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Topic: Military fiat


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  FIAT   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Fiat was to make military machinery and vehicles during World War II for the Italian Army and Air Force.
Fiat made fighter aircraft, which was one of the most common Italian aircraft used along with the Savoia-Marchetti, and also made light tanks and armored vehicles.
Fiat has factories in Brazil, Turkey, China and India, where local variants of Fiats are produced as well as the world car, the Palio.
abcworld.net /FIAT.html   (901 words)

  
  Info and facts on 'Military fiat'   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Military fiat is a process whereby a decision is made and enforced by military (The military forces of a nation) means without the participation of other political elements.
Historically, military fiat had no relation to particular theories of economics or how to use the power of the state ("political science (The study of government of states and other political units) ").
The use of the military fiat to back economic transactions is what a given theory of political economy (The branch of social science that deals with the production and distribution and consumption of goods and services and their management) actually justifies, e.g.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/m/mi/military_fiat.htm   (1097 words)

  
 Military fiat - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Military fiat is a process whereby a decision is made and enforced by military means without the participation of other political elements.
Marxist economists generally hold that military fiat is in practice held exclusively by members of the ruling class and used for its own interests against that of the working class.
Bush, declared that the implicit control of military and economic affairs implied by both pacts were unacceptable to the United States, committed to retaining its own fiat and power to act unilaterally, "without the participation of other political elements" outside the United States, regardless of impact on other countries.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Military_fiat   (984 words)

  
 Fiat - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Fiat is also a theorhetical construct in policy debate.
Fiat S.p.A. (also known as the FIAT Group) (NYSE: FIA) is an automobile manufacturer, financial and industrial group based in Turin, Northern Italy.
Fiat made fighter aircraft, which was one of the most common Italian aircraft used along with the Savoia-Marchetti, and also made light tanks and armored vehicles.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Fiat   (2957 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Fiat money or fiat currency, is money such as paper money, that is current or legal tender as satisfaction for money debts by government fiat, that is by law not by convention (fiat is from the Latin "let it be").
What exactly is a "fiat" currency is a matter of some debate, with a spectrum of opinion that runs from hard money advocates which declare that anything other than a one to one currency basis is "fiat money", to a range of economic theories which hold that market dynamics enforce fiscal discipline.
Neo-classical economists respond that no nation is required to belong to any of these organizations, and that states such as Cuba and North Korea retain a strict military fiat and retain their own absolute control of currency, especially hard currency easily traded for goods on the Western markets.
www.kisanji.org /default.aspx?modulo=wikipedia&arg=Fiat_money   (2530 words)

  
 Fiat article - Fiat automobile manufacturer English authority Fiat money Military - What-Means.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Fiat also has a subsidiary in Poland at Tychy,(formerly called FSM) where Fiat's small cars (the 126, Cinquecento and now Seicento) are made.
Fiat has factories in Brazil, Turkey, China and India, where local variants of Fiats are produced as well as the world car, the Palio.
Fiat models imported into the USA were so infamous for poor reliability that the acronym FIAT was said to stand for "Fix it again, Tony".
www.what-means.com /encyclopedia/Fiat   (819 words)

  
 Fiat   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Fiat is a major automobile manufacturer, financial and industrial group based in Turin, northern Italy.
His grandson Gianni Agnelli was Fiat president from 1966 until his death in January 2003.
Fiat also has factories in Poland at Tychy, where Fiats small cars (the 126, Cinquecento and now Seicento) are made, The company was formely called FSM.
bopedia.com /en/wikipedia/f/fi/fiat.html   (654 words)

  
 Armed force
Militaries in many larger countries are divided into an army, an air force, and a navy (if necessary).
On the other hand they may also harm a society by engaging in counter-productive (or merely unsuccessful) warfare, by domestic repression, or simply by supporting the idea that violence (or the threat thereof) is the way to get what one wants.
Military investment in science and technology sometimes produces side benefits, although some claim that greater benefits could come from targeting the money directly towards things that would improve life instead of ending it.
www.brainyencyclopedia.com /encyclopedia/a/ar/armed_force.html   (628 words)

  
 2005 Oltre Fiat Concept — The New Military Car - BornRich
This manly Oltre Fiat show car was displayed on December 6 at the Bologna Motor Show.
The fiat car has inherited all the features of the military model and also has a complete rollover bar inside the cab.
Pimped-Out Amphibian Russian Military Vehicle Wondering, what’s with this pimped-out military vehicle for you to...
www.bornrich.org /entry/2005-oltre-fiat-concept-the-new-military-car   (663 words)

  
 Military   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
The study of the use of Armed Forces is called military science.Broadly speaking, this involves considering offense and defense at three "levels": strategy, operativeart, and tactics.
On the otherhand they may also harm a society by engaging in counter-productive (or merely unsuccessful) warfare, by domestic repression, orsimply by supporting the idea that violence (or the threat thereof) is the way toget what one wants.
Military investment in science and technology sometimes produces side benefits, although greater benefits could come fromtargeting the money directly towards things that would improve life instead of ending it.
www.therfcc.org /military-1561.html   (520 words)

