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Topic: Molecular evolution

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In the News (Tue 23 Apr 19)

 Evolution: Library: Molecular Evolution: Neutral Drift
One hypothesis suggests that most molecular evolution is driven by random changes in genes, or "neutral drift." The other proposes that natural selection favoring beneficial variations in an organism's genes is the primary mechanism.
That is, changes affect the "letters" (four different types of chemical units) in the genetic blueprints -- the genes -- that are carried in their cells.
The changes and variations in genetic code that occur over time are referred to as "molecular evolution." The molecular evolution of an organism can be very different from its morphological (body features) evolution.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/evolution/library/05/1/l_051_04.html   (554 words)

 American Zoologist: Molecular Evolution
Molecular Evolution makes its appearance at an opportune time, as the need for an advanced textbook on the subject is growing with the field.
Molecular Evolution combines background information on how molecular change takes place with the theory and concepts by which that change can be examined, and it provides examples of studies from the contemporary literature.
The next six chapters describe patterns of molecular evolution and the underlying mechanisms from which they are derived, to the best of our ability to understand them.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_qa3746/is_199806/ai_n8790485   (875 words)

 Published works on Biochemical Evolution
Molecular evolution of the Rh3 gene in Drosophila
Hox genes in brachiopods and priapulids and protostome evolution.
Molecular evolution of the aldo-keto reductase gene superfamily.
www.simonyi.ox.ac.uk /dawkins/WorldOfDawkins-archive/Catalano/box/published.shtml   (3918 words)

 Molecular Evolution
Two general approaches to molecular evolution are to 1) use DNA to study the evolution of organisms (such as population structure, geographic variation and systematics) and to 2) to use different organisms to study the evolution of DNA.
Our general goal in all this is to infer process from pattern and this applies to the processes of organismal evolution deduced from patterns of DNA variation, and processes of molecular evolution inferred from the patterns of variation in the DNA itself.
Most discussions of the rates of DNA evolution have been with respect to the molecular clock hypothesis which states that there is a positive linear relationship between time since two species diverged and amount of genetic divergence (e.g., DNA sequence difference) between those species.
biomed.brown.edu /Courses/BIO48/12.Molecular.Evolution.HTML   (2443 words)

 Patterns and rates of species evolution (from evolution) --¬† Encyclop√¶dia Britannica   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The theory of evolution is one of the fundamental keystones of modern biological theory.
The main stages of hominid evolution are represented by the australopithecines, Homo habilis, Homo erectus, and Homo sapiens.
Through the courses of their evolution they have come to remarkably similar forms, so much so that the marsupials are often named for their placental...
www.britannica.com /eb/article-49896   (862 words)

 [No title]
This model of evolution has been challenged lately by evidence that early bacteria shared their DNA often, leading to a network topology rather than a branching bush.
Researchers into the early evolution of life are actively trying to resolve this issue, but it is proving to be very hard.
Clever molecular evolutionists figured out a way to root this tree by making a tree with duplicated genes that are very old and are found in all the domains of life.
drnelson.utmem.edu /evolution.html   (4024 words)

 Amazon.com: Books: Molecular Evolution   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Concerted evolution, the phenomenon that DNA sequences of species evolve so that DNA sequences of the organism maintain similarities to each other, often being more similar internally than with homologous DNA sequences from related species, is then discussed.
Molecular Evolution provides an essential synthesis detailing the explosion of knowledge and presenting the exciting developments in the study of molecular evolution.
The book describes the dynamics of evolutionary change at the molecular level, the driving forces behind the evolutionary process, the effects of the various molecular mechanisms on the structure of genes and genomes, and the methodology involved in dealing with molecular data from an evolutionary perspective.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0878934634?v=glance   (926 words)

 The neutral theory of molecular evolution. (Motoo Kimura).   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Molecular variation in proteins and DNA was uncovered that had no influence on the fitness of the individual organism: in other words: is selectively neutral.
Please note that 'the neutral theory of evolution' is not sufficient to explain complex life and adaptations.
In that sense it is not a theory of evolution.
home.wxs.nl /~gkorthof/kortho37.htm   (1242 words)

