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Topic: Methane

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In the News (Sun 19 Nov 17)

  Chemical of the Week -- Methane
Methane is not toxic when inhaled, but it can produce suffocation by reducing the concentration of oxygen inhaled.
Methane is synthesized commercially by the distillation of bituminous coal and by heating a mixture of carbon and hydrogen.
The reactions of methane with chlorine and fluorine are triggered by light.
scifun.chem.wisc.edu /chemweek/methane/methane.html   (660 words)

 Methane - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Methane is an asphyxiant and may displace oxygen in a workplace atmosphere.
The strength of the carbon-hydrogen covalent bond in methane is among the strongest in all hydrocarbons, and thus its use as a chemical feedstock is limited.
The average concentration of methane at the Earth's surface in 1998 was 1,745 ppb [2].
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Methane   (1410 words)

 Methane clathrate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Methane hydrates are believed to form by migration of gas from depth along geological faults, followed by precipitation, or crystallization, on contact of the rising gas stream with cold sea water.
Methane clathrates remain stable at temperatures up to 18 °C. The average methane clathrate hydrate composition is 1 mole of methane for every 5.75 moles of water, though this is dependent on how many methane molecules "fit" into the various cage structures of the water lattice.
Methane clathrates in continental rocks are trapped in beds of sandstone or siltstone at depths of less than 800m.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Methyl_hydrate   (1606 words)

 Mars, methane on
Methane was detected by the Fourier Transform Spectrometer aboard the European Mars Express orbiter, a team from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center using several large telescopes, and a team led by Vladimir Krasnopolsky using the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope.
Methane in the Martian atmosphere is not stable and cannot last more than a few hundred years, because it reacts with hydroxyl ions in the presence of sunlight, forming water and carbon dioxide.
On Earth much of the atmospheric methane is produced by methanogenic bacteria that digest organic matter in areas such as wetlands and waste landfills, and even in the guts of some animals and produce methane as a by-product.
www.daviddarling.info /encyclopedia/M/Mars_methane.html   (741 words)

 US EPA - Methane: Sources and Emissions
Methane trapped in coal deposits and in the surrounding strata is released during normal mining operations in both underground and surface mines.
Methane is produced during flooded rice cultivation by the anaerobic (without oxygen) decomposition of organic matter in the soil.
Methane is produced in termites as part of their normal digestive process, and the amount generated varies among different species.
www.epa.gov /methane/sources.html   (1687 words)

 USGS Fact sheet: Gas (Methane) Hydrates -- A New Frontier
Methane trapped in marine sediments as a hydrate represents such an immense carbon reservoir that it must be considered a dominant factor in estimating unconventional energy resources; the role of methane as a 'greenhouse' gas also must be carefully assessed.
Methane hydrate is stable in ocean floor sediments at water depths greater than 300 meters, and where it occurs, it is known to cement loose sediments in a surface layer several hundred meters thick.
Methane released as a result of landslides caused by a sea-level fall would warm the Earth, as would methane released from gas hydrates in Arctic sediments as they become warmed during a sea-level rise.
marine.usgs.gov /fact-sheets/gas-hydrates/title.html   (989 words)

 Methane: Facts and details from Encyclopedia Topic   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Coal bed methane extraction (cbm extration) is a method for extracting methane from a coal deposit....
Methane is extracted from geological deposits as a mineral fuel which is associated with other hydrocarbon hydrocarbon quick summary:
Steam reforming or steam methane reforming (smr) is a method of producing hydrogen by water splitting....
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/m/me/methane.htm   (3033 words)

 Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2000 - Methane Emissions   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The preliminary estimate of methane emissions from coal mines for 2000 is 2.89 million metric tons (Table 14), a decrease of 4.5 percent from the 1999 level.
While estimates of methane recovered and disposed of in both manners are drawn from data collected by the EPA’s Landfill Methane Outreach Program, 60 there is less uncertainty in the estimate of methane recovered and used for energy.
Methane emissions from domestic and commercial wastewater treatment are a function of the share of organic matter in the wastewater stream and the conditions under which it decomposes.
www.eia.doe.gov /oiaf/1605/gg01rpt/methane.html   (2840 words)