  
 IS-012000-Nolt
China's military strength is now often being exaggerated both by China itself, to avoid being taken for granted by the West, and by Western commentators, some of whom are merely ignorant of China's limited military capabilities, while others are interested in promoting a new justification for maintaining high military spending in the post-Cold-War era.
Military experts in China must realize, however, that if the Taiwanese armed forces were to choose resistance, the PLA might have to fight a real war, for which their forces are ill prepared.
Indecisive use of military force is unlikely to win sympathy in Taiwan for rule from Beijing, but merely alienate the people (or at least the armed forces) of Taiwan and harden their resolve to resist.
taiwansecurity.org /IS/IS-012000-Nolt.htm   (10870 words)

  
 Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Fiat
Fiat S.p.A. is an automobile manufacturer, financial and industrial group based in Turin, northern Italy.
After Fiat ceased importing cars into the United States, however, they continued to be imported into Canada, as did Soviet versions of Fiat models.
Fiat's history of cheap cars has left a negative image in many countries, especially Germany, where Fiat cars are considered unreliable and badly built.
www.reference.com /browse/wiki/Fiat   (922 words)

  
 Fiat - Freepedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
His grandson Gianni Agnelli was Fiat chairman from 1966 until his death on January 24, 2003, when he was succeeded by his brother Umberto Agnelli.
Fiat was to make military machinery and vehicles during World War II for the Italian Army and Air Force.
After Fiat ceased importing cars into the United States in 1984, and Australia in 1989 however, they continued to be imported into Canada, as did Soviet versions of Fiat models.
en.freepedia.org /Fiat.html   (941 words)

  
 Fiat
Fiat also built successful aircraft during the 1920s and 30s including the CR.32 bi-plane fighter.
After the war, Fiat entered the jet age by building U.S. and British aircraft and engines under license as well as light aircraft of their own design.
Fiat's engine division continued as a separate company and was renamed Fiat Aviazione in 1976 and simply Avio in 2003.
www.shanaberger.com /engines/fiat.htm   (167 words)

  
 Commodity Broker   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Considering the many hazards of climate, piracy, theft and abuse of military fiat by rulers of kingdoms along the trade routes, it was a major focus of these civilizations to keep markets open and trading in these scarce commodities.
Despite the shift to fiat money, and credit money, direct commodity trade and barter has always remained active in the background in some form or another, and seems to have been revived due to global capitalism, wherein nearly every currency is widely traded as a commodity.
In part this is because transport, agricultural equipment, and protections of supplies by states' military fiat remain critical to trade, and all of this tends to run on oil.
www.commoditybrokernet.com   (2786 words)

  
 Fiat Pax :: Let There Be Peace   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Fiat Pax is a project to explore these questions with a specific emphasis on the militarization of science, technology, and higher education.
Fiat Pax is a research project intended to demonstrate the destructive effect that militarism has upon institutions of higher learning.
Our efforts to uncover and understand the militarization of universities in the United States is part of a larger movement that seeks intellectual freedom and social responsibility in the university, and democracy, equality of opportunity, and social justice in the entire educational system.
www.fiatpax.net   (168 words)

  
 Learn more about Armed force in the online encyclopedia.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
An Armed Force is formed for the defensive purpose of controlling territory or other economic resources, and/or for the offensive purpose of seizing the same from another entity.
Military investment in science and technology has brought many side benefits, although some argue that greater benefits would come from targetting the money directly at wanted technologies and basic science.
See also: Military Science, Military History, Military Junta, Military tactics, Military technology and equipment and Military academy, Military incompetence, Military fiat, Military Aid to the Civil Power, Military Aid to the Civil Community\n
www.onlineencyclopedia.org /a/ar/armed_force.html   (645 words)

  
 Atomic Spaces: Introduction   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Yet the map is therean implicit and crucial backdrop to the scientific and military achievements of the Manhattan Project.
This is a story about the birth of America's atomic spaces, their creation by military fiat and necessity, their occupation by people, buildings, and social networks, their consolidation into a new type of cultural environment, penetrating work, leisure, environment, language, and belief, and present even today as a significant, if surreptitious, strain of American culture.
Groves himself represented a larger tradition of military bureaucracy devoted to the manipulation and transformation of American spaces to the goal of greater efficiency and the control of nature, imbedded within the Army Corps of Engineers.
www.press.uillinois.edu /demo/hales/intro.html   (2187 words)

  
 Knights Templar   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
At one point, they were to inherit the kingdom of Aragon, jointly with other military orders.
On October 13, 1307, what may have been all the Knights Templar in France were simultaneously arrested by agents of Philip the Fair (Philippe le Bel), to be later tortured into admitting heresy in the Order.
This, and the Templars' original banking of assets for suddenly-mobile depositors, were two of many shifts towards a system of military fiat to back European money, removing this power from Church Orders.
bopedia.com /en/wikipedia/k/kn/knights_templar.html   (886 words)