 Oxford Journals | Life Sciences | Molecular Biology and Evolution
Molecular Biology and Evolution (MBE) publishes research at the interface between molecular and evolutionary biology.
The journal publishes investigations of molecular evolutionary patterns and processes, tests of evolutionary hypotheses that use molecular data, and studies that use molecular evolutionary information to address questions about biological function at all levels of organization.
Reports of work on comparative and evolutionary genomics and the evolution of molecular structure and function are particularly welcome.
mbe.oxfordjournals.org   (79 words)

 Pennisi (1998): Molecular Evolution
Genetic change, and hence the evolution of new species, is commonly thought to result from small, random mutations in individual genes, but a growing wealth of data emphasizes that that perception is wrong.
Some of the mutant plants, whose flowers were originally all white, later produced speckled or streaked blossoms, a signal that, in the colored cells, the function of the altered gene had been restored because the transposon had moved.
But then last year, molecular geneticist Susan Rosenberg at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston and her colleagues showed that mutation rates increase throughout the genome, although only in a subset of the population.
cogweb.ucla.edu /Abstracts/Pennisi_98.html   (2588 words)

 Open Directory - Science: Biology: Evolution: Molecular   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
How molecular biology opens up a 21st Century view of evolution - Transcript of chat with biochemist James Shapiro of the University of Chicago on his concept of "natural genetic engineering" at the cellular level.
International Society of Molecular Evolution - A non-profit organization founded in 1993, and incorporated in 1997, to facilitate the communication and publishing of information in the field of Molecular Evolution.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution - Journal is dedicated to bringing Darwin's dream-to "have fairly true genealogical trees of each great kingdom of Nature"-within grasp.
dmoz.org /Science/Biology/Evolution/Molecular   (433 words)

 Molecular Evolution   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
In the Molecular Evolution Group at CBS we are interested in applying phylogenetic methods to analyze specific biological systems, but also in using the flood of sequence data to learn about the evolutionary process itself.
The evolution of bacterial resistance to antibiotics and horizontal transfer of resistance-associated genes are other topics that we have explored.
Generally, we are interested in all aspects of evolution, and while we do use state-of-the-art computational tools for our work, the focus is always on analyzing problems that are interesting from a biological point of view.
www.cbs.dtu.dk /researchgroups/molevolution.php   (492 words)

 Molecular evolution of the dog family
Molecular genetic tools have been used to dissect the evolutionary relationships of the dog-like carnivores, revealing their place in the order Carnivora, the relationships of species within the family Canidae, and the genetic exchange that occurs among conspecific populations.
Molecular genetic approaches have provided information about evolutionary divergence at a number of different levels, ranging from the relationships of the Canidae to other carnivore families, to relationships among populations within a single species.
Clearly, the Canidae diverged early in the evolution of carnivores, and one should be cautious about attempting to draw conclusions about carnivore gene structure and function from studies on canids alone.
www.idir.net /~wolf2dog/wayne2.htm   (3499 words)

 Index Molecular Site   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
This collection of pages is devoted to the study and analysis of data pertaining to the molecular evolution of late hominids including species Homo sapiens [sapiens], Homo [sapiens] neandertalensis, Homo erectus (Homo ergastor or [archaic] Homo sapiens).
However the nature of molecular evolution can 'capture' information along the evolution of any lineage and store that information within the variable primary DNA structures in a population(s).
This net-review of the literature is not limited solely to molecular studies, wherever possible physical artifacts will be used to corroborate predictions, or to test the validity of alternatives that are parsimonious with the molecular evolution predictions.
home.att.net /~DNAPaleoAnth   (652 words)

 Molecular evolution bibliography
Baltscheffsky, H., 1981, Stepwise molecular evolution of bacterial photosynthetic energy conversion: BioSystems, v.
Follmann, H., 1982, Deoxyribonucleotide systhesis and the emergence of DNA in molecular evolution: Naturwissenschaften, v.
Sibley, C., and Ahlquist, J., 1984, The phylogeny of the homonid primates as indicated by DNA-DNA hybridization: Journal of Molecular Evolution, v.
www.talkorigins.org /origins/biblio/molecular_evolution.html   (579 words)

 The Whitney Laboratory for Marine Biology
GFP-like proteins are also very useful for basic studies in evolution of diversity and complexity in protein families.
We hypothesize that independent evolution of the color diversity in several groups of reef organisms was promoted by establishment of modern coral reefs, and therefore, colorfulness of the coral reefs may actually be a requirement for proper functioning of the ecosystem.
Our ultimate goal is to understand the actual function of different colors and reconstruct the detailed molecular history of the color diversity evolution in paleo-ecological context, thereby creating a bridge between evolution of molecules, organisms and ecosystems.
www.whitney.ufl.edu /research_programs/matz.htm   (1203 words)

