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Topic: Methods of obtaining knowledge


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 Epistemology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The fields of knowledge most often suggested as having a priori status are logic and mathematics, which deal primarily with abstract, formal objects.
The Scientific Method was once favoured as the reason for scientific success, but recently difficulties in the philosophy of science have led to a rise in Coherentism.
Pragmatism about knowledge holds that what is important about knowledge is that it solves certain problems that are constrained both by the world and by human purposes.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Epistemology   (3587 words)

  
 Methods of obtaining knowledge - Encyclopedia.WorldSearch   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Knowledge may originate or be derived from the following origins or methods:
Knowledge based on authority may rely upon the reputation of an individual such as Aristotle or Einstein or perhaps on institutional authority such as that of the Catholic Church or Oxford University.
According to some people, knowledge may be revealed by revelation or even divine revelation, which may be directly from God or some other spirit, perhaps mediated by being included in a book such as the Bible.
encyclopedia.worldsearch.com /methods_of_obtaining_knowledge.htm   (287 words)

  
 Methods of obtaining knowledge   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Knowledge Explorer KR is a knowledge representation language combining English-like statements, commands and questions with UNIX-like conditionals, loops and methods.
Causal Systems and Why-Because Analysis Descriptions of the subject methods, which are based on a formal notion of causality, formal semantics, and logic.
Knowledge comprises all cognitive expectances that an individual or organisation actor uses to interpret situations and to generate activities
www.serebella.com /encyclopedia/article-Methods_of_obtaining_knowledge.html   (602 words)

  
 methods of obtaining knowledge   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Revelation, even Divine revelation, which may be directly from God or some other spirit, perhaps mediated by being included in a book such as the Bible.
Authority Knowledge based on authority may rely upon the reputation of an individual such as Aristotle or Einstein or perhaps on institutional authority such as that of the Catholic Church or Oxford University.
Note that an authority may adopt knowledge upon other criteria such as divine relelation or observation as well as upon authority.
www.yourencyclopedia.net /Methods_of_obtaining_knowledge.html   (275 words)

  
 Epistemology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Knowledge, therefore, is distinguished from truebelief by its justification, and much of epistemology is concerned with how true beliefs might be properly justified.
For most of philosophical history, "knowledge" was taken to mean belief that was justfied as true to an absolute certainty.Any less justified beliefs were called mere "probable opinion." This viewpoint still prevailed at least as late as Bertrand Russell 's early 20th century book The Problems ofPhilosophy.
The Scientific Method was once favoured as the reason for scientific success,but recently difficulties in the philosophy of science have led to a rise in Coherentism.
www.therfcc.org /epistemology-206.html   (1951 words)

  
 Epistemology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
In the decades that followed, however, philosophers came to think of knowledge as meaning "justified true belief," and the notion that the belief had to be justified to a certainty was forgotten.
In the 1960s, Edmund Gettier criticised this definition of knowledge by pointing out situations in which a believer has a true belief justified to a reasonable degree, but not to a certainty, and yet in the situations in question, everyone would agree that the believer does not have knowledge.
Mysticism, in the context of epistemology, refers to the process of attempting to arrive at knowledge or belief through non-rational means, such as through faith or feeling.
www.worldhistory.com /wiki/e/epistemology.htm   (2303 words)

  
 Trails of doubt
Obsessed by the modern scientific method of analysis and separation, they endeavor to apply it to the teachings of Theosophy, which have but little meaning except in their complete form.
The way of the true student is to test philosophy against philosophy, method against method, with patience and care and obedience to the best ethical light within his own soul; to compare as systems, the methods of science, religion, Theosophy.
The true cause is the presence of That within, whose hidden knowledge and buried memories forever gravitate towards another state of ideals than that which rules human action; toward a destiny hidden from the masses of mankind.
www.meta-religion.com /Esoterism/Theosophy/trails_of_doubt.htm   (1011 words)

  
 Soviet Biology
The methodological level of biological knowledge, the state of the science treating of the laws of the life and development of vegetable and animal forms, i.e., primarily of the science known for half a century now as genetics, is of essential importance for our agricultural science.
Plastic vegetable forms with unestablished heredity, obtained by any of the enumerated methods, should be further bred from generation to generation in those conditions, the requirement of which, or adaptability to which, we want to induce and perpetuate in the given organisms.
The principal method of constantly improving breeds is to select pedigreed animals best suited for the required aim and at the same time to improve the conditions of feeding and maintenance that are most conducive to the development of the animals in the desired direction.
www.marxists.org /reference/archive/lysenko/works/1940s/report.htm   (16123 words)

  
 Obtaining Copyright   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Acupuncture 53: nsations of stimulus known in Chinese as "deqi" ("obtaining the qi") This was historically considered to be
Agathon 1: hich describes the banquet given to celebrate his obtaining a prize for his first tragedy (416 BCE416).
Andaman Islands 93: hments inflicted upon him, and he is as secure of obtaining justice as if free.
www.cabaret-54.com /dust6871-obtaining%20copyright.html   (607 words)

