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Topic: Minsky machine


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  Marvin Minsky - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Marvin Lee Minsky (born August 9, 1927), sometimes affectionately known as "Old Man Minsky", is an American scientist in the field of artificial intelligence (AI), co-founder of MIT's AI laboratory, and author of several texts on AI and philosophy.
Minsky's patents include the first head-mounted graphical display (1963) as well as the confocal scanning microscope (a predecessor to today's widely used confocal laser scanning microscope) and, jointly with Seymour Papert, the first Logo "turtle".
Minsky was also responsible for suggesting the underlying plot of "Jurassic Park" to Michael Crichton during a walk on the beach in Malibu.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Marvin_Minsky   (711 words)

  
 Register machine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In theoretical computer science a register machine is an abstract machine used to study decision problems, similar to how a Turing machine is used.
Register machines are also sometimes called counter machines (because the registers act like counters), Minsky machines (because they were introduced and developed by Marvin Minsky), or program machines (this being what Minsky called them).
The computational power of register machines is equivalent to that of Turing machines, although due to their unary processing style, register machines are typically slower by a factor that is exponential in the space used by the comparable Turing Machine.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Minsky_register_machine   (226 words)

  
 Busy beaver - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The machine meets limits on the amount of resources that a halting machine of a particular size can consume, either in terms of time or space.
There is an analog to the Σ function for Minsky machines, namely the largest number which can be present in any register on halting, for a given number of instructions.
These are tables of rules for Turing machines that generate Σ(1), Σ(2), and the best known lower bound for Σ(6) and S(6).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Busy_Beaver   (1049 words)

  
 Artificial intelligence: Help wanted - AI pioneer Minsky
Minsky, the founder of the MIT Artificial Intelligence Lab and the man often referred to as "the father of artificial intelligence," spoke with Newsbytes about the state of AI technology on Thursday and again this afternoon.
Minsky compared the situation to the problem that another AI pioneer, Herbert A.
Minsky laments that there are only 10 "significant" people in the world that he knows who are tackling the problem of AI from the same direction he is, which is from a basic common-sense perspective.
www.temple.edu /ispr/examples/ex01_08_31.html   (1404 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Minsky himself described (7 state, 4 symbol) and (6 state, 6 symbol) machines, but these require some additional concepts too extensive to repeat here.
Minsky assumes that T has only a binary alphabet, and a tape infinite in only one direction (leftwards).
In state 3 or 4, it tries to match the machine condition symbol it is remembering with the next {0,1} symbol in the quintuple section.
www.qucis.queensu.ca /home/cisc366/topics.2a.html   (1198 words)

  
 Cyclic Mixture Mutagenesis \\ for DNA-Based Computing -- Example 3: Universal Turing Machine and Forward Progress
When considering the rewrite rules for this machine we discovered a serious problem with our technique of randomly walking forwards and backwards along the Turing machine computation, namely that in general (and for Minsky's machine in particular), a given configuration of a Turing machine could have been reached from more than one possible preceding configuration.
We determined that for Minsky's machine there are at most 4 possible predecessors to any possible configuration, and so we have 4 different history particles used to record the history of logically-irreversible tape changes.
Such a machine is not logically irreversible, since it is impossible to tell which previous state it came from, but it will progress forward on average.
www.cise.ufl.edu /~mpf/DNAprop/exUTM.html   (1210 words)

  
 Al Fin
Minsky fleshes out the concept of mental hierarchy in a clear and detailed fashion.
Minsky stays away from the neuroscience, for the most part.
Through the last half of the twentieth century most researchers in machine intelligence had done a poor job of defining what type of intelligence they were trying to replace.
alfin2100.blogspot.com   (3196 words)

  
 Dictionary of Philosophy of Mind - Minsky, Marvin   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Minsky was one of the pioneers of intelligence-based mechanical robotics, designing and building some of the first mechanical hands with tactile sensors, visual scanners, and their software and computer interfaces.
Minsky’s notion of ‘frame’ is often considered a precursor of object oriented programming.
In 1985, Minsky published The Society of Mind, proposing a theory of mind that he had been developing throughout the 1970s and 1980s, according to which intelligence is not the product of any singular mechanism, but comes from the managed interaction of a diverse variety of resourceful agents.
www.artsci.wustl.edu /~philos/MindDict/minsky.html   (325 words)

