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Topic: Microcode


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X86
QNX

In the News (Thu 23 May 19)

  
  SecuriTeam™ - Opteron Exposed: Reverse Engineering AMD K8 Microcode Updates
The actual microcode update blocks are embedded in the BIOS image; the most recent updates (created June 2004) have been included in the Linux driver source code attached to this description.
The microcode does not appear to update MSR 0x8B with the new update signature as it does on Intel processors, despite the fact that some BIOS code that was analyzed does seem to check this field.
For instance, by patching the appropriate microcode lines, it may be possible to catch an opcode that would normally be illegal, and instead handle it by tricking the TLB into thinking we're in kernel mode when in fact the attacker has only compromised a userspace process.
www.securiteam.com /securityreviews/5FP0M1PDFO.html   (1739 words)

  
  MICROCODE - Definition
A technique for implementing the instruction set of a processor as a sequence of microcode instructions ("microinstructions"), each of which typically consists of a (large) number of bit fields and the address of the next microinstruction to execute.
Vertical microcode is closer to machine code because a bit field value may pass through some intermediate combinatory logic which generates the actual control signals.
The alternative to a microcoded processor is a hard-wired one where the control signals are generated directly from the bits of the machine code instruction.
www.hyperdictionary.com /computing/microcode   (309 words)

  
 Microprogram - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The microcode may be stored in ROM (as a form of firmware) or loaded into RAM memory as part of the initialization of the central processing unit.
With this type of microcode, a designer explicitly chooses to make a slower CPU to save money by reducing the unused bits in the control store; however, the reduced complexity may increase the CPU's clock frequency, which lessens the effect of an increased number of cycles per instruction.
A CPU that uses microcode generally takes several clock cycles to execute a single instruction, one clock cycle for each step in the microprogram for that instruction.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Microcode   (1887 words)

  
 HP Personal Calculator Digest -- Microcode
The development of microcode in Hewlett-Packard personal calculators began with the development developments of the microprocessor in the HP-35--and not coincidentally, since both were developed by the same Hewlett-Packard engineer.
It is the microprocessor that determines the "language" of the internal microcode.
The major task in writing the microcode is not only to have the functions produce the correct answers when a key is pressed, but to fit the code into a given amount of memory and make it execute as fast as possible.
www.vcalc.net /hp-code.htm   (1545 words)

  
 [No title]
The actual microcode update blocks are embedded in the BIOS image; the most recent updates (created June 2004) have been included in the Linux driver source code attached to this description.
Microcode Format ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Surprisingly, the microcode itself is in no way encrypted as it is in Intel microcode updates; the raw data loaded into the microcode patch array is directly exposed.
For instance, by patching the appropriate microcode lines, it may be possible to catch an opcode that would normally be illegal, and instead handle it by tricking the TLB into thinking we're in kernel mode when in fact the attacker has only compromised a userspace process.
www.packetstormsecurity.nl /0407-exploits/OpteronMicrocode.txt   (1546 words)

  
 Expert About mi:Microcode
Microcode is the result of "microprogramming" work and is really the content of a CPU's "writeable control store" (WCS) memory, which can either be a small ROM or a PLA (which is a logic array with a collapsed number of states, kinda a minimized ROM that takes less gates/area.
Microcode talks directly to the inner hardware of a CPU and is used to define "macroinstructions" which are the normal machine code/assembly instructions that system and application firmware programmers use.
Microcode is often 'wide' to achieve decent parallelism - an 8-bit processor could have 30 to 80-bit wide microcode.
expertsite.biz /dir/mi/microcode.htm   (1718 words)

  
 The Linux Microcode Update Driver | Linux Magazine
The loading of a microcode update is usually delegated to the BIOS but can also be performed by the operating system without needing to run in a special mode or reboot after the update is done.
The support for microcode update for the P6 family processors was added to the Linux kernel in February 2000 as of version 2.3.46.
The task at hand is to select the microcode update matching the parameters of the CPU and then to write it to the CPU, unless the CPU already contains microcode with a revision level greater than or equal to that of the update.
www.linux-mag.com /id/723   (3148 words)

