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Topic: Military of the Ottoman Empire

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  ottoman empire - Article and Reference from OnPedia.com
The Empire reached its apex under Suleiman I in the 16th century when it stretched from the Persian Gulf in the east to Hungary in the northwest; and from Egypt in the south to the Caucasus in the north.
The Empire was situated in the middle of East and West and interacted throughout its 6 century history with both the East and the West.
The Ottoman Empire was defeated by the Allies during the war and its territories were colonized by the victors.
www.onpedia.com /encyclopedia/Ottoman-Empire   (1322 words)

 Ottoman Empire - MSN Encarta
Ottoman Empire, dynastic state centered in what is now Turkey, founded in the late 13th century and dismantled in the early 20th century.
After his death the empire experienced severe internal crises, including disorder in the provinces, unrest in the military as serious inflation caused soldiers to be underpaid or not paid at all, and succession issues due to the lack of candidates who were of age to assume the sultanate.
To be an Ottoman one had to serve the state and the religion and know the “Ottoman way.” Serving the state meant having a position within the military, the bureaucracy, or the religious establishment that carried with it the coveted askeri status and tax exemption.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761553949/Ottoman_Empire.html   (6098 words)

 Ottoman Empire   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
The Ottoman Empire was a Turkish state in the Middle East that comprised Anatolia part of Southwest Asia North Africa and south-eastern Europe in the 14th to 20th centuries established by a tribe of Oghuz Turks in western Anatolia.
The Empire reached its apex under Suleiman the Magnificent in the 16th century when it stretched from the Persian Gulf in the east to Hungary in the northwest; and from Egypt in the south to the Caucasus in the north.
Ottoman state organisation was based on a with the sultan in the top and him his viziers other court officials and military commanders.
www.freeglossary.com /Ottoman_Empire   (1236 words)

 ipedia.com: Ottoman Empire Article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
The Ottoman Empire was among the world's most powerful political entities in the 16th and 17th centuries when the nations of Europe felt threatened by its steady advance through the Balkans.
Ottoman state organisation was based on a hierarchy with the sultan in the top and below him his viziers, other court officials and military commanders.
For centuries, the Ottoman Empire was the refuge of the Jews of Europe.
www.ipedia.com /ottoman_empire.html   (883 words)

 Rendeciler orman ürünleri ltd- keresteci-
Although the Ottoman Empire is not considered a European kingdom per se, Ottoman expansion had a profound impact on a continent already stunned by the calamities of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries and the Ottoman Turks must, therefore, be considered in any study of Europe in the late Middle Ages.
While the gazi warriors fought for Islam, the greatest military asset of the Ottoman Empire was the standing paid army of Christian soldiers, the Janissaries.
Some historians consider that this policy of imprisonment contributed to the decline of the Ottoman Empire as mentally unstable and politically inexperienced sultans were rescued from prison and placed upon the throne.
elba.globat.com /~rendeciler.com/turkey/ottoman.htm   (1706 words)

 Ottoman Empire Summary
With the Mongol Empire extending to west, the Kayı became a puppet and vassal of the Il Khanate of the Mongol Empire.
According to Ottoman understanding, the state's primary responsibility was to defend and extend the land of the Muslims and to ensure security and harmony within its borders within the overarching context of orthodox sunni Islamic practice and dynastic sovereignty.
Ultimately, the Ottoman Empire's relatively high degree of tolerance on the level of ethnicity proved to be one of its greatest strengths in integrating the new regions until the rise of nationalism under the Ottoman Empire.
www.bookrags.com /Ottoman_Empire   (10298 words)

 The Ottomans: European Imperialism and Crisis
Ottoman history in the nineteenth century was dominated by European wars and expansion.
The old military state, confident in its ability to protect the Islamic world from European predation, was crumbling in its confidence because of a series of defeats and draws in wars with Russia.
By 1919, the Ottoman Empire was reduced to Turkey only, which extended from the southern European shores of the Black Sea, to Asia Minor in the west, to Iran in the east, and Syria and Iraq, newly created states in 1919, in the south.
www.wsu.edu:8080 /~dee/OTTOMAN/EUROPE.HTM   (1238 words)

 Royalty.nu - Sultans of the Ottoman Empire - History of Turkey
The Ottoman Empire arose from a Turkish principality founded in Anatolia (Asia Minor) at the end of the 13th century, when the empire of the Seljuk Turks had collapsed and the Byzantine Empire was crumbling.
The modernization of the empire during the 19th and early 20th centuries, the spread of nationalism, the empire's demise, and the rise of the Republic of Turkey.
Ottomans, Hungarians, and Habsburgs in Central Europe: The Military Confines in the Era of Ottoman Conquest edited by Pal Fodor and Geza David.
www.royalty.nu /history/empires/Ottoman   (2595 words)