 Molecular Evolution
The evolution of this code likely took place early in evolutionary history, since it is imperative that the transfer RNA molecules function correctly, since mutations would cause problems in the formation of every protein which would cause the cell no possibility for survival.
Organisms have conservation on the molecular level, which shows that it is likely that they evolved from a common ancestor.
Actually observing life developing might not be observable in a laboratory due to time constraints we do have series of observations that have led to the theory that it is indeed possible that the only spark that caused the creation of life was constant lightning storms on a primordial earth.
serendip.brynmawr.edu /sci_cult/evolit/s05/web1/jgerfen.html   (1049 words)

 Symmetry-breaking and Molecular Evolution/1
The rich diversity of structure in molecular systems is made possible by the profound asymmetries between the nuclear forces and electromagnetism.
Although molecular dynamics is founded on electromagnetic orbitals, the diversity of the elements and their asymmetric charge structure, with electrons captured by a spectrum of positively charged nuclei, is made possible through the divergence of symmetry of the four fundamental forces.
All molecular interaction is highly non-linear, and forms an unresolved fractal interactive milieu which permits not only the cascade of weaking bonding and global interactions characterizing protein enzymes and nucleic acids but also on a larger scale the tissue structures of whole organisms.
www.dhushara.com /book/biocos/symevol.htm   (5619 words)

 Workshop on Molecular Evolution
The Workshop on Molecular Evolution has been the finest course of its type in the world since it was started in 1988.
Scientists with a strong interest in molecular evolution, systematics, and population genetics are encouraged to apply.
Molecular evolution integrated at organism and higher levels: population biology; biogeography; ecology; systematics and conservation
workshop.molecularevolution.org   (420 words)

 BioAfrica - Bioinformatics and Molecular Evolution Books
Approaches the study of molecular evolution with the phylogenetic tree as a central metaphor, allowing students and professionals to see both the relevance of molecular data and the significance evolutionary theory has for molecular studies.
Contains chapters on the function and evolution of genes, measuring genetic change, inferring molecular phylogeny, models of molecular evolution, and applications of molecular phylogenetics.
It is appropriate for graduate students and researchers (assuming a basic knowledge of evolution, moecular biology, and elementary statistics), allowing many investigators to incorporate refined statistical analysis of large-scale data in their own work.
www.bioafrica.net /books.html   (978 words)

 Patterns in Evolution : The New Molecular View by Roger Lewin
I found his explanation of the neutral vs. selectionist molecular evolution debate to be more clearly presented here than in Mark Ridley's Evolution.
Patterns in Evolution is a must read for anyone not familiar with the molecular side of the evolutionary evidence.
In Patterns in Evolution, noted science journalist Roger Lewin explores how genetic information is providing new insight into evolutionary events: scientists are now able to study evolutionary change at the molecular level and reconstruct evolutionary lineages based on changes in DNA.
www.2think.org /pie.shtml   (651 words)

 Molecular evolution meets the genomics revolution - Nature Genetics
Changes in technology in the past decade have had such an impact on the way that molecular evolution research is done that it is difficult now to imagine working in a world without genomics or the Internet.
For molecular evolution researchers, the genomics revolution has showered us with raw data and the information revolution has given us the wherewithal to analyze it.
In broad terms, the most significant outcome from these changes has been our newfound ability to examine the evolution of genomes as a whole, enabling us to infer genome-wide evolutionary patterns and to identify subsets of genes whose evolution has been in some way atypical.
www.nature.com /ng/journal/v33/n3s/abs/ng1088.html   (246 words)

 Gene Expression: Molecular Evolution of the Human Brain
These outlier genes were identified by virtue of the fact that their rate of change is especially accelerated in the human lineage, far more so than the other genes examined in the study.
Varki points out that several major events in recent human evolution may reflect the action of strong selective forces, including the appearance of the genus Homo about 2 million years ago, a major expansion of the brain beginning about a half million years ago, and the appearance of anatomically modern humans about 150,000 years ago.
It is perhaps the complex social structures and cultural behaviors unique in human ancestors that fueled the rapid evolution of the brain.
www.gnxp.com /MT2/archives/003394.html?entry=3394   (686 words)

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