  
 PICBasic PRO   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-02)
The MicroCode Loader application is the software which resides on the computer.
This is ideal for MicroCode Loader to communicate with the target device using a serial cable connected to your computer.
MicroCode Loader comes with a number of pre-compiled *.hex files, ready for programming into the target microcontroller.
www.mecanique.co.uk /code-studio/loader   (731 words)

  
 microcode - Definition of microcode by Webster's Online Dictionary   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-02)
microcode - A technique for implementing the instruction set of a processor as a sequence of microcode instructions ("microinstructions"), each of which typically consists of a (large) number of bit fields and the address of the next microinstruction to execute.
This allows a few bits of a microinstruction to determine several control signals and ensure that only valid combinations of those signals are generated (e.
Microcode is usually stored in ROM chips though some processors (e.
www.webster-dictionary.org /definition/microcode   (343 words)

  
 urbanmyth.org: Intel Microcode Update Utility for Linux
The microcode_ctl utility is a companion to the IA32 microcode driver written by Tigran Aivazian .
The microcode update is volatile and needs to be uploaded on each system boot i.e.
This utility requires the Linux kernel IA32 microcode driver (2.4.0-test1-ac10 or 2.2.18 onwards).
www.urbanmyth.org /microcode   (702 words)

  
 Definition of Microcode
A microprogram is a program consisting of microcode that controls the different parts of a computer's central processing unit (CPU).
A few computers were built using "writable microcode" -- rather that storing the microcode in ROM or hard-wired logic, the microcode was stored in a RAM.
Most of them were experimental laboratory prototypes, but there were a few commercial machines that used writable microcode, such as early Xerox workstations.
www.wordiq.com /definition/Microcode   (1267 words)

  
 Lawrence Wilkinson's IBM 360/30 Saga.
Diagnosis was aided by the fact that each microcode bit had a lamp on the front panel, and there was a single-microcode-step mode of operation.
The microcode system was quite nifty and most instructions seemed to execute in the minimum time feasible, though even a simple register to register add would take some 33 cycles (25 microseconds).
A given microcode word specified only the top 6 bits of the next instruction's address within the current page, the bottom 2 bits were determined by two separate function codes, giving each instruction up to 4 possible successors (the function codes included force 0 and force 1 where no branch was needed).
homepages.kcbbs.gen.nz /nbree/saga.html   (3691 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-02)
Microcode Solutions' own programming pride has been standing in the way of development of our iMac emulation.
Microcode Solutions is not leaving the Macintosh emulation scene, we are advancing it to the next level....
Today, Microcode Solutions is still on the cutting edge of Macintosh emulation technology, working toward completing an iMac (PowerPC) emulation module for existing FUSION owners.
amiga.czex.com /local2000/24_5fusion.html   (427 words)

  
 Linux: Updating Microcode On Intel Processors   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-02)
Microcode is very low level, but in theory it could be done if you for example would know for some specific kernel image that such and so internal registers have some value.
Microcode updates are generated by Intel and are protected by some of the tightest security I have even seen.
So the chances of the average hacker understanding the structure of the microcode, understanding the tools necessary to generate the microcode, understanding the encryption methodology and understanding the update methodology is low.
kerneltrap.org /node/view/2678   (1831 words)

  
 Commands Reference, Volume 3, i - m - invscout Command
It compares the gathered microcode levels to the latest levels available, and stores the data in a Microcode Survey Upload File that can be displayed locally via the webSM GUI, or uploaded to a Web server via the Internet.
Microcode Survey Upload Files cannot be concatenated with VPD Survey Upload Files.
For a Microcode Survey, sends a copy of the formatted text report file to the screen from which the command was invoked.
publib16.boulder.ibm.com /pseries/en_US/cmds/aixcmds3/invscout.htm   (817 words)

  
 PDP-10 Archive: 10,7/doc/ucode.doc from bb-ee87b-sb   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-02)
Microcode version 2(400) is the twelfth release of the KL10 microcode.
This is the seventh release of the KL10 microcode that supports an 'Extended KL10' described in the Hardware Reference Manual.
The KL10 microcode is not dependent on any monitor, but because of hardware differences between the various -10 processors, a monitor must be built specifically for the KL10.
pdp-10.trailing-edge.com /bb-ee87b-sb/01/10,7/doc/ucode.doc.html   (304 words)

  
 IBM Journal of Research and Development: z/CECSIM: An efficient and comprehensive microcode simulator for the IBM ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-02)
An IBM eServer zSeries(TM) system uses various types of microcode (firmware) that implement functions such as the execution of complex instructions in the CPUs, I/0 operations performed by the system assist processors (SAPs), the management of logical partitions (LPARs), and control by the support element (SE).
Each microcode component must be verified by itself and in conjunction with the others.
For the development of the z900, a new microcode simulator, the z/CECSIM (Central Electronic Complex Simulator), was successfully implemented.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_qa3751/is_200207/ai_n9095577   (1434 words)

