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Topic: Mid-Atlantic Ridge

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In the News (Sun 16 Jun 19)

 Mid-Atlantic Ridge - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Near the equator, the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is dissected into the North Atlantic Ridge and the South Atlantic Ridge by the Romanche Trench, a narrow submarine trench with a maximum depth of 7758 m, one of the deepest locations of the Atlantic Ocean.
The Mid-Atlantic Ridge forms part of the global mid-oceanic ridge system and, like all mid-oceanic ridges, is thought to result from a divergent boundary that separates tectonic plates: the North American Plate from the Eurasian Plate in the North Atlantic, and the South American Plate from the African Plate in the South Atlantic.
The ridge was central in the breakup of Pangaea
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Mid-Atlantic_Ridge   (607 words)

 Atlantic Ocean - History
In the eastern Atlantic, the Madeiras, Canaries, Cape Verde, and the São Tomé-Príncipe group are the peaks of submarine ridges.
The Atlantic Ocean is essentially an S-shaped north-south channel, extending from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Antarctic continent in the south and situated between the eastern coast of the American continents and the western coasts of Europe and Africa.
The South Atlantic is arbitrarily separated from the Indian Ocean on the east by the 20° east meridian and from the Pacific on the west along the line of shallowest depth between Cape Horn and the Antarctic Peninsula.
www.cartage.org.lb /en/themes/GeogHist/histories/history/hiscountries/A/atlanticocean.html   (1285 words)

Cross-section of Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 37 degrees N from Macdonald (1982).
Smith and Cann (1992) used bathymetric data to construct this map of volcanoes on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
Super-slow mid-ocean ridges move at rates of less than 25 mm/year and are considered to be the most common type of ridge (when measured by the length of ridge).
volcano.und.nodak.edu /vwdocs/Submarine/plates/diverg/slow.html   (482 words)

 PBS - The Voyage of the Odyssey - Track the Voyage - ATLANTIC OCEAN
The Mid-Ocean Ridge is an underwater series of mountain ranges that snakes a remarkable 40,000 miles (64,000 kilometers) around the globe, from the Arctic, through the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean and across the Pacific Ocean.
The second largest ocean, the Atlantic, stretches Pole to Pole and is dissected almost down the centre (north to south) by the jagged spine of the mid-Atlantic ridge.
Geological similarities on either side of the Atlantic, not to mention fossilized remains of plants and animals, supported and reinforced the notion that the sea floor was spreading.
www.pbs.org /odyssey/odyssey/20050530_log_transcript.html   (1069 words)

 Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Mid-ocean ridge that runs along the centre of the Atlantic Ocean, parallel to its edges, for some 14,000 km/8,800 mi – almost from the Arctic to the Antarctic.
The Mid-Atlantic Ridge runs down the centre of the ocean because the ocean crust has continually grown outwards from the ridge at a steady rate during the past 200 million years.
Thingvellir marks the position of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a constructive plate boundary where new material is formed by the cooling of lava.
www.tiscali.co.uk /reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0007751.html   (530 words)

 Mid-Atlantic Ridge [This Dynamic Earth, USGS]
The Mid-Atlantic Ridge, which splits nearly the entire Atlantic Ocean north to south, is probably the best-known and most-studied example of a divergent-plate boundary.
pubs.usgs.gov /gip/dynamic/ridge.html   (32 words)

 Plate Tectonics Mid Atlantic Ridge
What began as a small crack in the Earth's crust is now the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a giant undersea mountain range.
As magma rises to escape along this ridge new crust is formed, sea-floors spread, and continents drift around the globe.
As the two land masses separated, the surrounding water rushed in to fill the gap between them, and the Atlantic Ocean was born.
www.platetectonics.com /oceanfloors/africa.asp   (130 words)

 Mid-Atlantic Ridge
N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is one of the largest sea floor deposits and has been intensively studied over the past few years.
It is located at the mid-point of a 40 km long ridge segment at the base of the eastern median valley wall.
It consists of three mounds aligned east-west and elongated in a direction parallel to the ridge axis.
www.agu.org /revgeophys/humphr01/node5.html   (907 words)

