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Topic: Mongols

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  Mongols and Yuan China by Sanderson Beck
Mongol warriors were forbidden to speak of death, injury, or defeat.
Mongols and other foreigners (mostly from Persia) replaced most of the Confucian aristocrats in government, and the civil service exams were abolished.
As plays in the Mongol era had often been performed by prostitutes, the Ming dynasty considered actors and actresses as low as prostitutes; like them their sons were not allowed to take imperial examinations.
www.san.beck.org /3-6-Mongols.html   (11119 words)

  Mongols - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Mongols were originally a confederation of tribes in competition with the Tatar Turks, Kerait, Merkit and Naiman confederations and therefore only one division of what is known today as the Mongol nation.
Mongols were originally shamans who pray to the supernatural God they believed existed beyond the sky and look down from the heavens.
The Mongols and Genghis Khan maintained a policy of being open to all religions, it was known as particularly sympathetic to Christians (which may have helped contribute to the legend of Prester John).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Mongols   (4479 words)

 Mongol Empire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Subotai, in particular, among the Mongol Commanders, viewed winter as the best time for war — while less hardy people hid from the elements, the Mongols were able to literally use frozen lakes and rivers as highways for their horsemen, a strategy he used with great effect in Russia.
Mongols prized their commercial and trade relationships with neighboring economies and this policy they continued during the process of their conquests and during the expansion of their empire.
Mongol armies pushed into Persia, finished off the Xia and the remnants of the Khwarezmids, and came into conflict with the Song Dynasty of China, starting a war that would last until 1279 concluding with the Mongols' successful conquest of populous China, which consituted then the majority of the world's economic production.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Mongol_Empire   (4125 words)

Mongols sought the counsel and help of the lama (priest or monk) for every aspect of their life: migration, marriage, childbirth, disease, and death.
The Mongols in Yunnan have a special custom called "to meet the firewood-cutter." When it is about time for someone to return home after cutting firewood for a whole day, one member of the family will go ahead to meet the tired person halfway.
In winter the Mongols living in pastoral areas (where domesticated animals are herded) usually wear a sheep fur coat with silk or cloth on the outside.
www.everyculture.com /wc/Mauritania-to-Nigeria/Mongols.html   (2596 words)

 Genghis Khan and the Mongols
Mongol horses were small, but their riders were lightly clad and they moved with greater speed.
The Mongols did not partake in the gruesome displays that European rulers often resorted to elicit fear and discourage potential enemies - none of the stretching, emasculating, belly cutting and hacking to pieces that, for example, was soon to happen to William Wallace at the hands of the English.
Among the Mongols he was known as the Holy Warrior, and not unlike the Jews, who continued to see hope in a conquering king (messiah) like David, Mongols were to continue to believe that one day Genghis Khan would rise again and lead his people to new victories.
www.fsmitha.com /h3/h11mon.htm   (4168 words)

 Mongols. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
The origin of the Mongols is obscure, but it is believed that many of the so-called Huns, who invaded Europe, as well as the Khitan, who founded a dynasty (916–1125) in N China, may have been Mongols.
From their capital at Karakorum the Mongol hordes swept W into Europe and E into China, and by c.1260 the sons of Jenghiz Khan ruled a far-flung Eurasian empire that was divided into four khanates.
Actually, the Mongol hordes (particularly those who conquered Russia and penetrated as far as Hungary and Germany) included large elements of Turkic peoples; they came to be known collectively as Tatars.
www.bartleby.com /65/mo/Mongols.html   (423 words)

 New Mongols
Thousands of the nomadic Mongols who live off their herds of sheep and goats continue to be driven from their lands by the central authorities, who cite environmental excuses, such as the need to protect the grasslands from overgrazing.
Mongol's eyes were bright upon hearing this news.
United News of Mongol apparently reproduced all of Mongol's post, "Why I love America." The reprinting elicited a number of interesting comments over at their blog.
newmongols.blogspot.com   (0 words)

 MrDonn.org - Mongol Daily Life, Mongol Myths, Mongol Empire, Lesson Plans
If you were a Mongol child in ancient times, it would have been one of your jobs to collect animal dung and set it out to dry.
One of the ways the Mongols taught their children good behavior was by using stories, myths, and legends to make a point.
One of the reasons the ancient Mongols never became an agricultural society is that they believed it was terribly wrong to dig the soil or cut the grass.
mongols.mrdonn.org /dailylife.html   (2491 words)