 [No title]
This volume covers the rise of the Ottomans, and their early years of fighting for a foothold across the Bosphorus, before exploring the main campaigns and the part played by such elite troops as the Janissaries and the Sipahis.
On the occupied territories, the Ottoman Empire immediately established its authorities and founded its military and administrative districts, the so-called sanjaks, which were divided intojuridical districts, the so-called cadiluks.
The empire flourished under his direction; the population grew, road and caravansary networks were extended, trade prospered, and his military machine enjoyed success after success.
www.lycos.com /info/ottoman-empire--miscellaneous.html   (669 words)

 End of Europe's Middle Ages - Ottoman Turks
The ease with which the Ottoman Empire achieved military victories led Western Europeans to fear that ongoing Ottoman success would collapse the political and social infrastructure of the West and bring about the downfall of Christendom.
A Hungarian-Polish army was decimated at Varna in 1444 by Murad II (c.1403-1451) and Ottoman conquests were virtually unchecked during the reign of his son, Mehmed II the Conqueror (1432-1481).
Although Ottoman expansion was greatly feared in the late Middle Ages, the Ottomans generally allowed religious groups to continue to practice their own faiths within the conquered territories.
www.ucalgary.ca /applied_history/tutor/endmiddle/ottoman.html   (1146 words)

 The Ottomans and their dynasty - All About Turkey
The siege was unsuccessful and the Turks began to retreat.
The founder of the Ottoman Empire, Osman succeeded his father to a small territory granted by the Seljuk Turks.
Succeeded his father as ruler of the Ottoman Empire in 1359, Murad I captured Thrace in 1363 and by 1369, he had conquered Bulgaria, Macedonia, and Serbia.
www.allaboutturkey.com /ottoman.htm   (1769 words)

 Military of the Ottoman Empire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The first military of the Ottoman Empire was an army that was organized by Osman I from Turkish tribesmen inhabiting western Anatolia in the late 14th century.
Ottoman military bands are thought to be the oldest variety of military marching band in the world.
The Ottoman navy would continue be a significant power until the introduction of newer European warships in the 18th century.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Military_of_the_Ottoman_Empire   (1344 words)

 MEHTER (Ottoman Empire military band)
In the Ottoman Empire, military bands were an essential element of the shock troop tactics of the Janissary soldiers.
The history of Mehter, which is known as the oldest military band of the world, was written in the 8th century and extends to the Orkun Inscriptions, the oldest written source of Turkish history.
Mehter was re-established in the Military museum, in 1914 to represent the old Janissary Band and the army.
www.us-tr.com /icerik/music/mehter.html   (684 words)

 The principles of Ottoman rule in the Balkans
The Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg Empire are often (and usefully) presented together as natural rivals: one Catholic, the other Muslim; one western and European, the other eastern and Asian.
In its prime the Ottoman Empire was defined by its ruler, by its faith and by its military, all acting together.
Ottoman slavery was based in the capture of military captives, who became the property of their captor.
www.lib.msu.edu /sowards/balkan/lecture3.html   (4207 words)

 Ottoman Empire - Crystalinks
The empire they built was the largest and most influential of the Muslim empires of the modern period, and their culture and military expansion crossed over into Europe.
While historians like to talk about empires in terms of growth and decline, the Ottomans were a force to be reckoned with, militarily and culturally, right up until the break-up of the empire in the first decades of this century.
The Ottoman Empire was a vast state founded in the late 13th century by Turkish tribes in Anatolia and ruled by the descendants of Osman I until its dissolution in 1918.
www.crystalinks.com /ottomanempire.html   (1735 words)

 Military Organization of the Ottoman Empire
It was this type of mukand#1074;ta'a that developed into the Ottoman form of fief--called a timar--that was the basis of Ottoman military and administrative organization as the European portions of the empire were conquered from the vassals in the 15th century and placed under direct Ottoman administration.
The provincial forces maintained and provided by the timar holders constituted the Ottoman cavalry and were called spahis, while the irregular akncis and salaried yayas and mand#1100;sellems were relegated to rear-line duties and lost their military and political importance.
When the Ottoman Empire was restored under Sultan Mehmed I, the Turkish notables, in order to deprive the sultan of the only military force he could use to resist their control, required him to abandon the kapkulu, justifying the action on the basis of the Islamic tradition that Muslims could not be kept in slavery.
turkmeniya.tripod.com /id24.html   (1059 words)