 Viewing the Morphology of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge From a New Perspective
Based on this model, the hummocks and hummocky ridges that dominate the small-scale volcanic morphology of the AVR in the 29° N segment are formed by the focusing of fissure eruptions to several vents; the seamount is formed by the rapid evolution of an eruption to a single vent.
The along-axis orientation of the ridge mimics neighboring faults and fissures, and it is inferred to have erupted from similar fissures.
Hummocks and hummocky ridges are produced as the eruption becomes confined to several discrete vents, similar to subaerial spatter cones or spatter ramparts that form along fissures (Figure 4).
www.agu.org /sci_soc/eosdksmith.html   (2756 words)

 The Tsunami Risks Project - Study: North Atlantic
To all intents and purposes it is almost impossible to determine whether or not the mid-Atlantic Ridge has functioned as a source for tsunamis in the recent past.
In theory it is possible that tsunamis may be generated as a result of volcanic activity and related land movements in the area of the mid-Atlantic Ridge (Figure 1).
It is worthy of note that of the three tsunamis described above the only one known to have traversed the Atlantic Ocean (Lisbon 1755 AD) is the one generated by an offshore earthquake, the other two both having been principally due to underwater slumping and sliding.
www.nerc-bas.ac.uk /tsunami-risks/html/HSE1Sources.htm   (792 words)

 Mid-Atlantic Ridge and Valley, Physiographic Area 12 - Executive Summary
Mid-Atlantic Ridge and Valley, Physiographic Area 12 - Executive Summary
Predominant vegetation consists of oak and oak-hickory forests on the ridges and northern hardwood forest in the Allegheny Mountains.
Important relict patches of spruce-fir exist in the Allegheny Mountains and on higher mountains along the ridge and valley of Virginia.
www.blm.gov /wildlife/pl_12sum.htm   (804 words)

 Tour of Some Iceland Geology
Iceland sits astride the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, part of the world-circling undersea mountain system that is the locus of new crust formation.
Reykjanes Peninsula is the onshore continuation of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
The rift valley that lies at the crest of the ridge extends in a northeast direction along the peninsula, from Reykjanes, in the southwest, to Vogar and the airport road, in the northeast.
www.pangaeasci.com /_iceland.htm   (1962 words)

 A new look at geological and oceanographic data
Atlantis may have "surfaced" several times during the long geological history of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
The Ridge is the most active area on the face of the earth, and we will examine the evidence that a central Atlantic landmass has indeed existed several times in the geologic past.
If the Atlantic landmass happened to be inhabited by humans, these violent disturbances could well have been the cause of the four Cro-Magnon "invasions" outlined on the Anthropological page of this web site.
www.atlantisquest.com /Geology.html   (1955 words)

Scientists from 16 nations around the northern Atlantic Ocean are participating in research of the waters around the mid-Atlantic Ridge from Iceland to the Azores.
MAR-ECO is an international exploratory study of the animals inhabiting the northern mid-Atlantic.
And the ridges are rugged, with only minor patches of level soft-bottom in-between bare rock and mountainous terrain.
www.mar-eco.no   (326 words)

 Wired News: Mysteries of the Ocean Deepen
Marine scientists conducting the first comprehensive deep-sea probes of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge stepped ashore in Bergen, Norway, this week, excited by their discovery of several suspected new species and a baffling mystery creature.
The two-month, Norwegian-led international expedition studied marine life ecosystems in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a chain of undersea mountains running between Iceland and the Azores.
One of the least explored areas on the planet, the Mid-Atlantic Ridge astonished scientists by being more like a coral reef than a desert.
www.wired.com /news/technology/0,1282,64483,00.html?tw=wn_tophead_3   (928 words)

 Acoustics Monitoring Program: Mid-Atlantic Ridge Seismicity
Seismicity from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge between ~15ºN and ~35ºN has been monitored since February, 1999 using SOFAR hydrophones.
Six of NOAA/PMEL’s autonomous underwater hydrophones were deployed and moored within the ocean sound channel along the MAR flanks.
www.pmel.noaa.gov /vents/acoustics/seismicity/mar/mar_seis.html   (143 words)