 Methane Find On Mars May Be Sign Of Life
Methane, a waste product of living organisms on Earth, could also be a by-product of alien microbes living under the surface of the Red Planet.
Methane is destroyed by the intense ultraviolet radiation on Mars because the gas has a relatively short photochemical lifetime of about 300 years, so if it is present there must be something producing it continually, Professor Formisano said.
This could indicate a subterranean source of methane which is pumping out the gas, either due to some residual geological activity or because of the presence of living organisms producing it as a waste gas.
www.rense.com /general50/meth.htm   (488 words)

 Methane .........
Methane is a colourless, odourless gas that is found in many places in the environment.
Methane is produced on Earth mainly through the anaerobic ('without oxygen') decomposition of plant and animal matter by bacteria.
Methane is the primary constituent of natural gas, a common heating fuel.
www.worsleyschool.net /science/files/methane/page.html   (678 words)

 VIRTUE Newsletter   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Concerns about the greenhouse potential of methane are based on the fact that there are enormous reservoirs of methane within the earth's crust under the oceans.
Most atmospheric methane appears to be produced by microbial organisms, for example in anaerobic setting such as swamps, or in the digestive tract of ruminants.
Analyses of core samples from methane-seeping marine sediments have shown that depletion curves for sulphate and methane levels are complementary: that is, sulphate levels decrease with increasing depth in the sediments, while methane levels increase.
int.nml.uib.no /virtue/newsletter/01_03/sci-lien/index.php   (761 words)

 Methane Hydrate
The vicious cycle involving methane on the greenhouse effect was not previously anticipated in global warming models.
With methane it is estimated in a ten year period the temperature of the earth can potentially rise 12 degrees.
Methane gas plumes are also attributed to at least one plane disappearing, because it exploded when it entered the plume.
atah.net /Creation/methane_hydrate.htm   (435 words)

 US EPA - Methane
Methane is one of several non-CO gases that contribute to global climate change.
Methane (CH) is a greenhouse gas that remains in the atmosphere for approximately 9-15 years.
Methane is over 20 times more effective in trapping heat in the atmosphere than carbon dioxide (CO over a 100-year period and is emitted from a variety of natural and human-influenced sources.
www.epa.gov /methane   (295 words)

 NASA - Methane Blast
Methane (CH), the principal component of natural gas, is abundant in the outer solar system.
Liquid methane, on the other hand, can be stored at the much warmer and more convenient temperature of -161.6°C. That means methane fuel tanks wouldn't need as much insulation, making them lighter and thus cheaper to launch.
But the key attraction for methane is that it exists or can be made on many worlds that NASA might want to visit someday, including Mars.
science.nasa.gov /headlines/y2007/04may_methaneblast.htm   (834 words)

 Unlocking Titan's Methane :: Astrobiology Magazine - earth science - evolution distribution Origin of life universe - ...
Summary (Mar 05, 2006): The presence of methane in Titan's atmosphere is one of the major enigmas the Cassini-Huygens mission is trying to solve.
The Cassini-Huygens mission also showed that there is not after all a lot of liquid methane remaining on the moon’s surface, and so it is not clear where the atmospheric methane gas comes from.
"As methane is broken down by light-induced chemical reactions over a timescale of tens of millions of years, it can’t just be a remnant of the atmosphere present when Titan itself was formed, and it must be replenished quite regularly," said Tobie.
www.astrobio.net /news/article1886.html   (736 words)

 NASA GISS: Research Features: Methane: A Scientific Journey from Obscurity to Climate Super-Stardom   (Site not responding. Last check: )
As shown by a chemistry "ball and stick" model, a methane molecule is composed of one atom of carbon surrounded by four atoms of hydrogen.
Research is now being conducted on reducing methane emissions from almost all the sources and that may possibly allow for relatively short term (<50 years) decreases in methane concentrations, and a consequent reduction in the forces driving global warming.
There is a small increase in methane concentrations from about 5000 years ago, and the conventional wisdom attributes this to the development of boreal wetlands and the major river deltas (at the mouths of the Nile, Mississippi, Niger and Amazon rivers, for instance) once sea level had basically stabilised after the deglaciation.
www.giss.nasa.gov /research/features/methane   (3278 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Methane emissions are the result of incomplete combustion, and wood used in the residential sector is typically consumed in woodstoves and fireplaces, resulting in much less efficient combustion than fuels burned in an industrial or utility boiler.
Methane generation from wastewater is the result of anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in the wastewater.
Methane emissions from the solid waste of domesticated animals were 2.9 million metric tons in 1994, up from 2.8 million metric tons in 1993, and well above the 2.6 million metric tons emitted from this source in 1990 (Table 23).
www.eia.doe.gov /oiaf/1605/gg96rpt/chap3.html   (4045 words)

