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Topic: Modern synthesis


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In the News (Mon 17 Jun 19)

  
  Modern evolutionary synthesis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The modern evolutionary synthesis (often referred to simply as the modern synthesis or the evolutionary synthesis), neo-Darwinian synthesis or neo-Darwinism, generally denotes the combination of Charles Darwin's theory of the evolution of species by natural selection, Gregor Mendel's theory of genetics as the basis for biological inheritance, and mathematical population genetics.
According to the modern synthesis as established in the 1930s and 1940s, genetic variation in populations arises by chance through mutation (this is now known to be due to mistakes in DNA replication) and recombination (crossing over of homologous chromosomes during meiosis).
The synthesis as it exists now has extended the scope of the Darwinian idea of natural selection, specifically to include subsequent scientific discoveries and concepts unknown to Darwin such as DNA and genetics that allow rigorous, in many cases mathematical, analyses of phenomena such as kin selection, altruism, and speciation.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Modern_synthesis   (943 words)

  
 Modern synthesis - EvoWiki   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
The modern synthesis was set in motion in 1918 by Ronald Fisher and William Bateson, and by the end of the 1940s genetics and the gene had been fully accepted by evolutionary biology.
The modern synthesis established mutation and recombination as the main sources of variation within populations, and introduced genetic drift as an evolutionary process.
The modern synthesis was revised by the Williams revolution of the 1960s, which established gene selection as the leading theory of selection.
wiki.cotch.net /index.php/Modern_synthesis   (164 words)

  
 The Modern Synthesis of Genetics and Evolution
The following is a brief summary of the modern consensus among evolutionary biologists.
The idea that life on Earth has evolved was widely discussed in Europe in the late 1700's and the early part of the last century.
In other words, the Modern Synthesis is a theory about how evolution works at the level of genes, phenotypes, and populations whereas Darwinism was concerned mainly with organisms, speciation and individuals.
www.talkorigins.org /faqs/modern-synthesis.html   (756 words)

  
 Modern evolutionary synthesis - LearnThis.Info Enclyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
The modern evolutionary synthesis (often referred to simply as the modern synthesis), neo-Darwinian synthesis or neo-Darwinism, brings together Charles Darwin's theory of the evolution of species by natural selection with Gregor Mendel's theory of genetics as the basis for biological inheritance.
Major figures in the development of the modern synthesis include Ronald Fisher, Theodosius Dobzhansky, J.B.S. Haldane, Sewall Wright, Julian Huxley, Ernst Mayr, and George Gaylord Simpson.
The synthesis as it exists now has extended the scope of the Darwinian idea of natural selection, specifically to include subsequent scientific discoveries and concepts unknown to Darwin such as DNA and genetics that allow rigorous, in many cases mathematical, analysis of phenomena such as kin selection, altruism, speciation.
encyclopedia.learnthis.info /m/mo/modern_evolutionary_synthesis.html   (555 words)

  
 The modern synthesis
The modern synthesis brings together Charles Darwin's theory of the evolution of species by natural selection with Gregor Mendel's theory of genetics as the basis for biological inheritance.
Major figures in the development of the modern synthesis include Theodosius Dobzhansky, Julian Huxley, Ernst Mayr, and George Gaylord Simpson[?].
According to the modern synthesis, genetic variation in populations arises by chance through mutation (mistakes in DNA replication) and recombination (crossing over of homologous chromosomes during meiosis).
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/mo/Modern_synthesis.html   (228 words)

  
 [No title]
Contemporary evolutionary theory is built on the foundation of the Modern Synthesis of the 1940s, which utilized the mathematical population genetic results of Fisher, Haldane and Wright to forge a synthesis of experimental and naturalist traditions with natural selection as the major engine of evolutionary change.
Synthesis denotes a blending of one or more parts that may or may not produce a new entity where the individuality of the original parts are not dissolved, though potentially transformed.
Hamburger, V. (1980), “Embryology and the Modern Synthesis in Evolutionary Theory”, in E. Mayr and W. Provine, (eds.), The Evolutionary Synthesis: Perspectives on the Unification of Biology.
philsci-archive.pitt.edu /archive/00000375/00/LondonPaper.doc   (13066 words)

  
 The Evolutionary Synthesis (Mayr, Provine) - review
Modern biology was formed in the second quarter of this century, in what is known as the evolutionary (or "modern") synthesis.
Part one approaches the synthesis through the different disciplines that contributed to it (or in some cases were later incorporated into it): genetics, cytology, embryology, systematics, botany, paleontology, and morphology.
Part two contains accounts of the differing background to and progress of the synthesis in five countries — in the Soviet Union, England, and the United States, where key contributions were made, in France, which only reluctantly accepted the synthesis, and in Germany, which took a course of its own.
dannyreviews.com /h/Evolutionary_Synthesis.html   (349 words)