 The Earth At Work
Mid-ocean ridges like the Mid-Atlantic ridge shown at right are the purest and most developed examples of divergent plate boundaries, but less oceanic examples include the Red Sea and the Gulf of California.
Since mid-ocean ridges are the cleanest examples of spreading centers, we'll describe one next, but underneath their sedimentary covers, if any, all spreading centers look and work pretty much alike.
What drives the divergent plate motion across the ridge is still not entirely clear, but gravity appears to be the prime mover via a combination of hinge rollback and ridge slide.
www.cliffshade.com /colorado/tectonics.htm   (12224 words)

 Petro Project
Because Iceland lies on the Mid Atlantic Ridge, it is being split by the movements of the North American Plate and the Eurasian Plate.
The volcanism on Iceland is attributed to the combination of Mid Atlantic Ridge activity and hot spot activity.
The ridge breaks the surface of the ocean in several places forming islands such as Iceland, the Azores, Ascension, Saint Helena, Tristan da Cunha, Saint Peter and Saint Paul Rocks, and Bouvet.
www.eas.slu.edu /People/Students/MPyle/petrology/Petro_Project.html   (548 words)

 The American Museum of Natural History - EarthBulletin - Volcanoes - Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Although the mountains of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge tower above the deep ocean plains on either side of the ridge, they seldom reach the surface of the ocean.
In the Atlantic Ocean, the great undersea mountain range this process formed is called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
The American Museum of Natural History - EarthBulletin - Volcanoes - Mid-Atlantic Ridge
earthbulletin.amnh.org /A/6/4   (330 words)

 MAR: Introduction to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is one of the earth's largest undersea mountain ranges at a length of nearly 10,000 km.
Reporting from the decks of the research ship Atlantis, from the middle of the Atlantic Ocean, we invite you to join an international team of scientists as they spend almost four weeks exploring an unusual mountain called the Atlantis Massif, which is part of the extensive Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
Join us on this journey of exploration to the frontiers of the seafloor and dive alongside scientists to restless undersea mountains of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
earthguide.ucsd.edu /mar/intro.html   (483 words)

The Mid-Atlantic Ridge separates the Atlantic Ocean into two large troughs with depths averaging between 3,700 and 5,500 m (12,000 and 18,000 ft).
Divergent boundaries are typified in the oceanic lithosphere by the rifts of the ridgeoceanic ridge system, including the Mid-Atlantic RidgeMid-Atlantic Ridge, and in the continental lithosphere by rift valleys such as the famous East African Great Rift Valley.
Significant progress was made in the 1960s, and was prompted by a number of discoveries, most notably the Mid-Atlantic ridgeMid-Atlantic ridge.
www.worldhistory.com /wiki/M/Mid-Atlantic-Ridge.htm   (1562 words)

 References for Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 15°N
Dmitriev and Y. Fouquet, Ultramafic and gabbroic exposures at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge: geological mapping in the 15°N region.
M. Cannat, J.F. Casey, An ultramafic lift at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge: successive stages of magmatism in serpentinized peridotites from the 15°N region, in: R.L.M. Vissers, A. Nicolas (Eds.), Mantle and Lower Crust Exposed in Oceanic Ridges and in Ophiolites, Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1995, pp.
L. Dosso, H. Bougault and J.-L. Joron, Geochemical morphology of the North Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 10°-24°N: trace element-isotope complementary.
www.palmod.uni-bremen.de /FB5/Ozeankruste/SPP1144/Ref_15gradN.html   (797 words)

 WHOI : Media Relations : News Release : Historic Dives: Two Deep-Sea Submersibles Exploring Earth's Inner Space on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is a part of the Mid-Ocean Ridge, a 46,000-mile long undersea mountain range that circles the earth like the seams on a baseball.
The American and French subs are exploring areas on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge not far from the Azores, where new ocean floor crust is forming, creating the right conditions for the formation of hydrothermal vents full of new species of life, including shrimp, mussels, fish and worms.
Sunlight supports plant growth via photosynthesis on land, but since there is no sunlight on the seafloor, deep-sea bacteria at the vents oxidize hydrogen sulfide coming from the earth's interior in a process known as chemosynthesis, converting carbon dioxide to organic carbon that the shrimp and mussels eat to survive.
www.whoi.edu /mr/pr.do?id=1268   (853 words)