 Universe Today - Search for Mars Methane
Methane should only last a few hundred years in the Martian atmosphere before it breaks apart, so some source is continually producing it.
In a presentation at a NASA Astrobiology Institute meeting in April 2005, Mumma said the detection of martian methane varied with geography: there was an average of 200 parts per billion (ppb) detected at the equator, and 20 to 60 ppb near the poles.
Any methane on Mars today is not a legacy of ancient conditions, because solar radiation would destroy the molecules in the atmosphere within 600 years.
www.universetoday.com /am/publish/interplanetary_whodunit.html?2072005   (1101 words)

 Other Greenhouse Gases
Each molecule of methane had a greenhouse effect more than twenty times that of a molecule of CO In addition, some of the methane was converted into ozone and water vapor in the stratosphere, where they would exert their own greenhouse effects.
Methane got special attention, for it offered some of the most peculiar and unsettling possibilities, such as increased emission from wetlands as the climate warmed.
To be precise, the sediments would release methane, some of which would convert to CO "A potential does exist for significant positive feedback" from Arctic Ocean clathrates, warned Bell (1982), who was stimulated by a 1980 paper presented by Gordon J. MacDonald, see MacDonald (1980).
www.aip.org /history/climate/othergas.htm   (3782 words)

 Chemical Fact Sheets--Methane
Methane can be formed by the decay of natural materials and is common in landfills, marshes, septic systems and sewers.
Therefore, most of the methane that ends up in lakes, streams, or soil is eventually released into the air.
Although methane can be measured in exhaled breath, urine, blood, and other tissues, no reliable method exists to determine the level of exposure.
www.dhfs.state.wi.us /eh/ChemFS/fs/Methane.htm   (664 words)

 BBC NEWS | Science/Nature | Search for life signal on Titan
Methane is constantly destroyed by UV light so there must be a source within Titan to replenish the atmosphere.
Methane can also be released from a trapped form called clathrate and produced by a geological process called "serpentinisation".
Dominated by nitrogen, methane and other organic (carbon-based) molecules, Titan is thought to resemble a deep-frozen version of Earth 4.6 billion years ago.
news.bbc.co.uk /2/hi/science/nature/4196261.stm   (609 words)

 Ocean: Cold Methane
Methane hydrate is solid ("frozen") at the bottom of seas and oceans, even though the temperature is above what is sealevel freezing for this chemical - the pressure there allows the solid state to maintain despite a "non-freezing" temperature (but, never fear, it's cold anyway).
There is estimated to be just one humongous lot of this methane hydrate just under the seafloor along the continental shelves and since methane is just the greenhouse gas par excellence, we better hope that the oceans don't warm up enough to turn the solid hydrate to gas.
Methane hydrate is stable in ocean floor sediments at water depths greater than 300 meters and, where it occurs, it is known to cement loose sediments in a surface layer up to several hundred meters thick.
www.resa.net /nasa/ocean_methane.htm   (1840 words)

 ESA - Mars Express - Mars Express confirms methane in the Martian atmosphere   (Site not responding. Last check: )
One of the aims of the mission is analysing in detail the chemical composition of the Martian atmosphere, known to consist of 95% percent carbon dioxide plus 5% of minor constituents.
It is also from these minor constituents, which scientists expect to be oxygen, water, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde and methane, that we may get important information on the evolution of the planet and possible implications for the presence of past or present life.
Methane, unless it is continuously produced by a source, only survives in the Martian atmosphere for a few hundreds of years because it quickly oxidises to form water and carbon dioxide, both present in the Martian atmosphere.
www.esa.int /SPECIALS/Mars_Express/SEMZ0B57ESD_0.html   (615 words)

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