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Topic: Mitochondrial DNA

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  Mitochondrial DNA - Genetics Home Reference
Mitochondrial genes are among the estimated 20,000 to 25,000 total genes in the human genome.
Mitochondrial DNA is prone to noninherited (somatic) mutations.
Mitochondrial DNA is typically diagrammed as a circular structure with genes and regulatory regions labeled.
ghr.nlm.nih.gov /chromosome=MT   (1399 words)

 Mitochondrial DNA - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is DNA that is located in mitochondria.
The existence of mitochondrial DNA also supports the endosymbiotic theory, which suggests that eukaryotic cells first appeared when a prokaryotic cell was absorbed into another cell without being digested.
Mutations of mitochondrial DNA can lead to a number of illnesses including exercise intolerance and Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS), which causes a person to lose full function of their heart, eye, and muscle movements.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Mitochondrial_DNA   (763 words)

 Fossil Hominids: mitochondrial DNA
1997) claimed to have extracted mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from a piece of bone cut from the upper arm of the first recognised Neandertal fossil, the individual found at the Feldhofer grotto in the Neander Valley in Germany in 1856 (Kahn and Gibbons 1997, Ward and Stringer 1997).
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the gigantic molecule which is used to encode genetic information for all life on Earth.
DNA molecules consists of a long strand of base molecules arranged in the form of a double helix.
www.talkorigins.org /faqs/homs/mtDNA.html   (2966 words)

 Forensic mitochondrial DNA analysis: A different crime-solving tool FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin,The - Find Articles
DNA is composed of four building blocks, called bases, represented by the letters A, C, 0, and T. These bases form a structure known as a double helix because it is composed of two strands of DNA and looks similar to a twisted ladder or a circular staircase.
Mitochondrial DNA is located in structures, called mitochondria, found in the outer layer of the cell, much like the egg white.
Mitochondrial DNA is buried deep within the cell and has a circular structure, which protects it from deterioration.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m2194/is_8_71/ai_90819640   (1037 words)

 Hope Hall DNA Action Memorial   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
DNA is composed of millions of these bases and their combinations are unique to each person, with the exception of identical twins.
Nuclear DNA is found in the nucleus and Mitochondrial DNA is found in the mitochondria which are in the body of the cell.
Mitochondrial DNA (MtDNA) - inherited soley from the mother; found in the mitochondria which is in the cell body.
hope-dna.com /docs/fbi_kids_dnapage.htm   (602 words)

 Mitochondrial DNA and Human Evolution
Except for occasional minor mutations, this type of DNA was passed intact from great - grandmother to grandmother to daughter with virtually no input from males and thus no mixing - no blending of father's and mother's genes - that would jumble, complicate, and thereby obscure its history.
Mitochondrial DNA is a convenient tool because it is much smaller and simpler than the DNA in a cell's nucleus.
Certain portions and sequences of the DNA are called genes which, besides maintaining our bodies' daily activities also determine our heredity: height, skin pigmentation, and eye color down the generations, the transmissions of traits that keep the race or species going for thousands or millions of years.
www.ramsdale.org /dna1.htm   (1026 words)

 ANTHROPOLOGY: ON NEANDERTHAL MITOCHONDRIAL DNA   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Mitochondrial DNA is independent of nuclear DNA, consisting of a circular molecule, 16,569 base pairs long in humans, with a known nucleotide sequence.
The authors report that in one fossil (Lake Mungo 3, dated at 60,000 years ago), the mitochondrial DNA sequence is the most divergent of all of the Australian fossils analyzed, and this is evidently an example of a mitochondrial DNA lineage that existed in an ancient modern human but is absent in living human mitochondria.
A separate mitochondrial DNA lineage in an individual whose morphology is within the contemporary range and who lived in Australia would imply [from the out of Africa model and its usage of mitochondrial DNA data] both that anatomically modern humans were among those that were replaced and that part of the replacement occurred in Australia."
scienceweek.com /2004/sb040910-3.htm   (1744 words)

 Mitochondria 2
To visualize the structure of mitochondrial DNA, we have to extract the DNA and float it on a water surface.
Mitochondrial inheritance from yeast is biparental, and both parent cells contribute to the daughter cells when the haploid cells fuse.
Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (degeneration of the optic nerve, accompanied by increasing blindness): caused by mutation to the gene encoding subunit 4 of the NADH-C0Q reductase.
cellbio.utmb.edu /cellbio/mitoch2.htm   (1233 words)

 CNN.com - DNA type in Peterson hearing becoming mainstream justice tool - Nov. 3, 2003
Mitochondrial DNA, the genetic identification method cited last week in Peterson's preliminary hearing, has been used hundreds of times in the nation's courtrooms, helping convict the guilty and free the innocent, experts say.
Prosecutors in the Peterson case are using mitochondrial DNA to make a case that a human hair found in pliers in Peterson's boat came from his wife, Laci, whom he is accused of killing last year.
Mitochondrial DNA in a hair found in the girl's throat and other hairs on her bed were successfully matched to a saliva sample from Ware.
cnn.com /2003/LAW/11/03/laci.peterson.dna.ap   (919 words)