  
 Dontronics - MicroCode Studio.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-02)
MicroCode Studio even comes with a serial communications window, allowing you to debug and view serial output from your microcontroller.
The MicroCode Studio In Circuit Debugger (ICD) enables you to execute a PICBasic Program on a host PIC microcontroller and view variable values, Special Function Registers (SFR), memory and EEPROM as the program is running.
MicroCode Loader enables you to program most of the PIC 16F87x and 18Fxxx series of microcontrollers without the need of a hardware programmer.
www.dontronics.com /microcode.html   (575 words)

  
 Description of the Microcode Update Device
The Microcode Update device is an interface between the operating system and an Intel processor based on the x86 architecture.
If the computer that you are using does not contain the processor described in the "Summary" section of this article, or if your BIOS is up to date with Intel's latest microcode, the Microcode Update device is not initiated; the device is unloaded to free up resources.
If the microcode on your computer is current, the drivers are unloaded by design.
support.microsoft.com /?kbid=288302   (216 words)

  
 System on Chip seminar   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-02)
After synthesis, two types of microcode are generated: reconfiguration microcode (controlling the setting of the reconfigurable hardware) and execution microcode (controlling the execution of the implementation mapped on the reconfigurable hardware).
Both types of microcode are referred to as reconfigurable microcode.
An additional benefit lies in the fact that the set instruction (which initiates reconfiguration microcode) can be scheduled well ahead of the execute instruction (which initiates execution microcode) and thereby hiding the reconfiguration latency of the hardware.
www.cs.tut.fi /soc/abs/vassiliadis_abs.html   (357 words)

  
 Citations: Local Microcode Compaction Techniques - Landskov, Davidson, Shriver, Mallet (ResearchIndex)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-02)
In order to make microcodes as small and fast as possible, the microcodes are compacted.
....microcoded processors therefore is to create a template pattern for each processor activity.
Its semantics is represented by a (machine independent) named quintuple N= I, O, U, T, F) with N the name of the MO I the set of input resources to the MO (source operands) O the set of output....
citeseer.ist.psu.edu /context/69527/0   (3211 words)

  
 sandpile.org -- microcode update feature   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-02)
Then a brief overview on what microcode is, what it is used for, and why it is useful to be able to update it, will be given.
Often writing microcode resembles programming a parallel computer, as each of the microcode instructions is supposed to make use of the microprocessor's units as effectively, as possible.
A nice side effect of being able to update microcode is, that you may be able to enhance the existing functionality, optimize it, or even add completely new functionality, as permitted by the existing microprocessor hardware.
www.enlight.ru /docs/cpu/INFO/mcupdate.htm   (3986 words)

  
 Microcode Encyclopedia Article, Definition, History, Biography   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-02)
Looking For microcode - Find microcode and more at Lycos Search.
Find microcode - Your relevant result is a click away!
A microprogram is a highly-specialized computer program that allows one computer microarchitecture to emulate another, usually more-complex architecture.
encyclopedia.localcolorart.com /encyclopedia/Microcode   (2026 words)

  
 ► » Microcode Upgrades before migration   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-02)
Before doing this, is it a must that we update the microcode of all
microcodes which is available in IBM website or we need to do
microcode updated and what the current versions are.
www.all-unix.org /-Microcode-Upgrades-before-migration-9144857.html   (208 words)

  
 About the Microcode   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-02)
The microcode is low-level software that resides in flash memory on the System 3 processor devices.
Every time a new version of RPvds is installed on the host PC, the microcode should be updated on all processors in the system.
New versions of the files need to update the microcode are always included in the TDT Drivers installation.
www.tdt.com /Sys3WebHelp/InstallSetup/UpdateSys/About_the_Microcode.htm   (162 words)

  
 Dictionary.com/microcode
Microcode may be classified as "horizontally encoded" or
Vertical microcode is closer to machine code because a bit
Microcode is usually stored in ROM chips though some
dictionary.reference.com /search?q=microcode   (269 words)

  
 microcode_ctl(8): microcode utility for Intel ... - Linux man page
The microcode update is volatile and needs to be uploaded on each system boot i.e.
Microcode utility written by Simon Trimmer Linux Kernel driver written by Tigran Aivazian.
Thanks to the Intel Corporation, for supplying microcode update data and publishing the specifications that enabled us to write microcode driver for Linux.
www.die.net /doc/linux/man/man8/microcode_ctl.8.html   (227 words)

  
 Microcode Instructions
For each Microcode file, you will need to create a file ocntaining the initial value of the reigsters.
For each microcode file, you will need to create a file for the microcode store.
You are encouraged spaces in the microcode to separate the fields so it is easy for everyone to read.
www.wiu.edu /users/mflll/310/done/ch04s02.html   (373 words)

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