 Chinese History - Mongols 蒙古 (www.chinaknowledge.de)
The so-called "Mongols" are actually a heterogenous group of different nomad peoples of Turk and "Tartar" origin.
A political balance between Persia and the new Mongol empire was not very easy, and some difficulties between these two empires lead to the first Mongol expedition to the west: northern Persia and southern Russia became part of a huge steppe empire.
Under the influence of Russian diplomates the highest Mongol leaders proclaimed the independency of Mongolia in 1911, and although the Republic of China never gave up the sovereignity over Outer Mongolia, in November 1924 the Mongolian People's Republic was proclaimed.
www.chinaknowledge.de /History/Altera/mongols.html   (2431 words)

 The Islamic World to 1600: The Mongol Invasions (The Il-Khanate)
Although the faith prevailed, and the Mongol invaders were eventually converted to Islam, the Mongol destruction of the Islamic heartland marked a major change of direction for the region.
The Mongols did not use horseshoes, and the rocky terrain of Syria reportedly injured the Mongol horses' hooves to the extent that they were unable to fight effectively.
This spread of the native language and culture to the Mongol invaders is seen in the Il-Khanate as well as the Mongol-ruled Yuan Dynasty in China, both of which had rich cultural, linguistic, and religious traditions that pre-dated the Mongol invasion.
www.ucalgary.ca /applied_history/tutor/islam/mongols/ilkhanate.html   (2664 words)

 Mongols   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The Mongols arose as a complex group of closely related tribes dwelling in the steppes and semi-arid regions south of the Yakut taiga, adjacent to the Gobi Desert.
Their ethnicity is somewhat obscure; the balance of the evidence suggests that they were Mongolic (related to Mongols, Naimans, Keraits, and Khitan), but it has also been postulated that they are more closely related to Paleo-Asians such as the Chukchi, or Tungusic (Manchu and Evenk).
Owing to internecine feuding, the Mongol tribe was decimated at the end of the 12th century; it was left to the genius of Temujin Genghis to restore the fortunes of his people, and unify his nation...
www.hostkingdom.net /mongols.html   (1736 words)

 The Mongols
A caravan traveling from Mongol lands to the Persian Empire was stopped by the governor of a Persian frontier province in modern Uzbekistan.
The westward advance of the Mongols was halted at one of the decisive battlefields of history, Ayn Jalut, near Nazareth in Israel, in 1260.
The Mongol subjugation of Russia was brutal and humiliating and contributed greatly to that sense of tragedy that so deeply imbues Russian culture and art.
www.uwgb.edu /dutchs/WestTech/xmongol.htm   (4853 words)

 Mongol history and chronology from ancient times
Yeh-lu Chu'tsai was descended from Mongols who, in the tenth and eleventh centuries had entered the service of the Liao state, which came into existence during the ninth century as an offspring of a culture which originated as a result of contacts between Mongol pastoralists and Chinese farmers.
The Mongols knew that the Russians must not be allowed to build strongholds in the forest regions, from which they could attack the Mongols in the rear.
If the Mongols had not been bound by tradition, but continued the European campaign in accordance with the original guidelines of Subedei (and as already mentioned it is very likely that Chingis Khan himself had masterminded the plan), Batu and Subedei might have conquered all of Europe to the Atlantic Ocean.
www.coldsiberia.org /webdoc3.htm   (9052 words)

 Microsoft Age of Empires II: Age of Kings
At the beginning of the 13th century the Mongol clans united and began a campaign of foreign conquest.
The Mongols inhabited the plains south of Lake Baikal in modern Mongolia.
The Mongol clans were united by Temujin, called Genghis Khan ('Mighty Ruler') in the early 13th century.
www.microsoft.com /games/age2/c_mongols.htm   (584 words)

 Mongols & Mongolians - Political, Social, Cultural, Historical Analysis Of China -- Research Into Origins Of Huns, ...
While it might be true that Mongols had played a role in forming today’s Russia, it’s definitely not the case with China, a country experiencing integration and disunity in a predictable fashion for past thousand years.
After Mongols left, Tanguts, angry that the Jurchens did not come to their aid, broke the peace treaty with the Jurchens which had been effective as of AD 1165, and a new treaty would not be signed till AD 1225 when they faced new waves of Mongol attackes.
By 1218, the Mongol state extended as far west as Lake Balkash and adjoined Khwarizm, a Muslim state that reached the Caspian Sea in the west and the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Sea in the south.
www.republicanchina.org /Mongols.html   (13852 words)