  
 Amazon.com: SOCIETY OF MIND: Books: Marvin Minsky   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Minsky, cofounder of MIT's Artificial Intelligence Lab, is a charter member of the community of AI pioneers committed to understanding the workings of the human mind and mimicking its processes by computer.
But Minsky's difference is his style: he writes aphoristically, with wit and precision, and makes the most of his perception that the mind learns by images, which perform as agents that connect, interact and even "censor" in a staggeringly subtle "society" of microprocedures.
Minsky's creative terminology for freshly perceived mental processes is a major contribution to the future of mind-science.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0671657135?v=glance   (2466 words)

  
 Mind as Society: Jeffrey Mishlove interviews Marvin Minsky
And more and more the debate about the nature of intelligence and consciousness, and whether or not machines will ever be conscious, and whether or not humans are like machines, is rising to the forefront of our social awareness.
And so when I say that a person is a machine, I think that's much better than saying there's a little spark from which all of your virtue comes, because then you don't deserve it; it's just a spark.
I think the thing that made humans different from the other goal machines that are the other animals is that we discovered that if you want something, not only can you do something to get it, but it pays to learn more about the thing.
www.williamjames.com /transcripts/minsky.htm   (4103 words)

  
 Undecidability in the Spatialized Prisoner's Dilemma: Some Philosophical Implications
In place of the tape reading-and writing- abilities of standard Turing machines, we require only that the computational core of the machine be capable of adding a single unit to a register, of subtracting a unit, and of checking whether there a register has anything in it at all--whether its contents are zero.
We might construct a Minsky machine to search for counter-examples to Goldbach's conjecture, for example-- that every even number greater than 2 is the sum of two primes.
Because Minsky register machines are distinguished one from another by the finite contents of their computational unit, they can be listed, or enumerated, on that basis.
www.sunysb.edu /philosophy/faculty/pgrim/SPATIALP.HTM   (4605 words)

  
 Cyclic Mixture Mutagenesis \\ for DNA-Based Computing -- Discussion of Universal Machine    (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The machine outlined above, assuming it works in simulation, suffices to establish the universality of DNA replication in the presence of oligonucleotide mixtures.
Minsky's machine is extraordinarily inefficient, requiring thousands of steps to interpret the simplest of programs.
Turing machines in general are somewhat inefficient due to their serial nature.
www.cise.ufl.edu /~mpf/DNAprop/univTM.html   (269 words)

  
 "Conscious Machines", by Marvin Minsky
For example, troubles appear as soon as you try to speak about your own sentences, as in "this sentence is false" or "this statement has no proof" or in "this barber shaves all persons who don't shave themselves." The trouble is that when you permit "self reference" you can quickly produce absurdities.
I have found that many people maintain that even if a machine were programmed to behave in a manner indistinguishable from a person, it still could not have any subjective experience.
I think the answer lies in the fact that the brain is not merely a kind of machine, but one that is far more complex than anything ever imagined before.
kuoi.asui.uidaho.edu /~kamikaze/doc/minsky.html   (4279 words)

  
 Chapter 2 Dawson Draft Book
The machine itself is separated into two different components, the infinitely long ticker tape which serves as a memory and the machine's head which manipulates the memory.
The difference between the two machines is that for the second one, "0's" are not used as punctuation marks in the unary notation for integer values.
Machine D works as follows: it takes a tape consisting of a description of some machine T (which we will represent as dT) as well as some data x for machine T to process.
www.bcp.psych.ualberta.ca /~mike/Pearl_Street/Dawson/Chap2/chapter.html   (9209 words)