 BBC NEWS | Science/Nature | Extinct mammoth DNA decoded   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Some 46 chunks of DNA sequence were matched up and arranged in order, giving a complete record of the mammoth's mitochondrial DNA - the circular scrap of genetic material found outside the cell's nucleus.
Although the bulk of an animal's genetic information is found in the nucleus, mitochondrial DNA is particularly useful for studying the evolutionary relationships between different species.
The complete mitochondrial DNA of an extinct animal has been sequenced before but only for the flightless bird, the moa, which died out about 500 years ago.
news.bbc.co.uk /1/hi/sci/tech/4535190.stm   (639 words)

 MoSt GeNe/Genetic Drift/Nontraditional Inheritance/Mitochondrial Inheritance
As with any form of DNA, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences are susceptible to mutation In fact, there is evidence that mitochondrial sequences may mutate at rates 3 to 5 times greater than nuclear sequences.
Although mitochondrial inheritance looks easy to identify in a pedigree like the one in Figure 3, it must be remembered that phenotypic variability is a hallmark for these disorders, especially in cases where there is heteroplasmy.
A final point about mitochondrial inheritance that needs to be stressed is that most of the proteins contributing to mitochondrial structure and function are encoded by nuclear genes and their mutations therefore segregate as mendelian traits.
www.mostgene.org /gd/gdvol10b.htm   (862 words)

 Le Magazine, June 1995 - Report: Are Mutations In Mitochondrial Dna A Cause Of Aging In Humans?
Subsequent research has shown that DNA repair systems are highly efficient in nuclear DNA and that, as a result, it is difficult to find enough age-related mutations in nuclear DNA to support the theory that such mutations are a major cause of aging.
Progressive depletion of energy production by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is associated with the gradual decline of the physiological and biochemical performance of organs, significantly contributing to the aging process and ultimately to death.
The cells that are most susceptible to mitochondrial bioenergy depletion with advancing age are brain, skeletal muscle, and cardiac muscle cells aII of which have an exceptionally high need for oxygen and, as a result, are highly dependent upon mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation as a source of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for their energy needs.
www.lef.org /magazine/mag95/95jun3.htm   (1437 words)

 NOVA Online/Bombing of America/Mitochondrial DNA & Hair
This kind of DNA testing studies the mitochrondrial DNA that is sometimes found in a strand of hair.
Unlike regular DNA, which comes from both parents, mitochondrial DNA is passed down from mother to fetus.
Mitochondrial DNA testing recently received wide attention when it was used to analyze skeletons believed to be the assassinated Romanov family.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/nova/bombing/hair2.html   (149 words)

 Mitochondrial Eve - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mitochondrial Eve (mt-mrca) is the name given by researchers to the woman who is the matrilineal most recent common ancestor for all living humans; the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in all living humans is derived from hers.
Mitochondrial Eve is the female counterpart of the Y-chromosomal Adam, the patrilineal most recent common ancestor.
Mitochondrial Eve is sometimes referred to as African Eve, an ancestor who has been hypothesized on the grounds of fossil as well as DNA evidence.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Mitochondrial_Eve   (1532 words)

 DPS: Mitochondrial DNA
While this is the only DNA that is unique to an individual, mitochondria, organelles in the cell’s cytoplasm, contain their own genome that has been passed to the child solely from the mother.
While this does not allow for the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence to be unique to an individual, its high copy number in cells allows for it to be available in those cases in which nuclear DNA is absent.
The Lead Criminalist of the Mitochondrial DNA Unit has a Doctorate and experience in the principles of DNA analysis, allowing him to be a strong technical leader for the section and liaison between the CT State Laboratory and the FBI.
www.ct.gov /dps/cwp/view.asp?a=2155&q=315000&pp=12&n=1   (790 words)

 Mitochondrial DNA mutations
Mitochondrial DNA mutations are more frequent than nuclear DNA mutations due to the absence of extraneous genetic coding.
In nuclear DNA the areas which code for a specific protein or polypeptide are generally separated in the genome by codons for other polypeptides.
These mutations interfere with mitochondrial carrier proteins, which are “integral membrane proteins that transport metabolite and co-factors across the inner membrane of the mitochondria.” (1) The carriers are used in metabolic pathways that produce energy such as the citric acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and ATP synthesis.
www.geocities.com /guipago_22/mtDNA.html   (2314 words)

 mtDNA in Thoroughbred Dam Lines
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) codes for some of the proteins of the mitochondria, the "energy furnaces" essential for cellular respiration and thus for multicelluar life.
The origin of replication or the "D loop," where the DNA polymerase enzyme binds, has been found to mutate more freely than the coding regions which are very highly constrained by natural selection (most mutations in coding regions result in lessened function and thus in selection against defective mitochondria).
Mitochondrial DNA matches therefore are best interpreted in the light of historical research.
www.tbheritage.com /GeneticMarkers/mtdnaintbBowling.html   (454 words)