 Ottoman Empire
This, however was not the peak of the Ottoman Empire´s power and influence; the peak of the Empire did not occur until the sixteenth century.
Ottoman society is governed primarily by the religion of Islam; Islamic Shari’ah laws predominate, and the mosque and daily prayer rituals of Islam are prevalent in all walks of life.
The Ottomans do not have a long knightly tradition; the battlearmoured knight on his destrier is not one of the cornerstones of their army, though the few Saracen farisi that do not fight for the Mamelukes are part of their Empire.
mywebpages.comcast.net /rumtigger2/Nations/ottoman.htm   (2742 words)

 History of the Ottoman Empire - Decline and Fall
The heavy tax burden was responsible in part for revolts in Anatolia, abandonment of farm lands, and depopulation of villages; thus the empire experienced a decline in tax revenues despite higher taxes.
In the 1850s-60s, intellectuals known as the New Ottomans” engaged in a liberal critique of Tanzimat policies with emphasis on fatherland (vatan), freedom (hurriget), and constitutionalism.
With even the heartlands of the Empire partitioned and Istanbul occupied by the victorious allies, the Turks of Anatolia under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) rejected the terms of the dictated Treaty of Sevres.
www.turizm.net /turkey/history/ottoman3.html   (1378 words)

 Emerging Nationalims   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
The Ottomans might have been able simply to ignore European intellectual development if it had been solely a matter of art, literature and philosophy, but they could not ignore the presence of European armies at their gates, armies made stronger than their own through technology.
The Advance of the Ottoman Empire until the time of Suleyman was tied to the greatness of its leaders, and the retreat of the Empire was tied to its leaders' weakness.
The years from 1718 to 1730 in the Ottoman Empire came to be known as the "tulip era', as gardens in which that plant was cultivated became the rage among the ruling class.
www.humanities.ualberta.ca /ottoman/module3/lecture2.htm   (1850 words)

 The Ottoman Empire and the Armistice of Moudros
The Ottoman delegation was armed with cabinet instructions, which, considering the hopeless situation of the Ottoman army, seemed to display a certain lack of realism.
The fact that the empire survived as an empire with the revered institutions of the Sultanate and Caliphate intact was a consolation.
Looking back from where we are, the Ottoman Empire is only one of the great continental empires to disappear in the wake of World War I, but we should not forget that in 1918 the Ottoman dynasty, unlike that of the Romanovs, the Habsburgs or the Hohenzollerns, did manage to hang on to its throne.
www.let.leidenuniv.nl /tcimo/tulp/Research/LIDDLE.htm   (2461 words)

 WHKMLA : List of the Wars of the Ottoman Empire : Arabia
A Military History of the Ottoman Empire during the Napoleonic Period, by William E. Johnson
Ottoman expedition against renegade governor of Lebanon, Fakhr al-Din II; the latter fled
Yemeni resistance againt Ottoman rule; the latter were ousted by 1635
www.zum.de /whkmla/military/arabworld/milxottomanarabia.html   (349 words)

 Ottoman   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
The Ottoman Empire, nearing its death, was dragged into these conflicts.
The Russians, torn apart by a revolution in 1917, could not annex any Ottoman land.
After a brief period of constitutional rule, the leadership of the CUP emerged as a military dictatorship with power concentrated in the hands of a triumvirate consisting of Mehmet Talat Pasha, Ahmet Cemal Pasha, and Enver, who, as minister of war, was its acknowledged leader in the war.
www.theottomans.org /english/history/history1900_2.asp   (424 words)

 An Open Letter to the Troops
My fellow warriors, you are in Iraq to plant the American flag in the heart of the remnants of the Ottoman Empire.
Military power is an extension of political power.
Accordingly, your successful presence in the middle of the Arab world is an exercise of United States power.
www.military.com /NewContent/0,13190,Defensewatch_091603_Letter,00.html   (670 words)

 The Ottomans   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
   We will start with the greatest figure of Ottoman history, the Sultan Suleyman, who built from the conquests of his father a great city, military machine, empire, and culture.
No culture seems to invite such a total association of the entire history and greatness of the culture in a single individual as Ottoman culture does.
This is not just a European prejudice; Muslims themselves can hardly resist the temptation of summing up the whole of Ottoman culture and history in this brilliant and dignified human being.
www.wsu.edu /~dee/OTTOMAN/OTTOMAN1.HTM   (417 words)

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