 The Mongols in World History | Asia Topics in World History
An important legacy of the Mongols' reign in China was their support of many religions.
The Mongols also recruited and employed Islamic financial administrators — a move that led to good relations with the Islamic world beyond China, in particular with Persia and West Asia.
The Mongols were also captivated by Buddhism — particularly the Tibetan form of Buddhism — and they recruited a number of Tibetan monks to help them rule China and promote the interests of Buddhism.
www.columbia.edu /itc/eacp/japanworks/mongols/china/china3_f.htm   (322 words)

 Imperial Era: III
By the mid-thirteenth century, the Mongols had subjugated north China, Korea, and the Muslim kingdoms of Central Asia and had twice penetrated Europe.
Rivalry among the Mongol imperial heirs, natural disasters, and numerous peasant uprisings led to the collapse of the Yuan dynasty.
Long wars with the Mongols, incursions by the Japanese into Korea, and harassment of Chinese coastal cities by the Japanese in the sixteenth century weakened Ming rule, which became, as earlier Chinese dynasties had, ripe for an alien takeover.
www-chaos.umd.edu /history/imperial3.html   (1318 words)

 History of Jihad against the Mongols (1050-1258)   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The Mongol attack on Islamdom was a collective expression of resistance to Islam from the pre-Islamic Persians who had settled in China and Mongolia, and the Turks who had been waging a struggle against Islam in the 8th to the 10th centuries.
It was this accumulation of grievances that led to the burst of the Mongol attack on Islamdom from 1200 that culminated in the sack and slaughter at Baghdad in 1258 under Hulagu Khan who was egged on to this path by his Nestorian Persian Christian wife.
Only after the Mongols were provoked by Muslim torture like stretching, emasculating, belly cutting and hacking to pieces, were the Mongols far more ruthless than their Muslim foes and that led to the wholesale slaughter of Muslims by the Mongols at Baghdad.
www.historyofjihad.com /mongolia.html   (12784 words)

 Islamic History in Arabia and Middle East   (Site not responding. Last check: )
From Iraq the Mongols pressed forward into Syria and then toward Egypt where, for the first time, they faced adversaries who refused to quail before their vaunted power.
During this period the Mongols built mosques and schools and patronized scholarship of all sorts.
The Mongol invasions, in fact, were a major cause of the subsequent decline that set in throughout the heartland of the Arab East.
www.islamicity.com /mosque/ihame/Sec11.htm   (566 words)

 History & Culture of Russia / The Mongols and the Emergence of Moscow
Over the next three years the Mongols (or Tatars) destroyed all of the major cities of Kievan Rus' with the exceptions of Novgorod and Pskov.
The regional princes were not deposed, but they were forced to send regular tribute to the Tatar state, which became known as the Empire of the Golden Horde.
The Mongols and the Emergence of Moscow
www.geographia.com /russia/rushis03.htm   (822 words)

 Mongols - Gananda Library   (Site not responding. Last check: )
They were the most powerful army of their time and no country could defeat them.
The Mongols controlled the largest land empire in human history.
An excellent overview of the effect of the Mongols on the Chinese history by Prof.
www.gananda.k12.ny.us /library/mshslibrary/mongolwq.htm   (448 words)

 Mongols | People of Mongolia | Questia.com
Mongols, Turks, and Others: Eurasian Nomads and the Sedentary World » Read Now
Nationalism and Revolution in Mongolia ("The Mongols under Manchu Rule" begins on p.
Warfare in Chinese History ("Mountain Fortress Defence: The Experience of the Southern Song and Korea in Resisting the Mongol Invasions" begins on p.
www.questia.com /Index.jsp?CRID=mongols&OFFID=se1   (320 words)

Howorth, H. History of the Mongols from the 9th to the 19th Century.
It was on the spiritual plane the Mongols won their triumphs.
It is a clickable map of a mongol yurt "village"
www.florilegium.org /files/CULTURES/Mongols-msg.html   (5287 words)

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