 Neandertal DNA
Mitochondrial DNA is more abundant than nuclear DNA, and is thus more likely to be recovered in sufficient amounts to allow replication.
In addition, mitochondrial DNA is transmitted only from the mother so that changes from generation to generation result from mutation alone rather than recombination of the mother and father's DNA.
DNA dating is based on the assumption (debated by geneticists) that mutations occur at a constant rate.
www.archaeology.org /online/news/dna.html   (1215 words)

 Famous DNA
Circumstantial evidence, along with mitochondrial DNA sequencing and matches, gave strong evidence to the remains being those of the Romanovs, the last Russian Royals who were executed on July 18, 1918.
DNA was extracted from a lock of Marie Antoinette's hair that was snipped from her head as a child.
Her DNA matched a sample taken from a heart believed to be from her son, King Louis XVII.
www.isogg.org /famousdna.htm   (1073 words)

 What is mitochondrial DNA? - Genetics Home Reference
Although most DNA is packaged in chromosomes within the nucleus, mitochondria also have a small amount of their own DNA.
This genetic material is known as mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA.
Mitochondrial DNA contains 37 genes, all of which are essential for normal mitochondrial function.
ghr.nlm.nih.gov /handbook/basics/mtdna   (309 words)

 Mitochondrial DNA Clarifies Human Evolution by Max Ingman
Mitochondrial DNA -- maternal DNA -- is used to construct evolutionary trees.
DNA is present inside the nucleus of every cell of our body but it is the DNA of the cell's mitochondria that has been most commonly used to construct evolutionary trees.
Although the mitochondrial genome is one of the first genomes to be sequenced in its entirety, it was not until recently that the progression of technology allowed sequences of that length to be obtained with relative ease and a study of any appreciable size using whole genomes was undertaken.
www.actionbioscience.org /evolution/ingman.html   (1599 words)

 The Great DNA Hunt
DNA can be used to understand the evolution of modern humans, trace migrations of people, identify individuals, and determine the origins of domestic plants and animals.
DNA analysis, as one scholar put it, is "the greatest archaeological excavation of all time." Because ancient DNA molecules are normally so few and fragmented, and preserved soft tissues so rare, scientists had little hope of finding and analyzing it.
Scientists are also studying DNA from the Y chromosome, which is passed only from father to son and is not recombined with the mother's genes.
www.archaeology.org /9609/abstracts/dna.html   (1654 words)

 DNA Heritage
DNA is made up of two long strands connected together along the middle (a bit like a zip), where bases on one strand are bonded to bases on the other side.
Within DNA are the code-words needed to form proteins, although much of the DNA is termed 'junk DNA' and has no known function.
In DNA they are composed of phosphate, deoxyribose (a sugar), and either a purine (for adenine and guanine) or pyrimidine (for cytosine and thymine) base.
www.dnaheritage.com /glossary.asp   (1579 words)

 Mitochondrial Disease
Mitochondrial and metabolic medical conditions are now referred to as mitochondrial cytopathies.
Mitochondrial diseases might affect the cells of the brain, nerves (including the nerves to the stomach and intestines), muscles, kidneys, heart, liver, eyes, ears, or pancreas.
It is important to determine which type of mitochondrial disease inheritance is present, in order to predict the risk of recurrence for future children.
www.clevelandclinic.org /health/health-info/docs/1600/1678.asp?index=6957   (1297 words)

 Mitochondrial DNA in the Dominican Republic
This type of structure, as described, permits the duplication of the DNA molecule, which is produced through the simple separation process of the two chains, each one of which acts as a mold for the synthesis of the complementary chain.
Mitochrondrial DNA is being used extensively for the construction of history about all the populations of the past and present.
Our proposal in this study is to use the mitochrondrial DNA left in the bones by the Taínos of Hispaniola and from other islands in order to seek the genetic affinities of these groups in relation to the present Amerindians, and thus to reconstruct the origins of the groups that live in the Caribbean.
www.kacike.org /CalderonEnglish.html   (3139 words)

 Mitochondrial DNA - Wikipedia Light!   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, or less popularly, mDNA) is DNA that is located in mitochondria.
Mitochondria are the parts of the cell that generate energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
This means that there is little change in the mtDNA from generation to generation, unlike nuclear DNA which changes by 50% each generation.
godseye.com /wiki/index.php?title=Mitochondrial_DNA   (910 words)

 NOVA Online | Neanderthals on Trial | Tracing Ancestry with MtDNA
Whenever an egg cell is fertilized, nuclear chromosomes from a sperm cell enter the egg and combine with the egg's nuclear DNA, producing a mixture of both parents' genetic code.
Mitochondrial DNA is extracted from the bones of Neanderthals and compared to the mtDNA of living Homo sapiens.
According to these anthropologists, even if we could accurately gauge the age of the ancestor, that knowledge is meaningless because all she really is is the woman whose mtDNA did not die out due to random lineage extinctions.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/nova/neanderthals/mtdna.html   (1816 words)

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