to adjust and compensate for them.
ps1.cim3.net /ps.php?theurl=http://www.nwrel.org/planning/reports/self-direct/index.html   (3337 words)

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