  
 [No title]
Since comparison to standards is the exclusive method for classifying positions, we cannot compare the appellant’s position to others as a basis for deciding his appeal, and we have considered his statements only insofar as they are relevant to making that comparison.
In addition to the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed by GS-1810 positions, the work of GS- 1811 positions requires knowledge of what constitutes a crime or violation as defined in pertinent statutes and the kind of evidence that is required to prove that a crime was committed.
Investigators must have knowledge of search and seizure, arrest authority; sources of information such as informants and methods of obtaining required evidence; the methods and patterns of criminal operations; and the availability and use of modern detection devices and laboratory services.
www.opm.gov /classapp/decision/2002/18020904.txt   (4808 words)

  
 Methods of obtaining knowledge   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Authority Knowledge based on authority may rely upon the reputation of anindividual such as Aristotle or Einstein or perhaps on institutional authority such as that of the Catholic Church or Oxford University.
Notethat an authority may adopt knowledge upon other criteria such as divine relelation or observation as well as upon authority.Authority may have a political basis in the sense that some political process, perhaps involving status as well as simple voting, peer review, or comment.
For example the theoretical construct,the electron, is derived by logical inferences from observations and experiment.Such knowledge, being derivative, can not be better than the knowledge upon which it is founded.
www.therfcc.org /methods-of-obtaining-knowledge-2187.html   (210 words)

  
 Epistemology - EvoWiki   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Some epistemologists have attempted to find strengthened criteria for knowledge that will not be subject to the sorts of counterexamples Gettier and his many successors have produced.
Those fortunate enough to have had such experiences again might be untroubled by any perceived lack of coherence in their statements, since it might simply be impossible for a human mind to comprehend an experience of the divine in a coherent fashion.
If one does not reject rationality, but still wishes to maintain that knowledge claims can not or are not justified, one might be termed a skeptic.
www.evowiki.org /index.php/Epistemology   (2173 words)

  
 The Philosophies of Science and Religion Jenifer (Forum) (12-99)
Religion, on the other hand, is being untruthful in positing the "alternative" method of faith as being compatible with science and reason, and when it claims that faith is a reliable method for obtaining knowledge.
Science is the clear winner when it comes to obtaining knowledge: it is the final arbiter; it is the entire toolbox.
I couldn't really say what the chief sources of knowledge in the middle ages were, except to note parenthetically that what we think of as science today was given a tremendous shot in the arm in the middle ages by the Arabic alchemists.
www.positiveatheism.org /mail/eml9933.htm   (6025 words)

  
 Course Descriptions
This course is a study of methods of obtaining blood specimens for laboratory analysis.
This course is a study of the laboratory methods used in routine examinations of blood cells, hemoglobin, coagulation factors, and urine and other body fluids.
The course is designed to provide the student with a basis for effective analysis, evaluation, and use of the various media, and with a knowledge of the role and the responsibilities of the mass media in a democratic society.
www.spjc.edu /webcentral/acad/lm.htm   (9003 words)

  
 Citations: Interactive Acquisition and Explanation of Design Knowledge - Kellog, Mark, Sullivan (ResearchIndex)
Explanations can also be used as human computer interaction media for iterative knowledge acquisition [Bareiss, 1989; Gruber, 1989; Mark, 1988] In the case of acquiring design knowledge, the user selects from or configures machine generated explanations that correspond to rationales, telling....
knowledge acquisition [Bareiss, 1989; Gruber, 1989; Mark, 1988] In the case of acquiring design knowledge, the user selects from or configures machine generated explanations that correspond to rationales, telling the machine which of many possible rationale are salient in a given situation
Analysis of two approaches to design knowledge capture In this section we analyze examples of two design knowledge capture techniques: a hypermedia tool incorporating semiformal models of the domain and....
citeseer.ist.psu.edu /context/855467/0   (338 words)

  
 QSSCcore.html
Scientific knowledge is a set of explanations, made by communities of scientists, which attempts to account for phenomena and experiences.
They recognize that scientific knowledge is constructed by the community of scientists seeking to explain phenomena and experiences, and that these explanations are influenced by the social and cultural contexts in which they are formed.
They use a variety of methods and tools to envision possible, probable and preferred futures and use their scientific knowledge to make choices that lead to preferred futures related to the applications of science in their daily lives.
www.uq.edu.au /_School_Science_Lessons/QSSCcore.html   (12024 words)

  
 Security Clearance Obtaining   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
When our expectations are met once and again, despite oferrors, ca...
Clearance rate 1: '''Clearance rates''' are used by various criminal justice 3: cus on appearing to solve crimes (generating high clearance rate scores) rather than actually solving crimes.
Albedo 5: an activities have changed the albedo (via forest clearance and farming, for ex...
www.moviewavspage.com /sand/42260-security-clearance-obtaining.html   (687 words)