  
 University of Minnesota Human Rights Library
A military coup d'etat and the summary deportation of the head of state cannot be legitimized by the destruction of the nation's fundamental charter or by unsupportable claims, made under the threat of the use of force, that one is acting in the name of democracy and human rights.
It should be noted that the 1987 Constitution deprived the military of control over elections and subordinated the military to civilian rule, as is the case in all democratic constitutions in the world.
Logically, a military government undermines the institutionalization of a democratic state, and having deported the President, suppressed the legislature and abrogated the Constitution, it can only claim to be acting in the name of "democracy", in an Orwellian reversal of meaning, where words signify the opposite of their accepted connotations.
www1.umn.edu /humanrts/iachr/country-reports/haiti1988-ch1.html   (10477 words)

  
 ::: Regional Center for Strategic Studies :::
Under such dispensations constitutional provisions were kept in abeyance, constitutional amendments were made by military fiat; all forms of political activities were suspended; civil administration was made subservient to the military, and there was direct military interference in all matters of the state, including judicial administration and the system.
Extended periods of military rule in Bangladesh have contributed to the erosion of confidence in the civilian regimes to assert their authority vis a vis the military.
A study therefore of military expenditure in Sri Lanka is then of topical interest as a phenomena of recent experience, as a problem in its impact on other sections of the economy, and in its influence on a more comprehensive concept of national security.
www.rcss.org /policy_studies/ps_11.html   (11106 words)

  
 Africa Update
It, however, was annulled by the military government of General Babangida when it became clear that Bashorun M. Abiola, an individual who apparently was not acceptable to the military establishment, had clearly won the election.
It was in consideration of the fact that all attempts made in 1963, 1973, 1983, 1993 to move from one democratically elected government to another had been abrogated either by military fiat or some other calamity that Nigerians began to speak of the “democracy jinx” occurring every ten years.
The election of the former military ruler in the primaries must have affected the overall chances of ANPP not only in Igbo-speaking areas, but generally in the South because many observers were anticipating a clash of southern-based candidates for the Presidential election.
www.ccsu.edu /afstudy/upd11-4.html   (3096 words)

  
 Nigeria: Recent Documents, Part 2   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
First, the untidy departure of the Obasanjo military regime following the "13 is two-thirds of 19" Shagari election of 1979 did not augur well for our democratic future, and the massive rigging of the elections four years later merely confirmed the earlier charade.
They featured, among other shenanigans, the formation of two parties by government, the writing of their manifestos ("a little to the left, a little to the right"), the building of party headquarters, the selection of party liaisons, all coupled with the countless disqualifications and re-qualifications of presidential candidates.
With respect to the third and final issue of alternative scenarios to the resolution of the crisis acceptable to the majority of Nigerians, it is unfortunate to say first that the time is short, and secondly that there are very few alternative scenarios to achieving lasting peace in Nigeria.
www.africaaction.org /docs95/mal9506.htm   (1832 words)

  
 The Sun News On-line| Opinion News   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
We have always argued that the simplistic and generalised dismissal of military government in Nigeria as having been corrupt and inefficient ignores certain complex and relevant truths.
The states, the parties, and even the Constitution all fall into this category, and anyone who understands the impulses of the fraternal community that is the military will understand why for some time to come the influence of a certain generation of former military officers in Nigerian politics will continue to be of paramount importance.
One of the most resonant memories from the military era in the collective psyche of the Nigerian political soul is the notorious cry of "Ali must go".
www.sunnewsonline.com /webpages/opinion/2005/sep/1/opinion-01-09-2005-001.htm   (1338 words)

  
 FindLaw's Writ - Falvy: The Limits of Free Speech in the Military
The military is perhaps not the best career choice for someone bent on the vigorous exercise of civil liberties.
The UCMJ is not the product of military fiat, but rather a 1950 act of Congress.
Their military service is more likely a temporary status than a career choice.
writ.news.findlaw.com /scripts/printer_friendly.pl?page=/commentary/20030619_falvy.html   (1511 words)

  
 Essay - MORAL CHAOS
Chile, which Pinochet ruled by military fiat from 1973 to 1989, is a remarkable country.
Pinochet was strongly supported as military ruler: a plebiscite, held in 1980, stands to prove it.
It is a political situation open to the abuses of ideological revolutionaries, not merely nationalists, and the PKK is a case in point.
www.aijac.org.au /review/1999/241/essay241.html   (3811 words)

  
 Untitled Document   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
He demanded the confiscation of property, arming the slaves, emancipating slaves in conquered areas by military fiat, and enforcing submission by "desolating" the South, exterminating the "rebels," abolishing state lines, and recolonizing the region.
They were climaxed by the imposition of military rule and Negro-carpetbagger government over the South for and Negro-carpetbagger government over the South for the next ten years.
The legacy was an "age of hate" that sharpened racial antagonism, unified the southern whites into the Democratic party, embittered political life, and delayed the social and economic revival of the southern states.
www.phmc.state.pa.us /ppet/stevens/page5.asp   (374 words)

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