 Deborah Smith's Homepage
In January 1999, six autonomous hydrophones, designed and built by NOAA’s Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL), were moored on the flanks of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) between 15 and 35N to monitor the seismicity of a portion of this slow-spreading ridge [Smith et al., 2001].
Listen to earthquakes at 16.5 N at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge recorded by the hydrophones (whale call in the background).
Spatial and temporal distribution of seismicity along the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (15
humm.whoi.edu /projects/projects.htm   (568 words)

 Lost City Expedition: The Mid-Atlantic Ridge and Spreading
The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is the branch of the mid-ocean ridge that runs up the middle of the floor of the Atlantic Ocean.
At the rift in the middle of mid-ocean ridges, volcanoes, circulating hot water, and very peculiar animals all come together.
The cold seawater on the bottom of the ocean chills the lava very quickly and it forms lumpy masses called pillow basalts (basalts are a very common type of black volcanic rock).
www.lostcity.washington.edu /science/geology/midatlanticridge.html   (388 words)

Generally, the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is visible in the mean sea surface as a long high with a thin depression in the center all along the Ridge, the so-called axial rift.
The Mid Atlantic Ridge is also visible, with numerous fracture zone running perpendicular to it.
The ridge running from Iceland to the northeast is an active spreading ridge.
www.deos.tudelft.nl /papers/hamburg/node12.html   (456 words)

 Mid-ocean ridge tectonics
Because the velocity-space diagram for the relative plate motions is almost an isosceles triangle near Bouvet, some authors have speculated that the triple junction may be a ridge-fault-fault type (with the Mid-Atlantic Ridge terminating at two transform faults).
Although we know that faulting at mid-ocean ridges occurs near the ridge axes, we know very few further details on the timing of fault growth, which is important for understanding their mechanical behaviour.
Fast-spread ridge flanks are smooth whereas slow-spread ridge flanks are very rugged, and consequently vast areas of the ocean floors are covered with rough or smooth abyssal hills depending on the type of ridge crest they were produced at.
www.ocean.cf.ac.uk /people/neil/mor/mor.html   (901 words)

 Understanding plate motions [This Dynamic Earth, USGS]
The volcanic country of Iceland, which straddles the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, offers scientists a natural laboratory for studying on land the processes also occurring along the submerged parts of a spreading ridge.
Oceanic fracture zones are ocean-floor valleys that horizontally offset spreading ridges; some of these zones are hundreds to thousands of kilometers long and as much as 8 km deep.
Seafloor spreading over the past 100 to 200 million years has caused the Atlantic Ocean to grow from a tiny inlet of water between the continents of Europe, Africa, and the Americas into the vast ocean that exists today.
pubs.usgs.gov /gip/dynamic/understanding.html   (2502 words)

 COAST - Deep Ocean Basins - Oceanic Ridges - Mid-Atlantic Ridge
The Mid-Atlantic Ridge marks the divergent boundary that runs through the middle of the Atlantic Ocean.
When operating the movie showing the Mid-Atlantic Ridge you may adjust the vertical scale by moving the mouse up and down and can change your position by moving left or right.
Cracks perpendicular to the ridge are transform faults, planes along which portions of the plates slide horizontally past each other.
www.coast-nopp.org /visualization_modules/physical_chemical/basin_coastal_morphology/principal_features/deep_ocean/oceanic_ridges/mid_atlantic.html   (139 words)

 Orion Lion's Mid-Atlantic Ridge Symposium
The MAR divergent boundary forms a continuous basaltic ridge between the Eurasian and North American continental plates in the North Atlantic, and the African and South American continental plates in the South Atlantic.
My hypothesis is that the MAR divergent boundary (with or without the help of lower Ice Age sea levels) may have generated several islands during the evolution of the Atlantic Ocean's plate tectonic scenario.
The dynamic driving mechanism behind spreading centers such as MAR was first proposed by Harry Hess of Princeton University in the early 1960’s.
www.geocities.com /CapeCanaveral/Lab/1884/MidAtlRid.html   (1984 words)

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