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Topic: Metaphysical contingency

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In the News (Sun 21 Apr 19)

  CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Philosophy of Immanuel Kant
That is to say, he made psychological experience to be the basis of all metaphysical truth, rejected skepticism, and judged all knowledge by the test of reason.
Towards the end of that period, however, he began to question the solidity of the psychological basis of metaphysics, and ended by losing all faith in the validity and value of metaphysical reasoning.
But as soon as the contingent data, or contents of a specific moral precept, are presented to it, it imposes its universality and necessity on them and lifts them to its own level.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/08603a.htm   (3872 words)

 Logical positivism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Logical positivism denied the soundness of metaphysics and traditional philosophy, and affirmed that statements about metaphysics, religion and ethics are devoid of cognitive meaning and thus nothing but expression of feelings or desires; only statements about mathematics, logic and natural sciences have a definite meaning.
One intended consequence of the verification criterion is that all non-empirical forms of discourse, including ethics and aesthetics, are not "literally" or "cognitively" meaningful, and thus belong to "metaphysics".
He did not hold that metaphysical statements must be meaningless; neither did he hold that a statement that in one century was "metaphysical" while unfalsifiable (like the ancient Greek philosophy about atoms), could not in another century become "falsifiable" and thus "scientific".
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Logical_positivism   (3916 words)

 Cosmological Argument
Interpreting the contingent being in premise 1 as the universe, Bertrand Russell denies that the universe needs an explanation; it just is. Russell contends that since we derive the concept of cause from our observation of particular things, we cannot ask about the cause of something like the universe that we cannot experience.
Russell replies that the move from the contingency of the components of the universe to the contingency of the universe commits the Fallacy of Composition, which mistakenly concludes that since the parts have a certain property, the whole likewise has that property.
Necessity is understood in the sense of ontological or metaphysical necessity.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/cosmological-argument   (9555 words)

 Ludwig Wittgenstein [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
Anything normative, supernatural or (one might say) metaphysical must, it therefore seems, be nonsense.
In a world of contingency one cannot prove that a particular attitude is the correct one to take.
If this suggests relativism, it should be remembered that it too is just one more attitude or point of view, and one without the rich tradition and accumulated wisdom, philosophical reasoning and personal experience of, say, orthodox Christianity or Judaism.
www.iep.utm.edu /w/wittgens.htm   (6909 words)

 Religious Studies at Stanford ~ Faculty
She has written extensively on medieval Dominicans, including: Exploring the Boundaries of Reason: Three Questions on the Nature of God by Robert Holcot OP and most recently It Could Have Been Otherwise: Contingency and Necessity in Dominican Theology at Oxford 1300-1350.
Her current book project is a study of the development of the medieval religious cosmos as a mythologized system of retributive justice.
His research focuses on the doctrines of Daoism (in particular, their foundation in metaphysical and cosmological thought); their application to alchemy, meditation, and self-cultivation techniques; and the historical development and interrelation of these traditions.
www.stanford.edu /dept/relstud/faculty.html   (1049 words)

 Christianity and Evolutionary Ethics
Doctrines of the Atonement are attempts in Christian theology to explain how Jesus' life and death effect a reconciliation, or union, between a mortal and sinful humanity and the eternal and holy God.
The idea of substance is metaphysical, and it is incommensurable with modern physical notions.
Thus, when Williams (1994) says that he knows what a son is and insists that the trinitarian concept "Son of God" be construed in modern biological terms of sperm and genes, he is making a category mistake.
www.dieoff.com /page94.htm   (6196 words)

 Europe and the Post-Modern Left
Was it traditional rationalism and traditional metaphysics (I include everything from Plato to natural law, to Montesquieuian constitutionalism) that lent the crucial veneer of "depth" and respectability to the Nazis?
Derrida points out that the very foundation of rationalism is built on a metaphysical commitment to a distinction between appearance and reality ('logocentrism' or, sometimes, 'phallogocentrism').
How can we expose them as metaphysical?' He turned from Heidegger's preoccupation with the philosophical canon to the development of a technique which could be applied to almost any text, past or contemporary, literary, or philosophical.
www.wildmonk.net   (7397 words)

 Leibniz Translations
I have largely focused on translating papers dealing with the theological and metaphysical side of Leibniz' philosophy as this reflects my own personal interests, but many of the papers here do touch on other aspects of his thought, e.g.
Further details on the book, as well as ordering information, is available here, from Amazon.
www.leibniz-translations.com   (648 words)

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