  
 Marvin Minsky   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
A machine that interacted with the world as an infant does, on the other hand, might be a different story.
Marvin Minsky's homepage provides biographical information and lists his publications, research groups, and awards.
As my MIT colleagues Marvin Minsky and Seymour Papert are fond of pointing out, such schools are an extreme form of age segregation.
www.wired.com /wired/archive/people/marvin_minsky   (935 words)

  
 Kevin Featherly
Author Steward Brand once compared Minsky to Goethe's Mephistopheles, saying his is a "fearless, amused intellect creating the new by teasing taboos." So it's no surprise when Minksy says things like, "I don't think that people are very smart, and they need help," as he did in an interview today with Newsbytes.
Minsky compared the situation to the problem that another AI pioneer, Herbert A. Simon, ran into when he predicted in 1958 that it would take 10 years to create a world champion chess-playing program.
Minsky dismisses fears about AI out of hand, saying that among the research community, they don't even register.
www.featherly.com /nb-minsky-01.htm   (1879 words)

  
 [No title]
In fact, you don't need two turing machines with tapes, etc. just two unsyncrhonised machines each flashing a light to make the point about non-computable sequences being *logically* possible if the machines are not synchronised.
I am not suggesting that Minsky intended his comment (to which I was reacting) as a precise statement, but some readers might.
And there's no reason why a turing machine should not be able to replicate that reasoning if it merely involves finite manipulations of finite sets of axioms.
www.cs.bham.ac.uk /~axs/misc/minsky.randomness.text   (6324 words)

  
 News Indexed by Topic - AI OVERVIEW ARCHIVE   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The idea of AI is to give a robot, or other machine, the capability to interpret and react to its environment without having to programme it to deal with every eventuality.
The AAAI describes artificial intelligence as 'the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines.' Experts say AI is going to be increasingly important in our lives and it won't be long before AI allows man to increase his levels of intelligence.
Minsky co-founded the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory in 1959 with John McCarthy.
www.aimagazine.org /AITopics/newstopics/overview1.html   (12631 words)

  
 RE: [agi] Ben vs. the AI academics...
But today, we are still far from an architecture that explains even a tiny fraction of human cognition." Now, I understand well that the human brain is a mess with a lot of complexity, a lot of different parts doing diverse things.
However, what I think Minsky's architecture does is to explicitly embed, in his AI design, a diversity of phenomena that are better thought of as being emergent.
For instance, Minsky's architecture contains a separate component dealing with "Self-Ideals: assessing one's activities with respect to the ideals established via interactions with one's role models." I don't think this should be put into one's AI system via drawing a little box around it with a connector going to other components.
www.mail-archive.com /agi@v2.listbox.com/msg02069.html   (874 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
In the Cell Doctrine, the cell is the basic indivisible unit of life (those who consider subcellular particles such as viruses and viroids to be alive may dispute the doctrine).
From the tone of the paper thus far it must be evident that I don't think morality in the strictest sense is possible for a machine because of its lack of consciousness and sentience, and that these traits are abstractions that transcend the machine.
However, Minsky presents the bombshell of a premise that consciousness and self-awareness in humans is a myth!
users.primushost.com /~wddevoe/AIMoral06.html   (312 words)

  
 SIDNEY A   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
One expects a machine to have a significant number of 'parts' and to perform some reasonably complex operation on something, but it is difficult to capture in the same definition machines which peel apples and machines which transform coded information signals!" (Minsky, supra, p.
Instead of the technological facts of these machines, superficial aspects are highlighted (all programs are mathematical or abstract ideas; the material is not transformed; the parts still work the way they were intended) without bringing to light the total nature and complexity of the programmed computer.
The stored- programmed machine is an old technology, not a new one, and after more than thirty years of being in the mainstream of the developing "useful arts" should be recognized under the Patent Laws.
www.ipmall.fplc.edu /hosted_resources/briefs/17_diehr/17_diehr_3.htm   (10895 words)