  
 Volume 50 Issue 4   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Spence, 'a leading authority' on divination methods, or 'obtaining knowledge of the unknown by means of omens', urges readers to take the occult sciences seriously.
All the knowledge and wisdom of ancient Greece was supposedly passed in books from a civilisation that was in mortal danger to a civilisation that was awakening after a long period of Dark Ages (that were not so dark, after all).
It is true that scientific progress in hand with technology led to great improvements in the material conditions of living but at the same time it robbed people of their humanity.
alia.org.au /publishing/alj/50.4/full.text/superstitions.html   (6896 words)

  
 Continuing Education Opportunities: The Path Less Traveled   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
The education opportunities that you choose may be related to your employment or may be a topic that enhances your general professional knowledge.
There are many practical and user-friendly methods of obtaining continuing education hours for NCTRC Recertification.
Alternative methods of earning continuing education hours may be available to meet your needs and prove to be more interesting and enjoyable as well.
www.nctrc.org /newsletters/fall2004/traveled.htm   (436 words)

  
 Obtaining A Tax Id   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Obtaining A Tax Id Obtaining A Tax Id Comprehensive Analysis
2) " A" -- As to Obtaining A Tax Id Latin alphabet Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz The letter A is the first letter in the Latin alphabet.
The modern lowercase letter a derives from Greek handwriting, which evolved from a form similar to the current capital to acircular shape with a projection by the 4th century.
www.moviewavspage.com /sand/30928-obtaining-a-tax-id.html   (805 words)

  
 [No title]
Panelists discussed methods of obtaining verifiable parental consent that are currently in use; whether and how e-mail could be used to obtain verifiable parental consent; and technologies or methods that are under development that could be used in the future to obtain verifiable parental consent.
For example, if the operator obtained consent from the parent for the child to participate in games which required the submission of limited personal information but now wishes to offer chat rooms to the child, new notice and consent will be required.
One commenter suggested that the Rule also requires the operator to obtain parental confirmation that the notice was received, either through a return e-mail or a business reply postcard.\144\ The Commission believes that this proposal would burden parents and operators without adding significantly to the protection of children online.
www.occ.treas.gov /ftp/regs/2000-2b.txt   (10845 words)

  
 International Diving Centre
In addition, you will learn the five methods of obtaining the desired enriched air nitrox mix and the various methods used to obtain proper helium mixes.
Be certified as a PADI Enriched Air Diver or hold a qualifying enriched air certification from another certification organization.
Read the 5 chapters from your DSAT Gas Blender manual and complete the knowledge reviews prior to the first class.
www.diveidc.com /technical/dsat.shtml   (142 words)

  
 NATIONAL BUSINESS REPORTS - FREE REPORT / DON'T GET BURNED / BUSINESS ADVICE   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Be eager to accept the pre-tested knowledge that this person is willing to share with you.
There is a large array of valuable information that can be found in books written by knowledgeable individuals.
I can assure you that you will find these suggested methods of obtaining knowledge much more pleasureable than touching your hand to a hot stove.
www.n-b-r.com /nbr1308.htm   (361 words)

  
 Trinity Foundation: Explaining God, man, Bible, salvation, philosophy, theology.
These constraints upon the permissible methods of axiomatization are governed by the goals which were to be attained by means of the axiomatization.
Any alleged Biblical knowledge which Clark may claim, then, regarding the fortunes of David must fail for just the same reason which he raises against knowledge regarding his wife; i.e., both of them fail because of the possibility of substitution.
A great many different pieces of knowledge, and different sorts of knowledge, seem to be necessary for a full-orbed Christian life.
www.trinityfoundation.org /new_article.php?id=2   (19031 words)

  
 Asia Times - Asia's most trusted news source for the Middle East
It appears that the United State intelligence community is about to take a refresher course in Epistemology 101.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy that deals with the methods of obtaining knowledge, especially with reference to the limits and validity of knowledge.
And it turns out that various US spy agencies many not really have had the certainty about what they thought they knew, insofar as the proliferation of nuclear biological and chemical weapons programs, ie, the dreaded weapons of mass destruction (WMD) which have been the threat du jour in recent years.
www.atimes.com /atimes/Middle_East/EL02Ak01.html   (1105 words)

  
 ZixCorp: Secure Business Email, Encryption and Privacy - FAQs   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
If I don't have a maintenance agreement, what are the methods for obtaining technical support?
The ability to acquire technical support is limited to the online Knowledge Base.
ZixCorp will provide "patches" (AKA "point releases") only, which may be obtained via FTP, by visiting ftp://ftp.elronsoftware.com.
www.zixcorp.com /support/faq_im.php   (222 words)

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