  
 Primer Design Project   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
The modern evolutionary synthesis successfully combines the principles of genetics with Darwin's concept of natural selection acting on variation in a population.
The current synthesis very successfully explains the action of natural selection generation by generation; but is not a complete theory.
The modern synthesis makes no attempt to incorporate the principles of thermodynamics, nor does it provide insight into the long standing question of whether or not "evolutionary progress" is a legitimate concept.
orion.math.iastate.edu /danwell/progress.html   (122 words)

  
 Nat' Academies Press, Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of ...
Similar expenses are encountered for high-pressure equipment for modern synthesis, for the preparation of modern ceramics, and for polymer processing facilities, among others.
Clearly, modern synthesis and processing are neither string and sealing wax nor beaker and Ehrlenmeyer flask activities.
The understanding that synthesis and processing require large expenditures in academia and government laboratories must be more widespread if materials science is to have the steady stream of trained people, new materials, and well-controlled processes that are essential for realization of its potential.
www.nap.edu /books/0309039282/html/184.html   (754 words)

  
 Taylor & Francis Online   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
Modern Phosphonate Chemistry is a unique, up-to-date reference that summarizes the role of phosphonates in traditional and modern organic synthesis.
It is now clear that functionalized phosphonates have a significant and growing role in organic synthesis as precursors of elaborated organic compounds, for the synthesis of complex, biologically important phosphonates, and in the synthesis of aminophosphonic acids and derivatives.
Modern Phosphonate Chemistry is your first, and at present, only complete and practical resource focused exclusively on this dynamic field.
www.crcpress.com /shopping_cart/products/product_detail.asp?sku=1099&pc=/shopping_cart/categories/categories_products.asp?parent_id=88&   (331 words)

  
 Neo-Darwinism
Neo-Darwinism is the modern version of Darwinian evolutionary theory: the synthesis of Mendelian genetics and Darwinism.
It was modern genetics that provided the key insight into the means by which variation in biology originated.
Neo-Darwinism is also called the Modern Synthesis (as such, it synthesizes or brings together together classical Darwinism with modern genetic theory).
www.iscid.org /encyclopedia/Neo-Darwinism   (175 words)

  
 [No title]
In his falsely simplified representation, the Modern Synthesis and its current acolytes consist of Aultra-Darwinians@ and Apanadaptationists@ who are oblivious to all adaptively neutral phenomena and who fervently believe that all of evolution consists in the production of maximally efficient adaptations unconstrained by inheritance or contingent historical circumstance.
The ideas that are already part of the Modern Synthesis and that are compatible with natural selection include correlated growth, adaptively neutral changes, and variable pace in evolutionary change.
In modern genetics, correlated growth is associated with the term Apleiotropy,@ meaning genes that have multiple, diverse effects.)  The chief idea that is actually integral with natural selection is that of inherited constraints on adaptive structure.
www.umsl.edu /~engjcarr/web_documents/pseudo-revs-gould.htm   (8270 words)

  
 Modern synthesis
Hypothyroidism and Dyslipidemia: Modern Concepts and Approaches - Discusses the role of thyroid hormone in regulating the synthesis, metabolism, and mobilization of lipids.
Russian Journal of Organic Chemistry - It covers all aspects of modern organic chemistry including organic synthesis, theoretical organic chemistry, structure and mechanism, and the application of organometallic compounds in organic synthesis.
The Conservative Yeshiva - Offers a synthesis of traditional and modern methods of study focusing on Jewish texts in a co-educational, open-minded environment.
www.nebulasearch.com /encyclopedia/article/Modern_synthesis.html   (163 words)

  
 JCE 1999 (76) 1191 [Sep] Modern Catalytic Methods for Organic Synthesis with Diazo Compounds: From Cyclopropanes to ...
With the development of new catalysts for their decomposition, diazo "reagents", particularly the diazocarbonyl species, can be used in chemoselectively, regioselectively, and stereoselectively controlled ways to generate carbon-carbon and carbon-hetero bonds.
In conclusion, the authors, Doyle, McKervey, and Ye, have produced an outstanding review of modern diazocarbonyl chemistry, have shown how that chemistry can be used in synthesis, and have provided, through literature citations and specific experimental procedures, a ready access to the interesting chemistry and the usefulness of alpha-diazocarbonyl compounds.
Modern Catalytic Methods for Organic Synthesis with Diazo Compounds: From Cyclopropanes to Ylides (by Michael P. Doyle, M. Anthony McKervey, and Tao Ye) J.
jchemed.chem.wisc.edu /Journal/Issues/1999/Sep/abs1191_2.html   (676 words)