  
 TechNetCast Play   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
In a preview of his upcoming book, The Emotion Machine, Marvin Minsky examines the failures of AI research and lays out directions for future development in the field.
In the AI field, the game that had the largest influence on anyone was a checkers playing machine developed by Arthur Samuel starting around 1957 [see http://www-db.stanford.edu/pub/voy/museum/samuel.html].
But if you're looking for something in the future that's like a baby machine that's going to keep getting smarter, then you'd better not have it learn by statistical associations or neural nets or whatever.
technetcast.ddj.com /tnc_play_stream.html?stream_id=526   (7304 words)

  
 ARTIFICIAL SEMANTICALLY CLOSED OBJECTS
However, proving the computability of a function, by means of a Turing machine or equivalent, is a strenuous exercise, and if all functions had to be strictly checked as to their computability in all mathematical activities, it would be impossible to have mathematics moving forward.
Another important point is that for a given state and a given symbol read by the Turing Machine, at most one instruction is applicable, in other words, at any step of its operative process the succeeding step is univocally defined; this means that computational processes are state-determined and therefore dynamically incoherent.
Memory does not exist in the computational level of weights and adding machines, it is everywhere, unretrievable, in the present state of the measurement device working at the functional level we are interested in.
www.informatics.indiana.edu /rocha/tilsccai.html   (8032 words)

  
 Cyclic Mixture Mutagenesis \\ for DNA-Based Computing -- Arbitrary Nondeterministic Turing Machines   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Thus, rather an encoding a desired program into the language interpreted by Minsky's machine, one might choose a more direct approach of creating a Turing machine to directly solve the problem of interest, and translating that machine to a particular custom set of oligonucleotides.
Moreover, it turns out that the same technique can be used to encode arbitrary nondeterministic Turing machines that make random choices in their computations, and explore alternate paths in parallel.
For example, we estimate that we can produce up to around a 10nM (nanoMolar) concentration of new strands at each step; thus, if we have a PCR machine that can cycle a total of 1 liter of solution, we will be processing around 6*10^15 molecules per step.
www.cise.ufl.edu /~mpf/DNAprop/nondet.html   (304 words)

  
 NuSapiens: Biology, Technology, Philosophy: We are Borg   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Many films imagine cyborgs as hulking, grotesque mixes of man and machine like the Borg, but the real process of integrating man and machine is more subtle and well underway.
Marvin Minsky (The Society of Mind) argues that intelligence is not the result of any ghost in the machine, but rather the emergent property of many small agents working together.
The form and content of human thinking are evolving symbiotically alongside these technologies, bringing both man and machine to a higher level of mutual reliance and cognition.
nusapiens.blogspot.com /2004/12/we-are-borg.html   (421 words)

  
 Igblan - Life Universal Computer
The Minsky Register Machine (MRM) is a model of computation equivalent in power to the Turing Machine.
Unlike the finite tape of Paul Rendell's marvellous Turing Machine, the values in the URM's registers are unbounded.
Version 0 of the URM is large (268,096 live cells in an area of 4,558 x 21,469) and slow (20 gen/s using Johan Bontes's Life32 on a 400MHz AMD K6-II).
www.igblan.free-online.co.uk /igblan/ca   (2715 words)

  
 Turing Machines   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Object Prouve, a machine by Damien Neil establishing that p(7) \ge 32, Spring 1995.
Chris Nielsen's machine showing p(6) \ge 21; picture of flow graph shown.
Here are two machines which automatically convert TMs in the 5-tuple format into machines in the 4-tuple format used in Turing's World and Boolos and Jeffrey's book.
www.rpi.edu /~brings/SL/tms.html   (133 words)

  
 Hard Problem Commentary
Or more generally (and self-defeatingly), indeed that in order to speak intelligently at all, you need no body, which is disturbingly close to Descartes' thought experiment which made him decide that the mental forms a realm all of its own, wholle separate from that of the body.
Once we had built >such a machine, we could also shove aside Chalmer's "hard problem" by >saying that it was just a brute fact that any machine that could do those >uniquely human things must be conscious.
The Cowey & Stoerig experiment shows that the principal effect of a near total ablation of the striate cortex in a monkey is to deprive the animal of the ability to categorize its visual inputs.
www.california.com /~mcmf/cqmail4.html   (4687 words)

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