  
 The Modern Synthesis
The Modern Synthesis (also called neo-Darwinism) was the work of many people, combining experimental and theoretical approaches, including Fisher, Haldane, Wright, Dobzhansky, Mayr, Huxley, Simpson, and Williams.
According to the Modern Synthesis (the mainstream theory of biological evolution), change in gene pools (and therefore in populations of organisms) is caused not just by natural selection, but also by mutation, gene flow, and genetic drift.
Important new discoveries have been made since the Modern Synthesis was composed, such as the discovery of the structure of DNA, the endosymbiotic origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts, and the role of genetics in developmental biology, but, these have simply been incorporated into the Synthesis.
serc.carleton.edu /introgeo/earthhistory/modsyn.html   (689 words)

  
 Synthesis: Contents of Volume 1, Number 1
Synthesis is the first of two projects being undertaken by the Working Group.
The second aim of Synthesis is to disseminate up-to-date information on academic research and activities related to the study of modern Greece.
Synthesis will contain articles, book reviews, subject bibliographies, and information on unpublished Ph.D. theses and recently published books and articles, as well as conference reports and information on forthcoming events, research grant opportunities, and university courses in Modern Greek Studies.
www.hri.org /synthesis/Vol1no1.htm   (546 words)

  
 Biosemiotics: Towards a New Synthesis in Biology
From this tender beginning semiotic freedom has increased throughout organic evolution, and it is suggested that this fact holds the key to an eventual bridging of the gap between history in the sense of thermodynamic irreversibility and history in the sense of human culture.
While it may be true that the 'synthesis' actually at the time furnished a relatively unified perspective to these different branches of biology it is now obvious that important areas of the life sciences are not included in this unification.
A modern unification of biology therefore has to be based on the fundamentally semiotic nature of life.
www.gypsymoth.ento.vt.edu /~sharov/biosem/hoffmeyr.html   (6732 words)

  
 Evolution: Library: George Gaylord Simpson: Natural Selection and the Fossil Record
As one of the founders of the "modern synthesis" of evolution, paleontologist George Gaylord Simpson argued that the fossil record supports Darwin's theory that natural selection acting on random variation in a population is the driving force behind evolution.
Simpson was among the first to use mathematical methods in paleontology, and he also took into account newly discovered genetic evidence for evolution in his study of paleontology.
For example, where others saw the modern horse as having arisen in a single advance toward the specialized form, Simpson saw the path as that of an irregular tree that had many side-branches leading off to extinction.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/evolution/library/06/2/l_062_02.html   (461 words)

  
 Glossary
Modern biological classifications are Linnaean and classify organisms into species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, and certain intermediate categoric levels.
Conway Morris, Simon: Paleobiologist and professor in the Department of Earth Sciences at Cambridge University in the U.K. His research centers around the early evolution of the metazoans, and he is a leading authority on Cambrian and Precambrian fossils.
There are two kinds of metabolism: constructive metabolism, or anabolism, the synthesis of the proteins, carbohydrates, and fats which form tissue and store energy; and destructive metabolism, or catabolism, the breakdown of complex substances, producing energy and waste matter.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/evolution/library/glossary/glossary.html   (15490 words)

  
 Syllabus   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
The reserves are located on a shelf behind the checkout counter (just beside the library entrance) and these reserve materials may be checked out for 4 hours at a time.
3) Introduce methods and strategies used in the modern synthesis of organic molecules containing multiple functional groups, especially protection/deprotection strategies, use of newer reactions and reactions that are tolerant of other functional groups, solid phase synthesis techniques, and combinatorial chemistry.
Note: The CHEM 593 course is taught as a graduate level course and requires additional work beyond that required for the 442 course.
webfac1.enmu.edu /longro/www/syllabus442_593.htm   (855 words)

  
 Voices from the Machine - An introductory article on speech synthesis.
While speech synthesis may seem very 21st century, the first attempts at synthesized speech predate the computer and even the use of electricity.
Granular synthesis is now widely used in speech synthesis in two very different ways: to generate speech sounds, as in LPC or formant tracking, and as a tool for dissecting and processing sampled speech.
Although true speech synthesis may be beyond the limits of your studio and patience, you can make use of the techniques described here to create speechlike sounds and add an organic flavor to your music.
emusician.com /tutorials/emusic_voices_machine   (3018 words)

  
 Tourism: A Modern Synthesis
Tourism is one of the fastest growing sectors of the economies of the world, an international and global phenomenon that is ever changing.
Tourism: A Modern Synthesis is a comprehensive, informative and contemporary guide to this exciting and dynamic area of study.
Tourism: A Modern Synthesis considers the concepts and characteristics of tourism as an area of academic and applied study, discusses the structure of and interactions within the tourist industry, examines the place of tourism in the communities and environments that it affects and explores the nature and characteristics of tourists.
www.thomsonlearning.co.uk /tourism/homeright.htm   (192 words)

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