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Topic: Montreal Protocol


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  The Ozone Hole-The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
On the basis of the Vienna Convention, the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was negotiated and signed by 24 countries and by the European Economic Community in September 1987.
After a series of rigorous meetings and negotiations, the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was finally agreed upon on 16 september 1987 at the Headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization in Montreal.
The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is one of the first international environmental agreements that includes trade sanctions to achieve the stated goals of a treaty.
www.theozonehole.com /montreal.htm   (649 words)

  
  Montreal Protocol - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Montreal Protocol should not be confused with the Montreal Convention governing compensation for air disasters.
The provisions of the Protocol include the requirement that the Parties to the Protocol base their future decisions on the current scientific, environmental, technical, and economic information that is assessed through panels drawn from the worldwide expert communities.
Since the Montreal Protocol came into effect, the atmospheric concentrations of the most important chlorofluorocarbons and related chlorinated hydrocarbons have either leveled off or decreased [2].
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Montreal_Protocol   (1408 words)

  
 KYOTO PROTOCOL
"Montreal Protocol" means the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, adopted in Montreal on 16 September 1987 and as subsequently adjusted and amended.
Amendments to this Protocol shall be adopted at an ordinary session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol.
Annexes to this Protocol and amendments to annexes to this Protocol shall be adopted at an ordinary session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol.
unfccc.int /resource/docs/convkp/kpeng.html   (5366 words)

  
 Kyoto Protocol - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Kyoto Protocol was adopted at the third session of the Conference of Parties (COP) to the UNFCCC in 1997 in Kyoto, Japan.
The first Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (MOP1) was held in Montreal from November 28 to December 9, 2005, along with the 11th conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (COP11).
Wigley, T.M.L. The Kyoto Protocol: CO2, CH4, and climate, Geophys.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Kyoto_protocol   (4451 words)

  
 Yearbook of International Co-operation on Environment and Development: Ozone Convention   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Copenhagen Amendment), Copenhagen, 25 November 1992.
Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Beijing Amendment), Beijing, 3 December 1999.
Parties to both the Montreal Protocol and the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have noted the interlinkages between implementation of the Montreal Protocol and the Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC.
www.greenyearbook.org /agree/atmosphe/vienna.htm   (1876 words)

  
 Montreal Protocol - Treaties and Ratification - The Ozone Secretariat   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Montreal Protocol - Treaties and Ratification - The Ozone Secretariat
The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was adopted on 16 September 1987 at the Headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization in Montreal.
The Protocol was designed so that the phase out schedules could be revised on the basis of periodic scientific and technological assessments.
hq.unep.org /ozone/Treaties_and_Ratification/2B_montreal_protocol.asp   (179 words)

  
 Montreal Protocol
The Issue The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is one of the first international environmental agreements that includes trade sanctions to achieve the stated goals of a treaty.
The Montreal Protocol is a landmark environmental treaty.
Forum and Scope: UN and GLOBAL The Montreal Protocol negotiations were conducted under a framework agreed to in the 1985 Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer.
www.american.edu /ted/MONTREAL.HTM   (2019 words)

  
 Montreal Protocol
The Montreal Protocol was drafted with the intent of establishing unambiguous and universal norms of behavior.
The principle may even be taken further: since the Montreal Protocol was clearly intended to establish universal norms of behavior, and given that it was negotiated in an open world forum, one may argue that Garibistan's silence on the issue may be construed as a tacit acceptance of the protocol's control measures.
The key features of the Montreal Protocol's aid mechanism, as mentioned previously, are that it is limited to the specific objectives of the protocol, it is not open-ended, and it allows neither developing parties nor industrialized parties to dictate the policies of the protocol's multilateral fund.
www.cypressrose.com /David/cjielp.html   (7073 words)

  
 AllRefer.com - Montreal Protocol, Environment (Environmental Studies) - Encyclopedia
Montreal Protocol, officially the Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, treaty signed on Sept. 16, 1987, at Montreal by 25 nations; 168 nations are now parties to the accord.
The protocol set limits on the production of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, and related substances that release chlorine or bromine to the ozone layer of the atmosphere.
At meetings in London (1990), Copenhagen (1992), Vienna (1995), and Montreal (1997) amendments were adopted that were designed to speed up the phasing out of ozone-depleting substances; not all parties to the main protocol are parties to these amendments.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/M/MntPrtcl.html   (396 words)

  
 IATA - Montreal Protocol #4
Montreal Protocol No.4 to Amend the Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules Relating to International Carriage by Air, Signed at Warsaw on 12 October 1929, as Amended by the Protocol Done at the Hague on 28 September 1955, Signed at Montreal on 25 September 1975
Article XV As between the Parties to this Protocol, the Warsaw Convention as amended at The Hague in 1955 and this Protocol shall be read and interpreted together as one single instrument and shall be known as the Warsaw Convention as amended at The Hague, 1955, and by Protocol No.4 of Montreal, 1975.
This Protocol shall remain open for signature until 1 January 1976 at the Headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization and thereafter until it comes into force in accordance with Article XVIII at the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of the Polish People's Republic.
www.iata.org /whatwedo/customs_regulations/montreal_protocol4   (2747 words)

  
 Montreal Protocol - Treaties and Ratification - The Ozone Secretariat
Montreal Protocol - Treaties and Ratification - The Ozone Secretariat
The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was adopted on 16 September 1987 at the Headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization in Montreal.
The Protocol was designed so that the phase out schedules could be revised on the basis of periodic scientific and technological assessments.
www.unep.org /ozone/Treaties_and_Ratification/2B_montreal_protocol.asp   (179 words)

  
 AFEAS: Montreal Protocol
The details of the international agreement were defined in the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.
The Montreal Protocol was signed in September 1987 and became effective in 1989.
Changes were made to the Montreal Protocol at a meeting of the Parties in Vienna in 1995.
www.afeas.org /montreal_protocol.html   (641 words)

  
 [No title]
For the purposes of this Article, the term "State not party to this Protocol" shall include, with respect to a particular controlled substance, a State or regional economic integration organization that has not agreed to be bound by the control measures in effect for that substance.
The Funds required for the operation of this Protocol, including those for the functioning of the secretariat related to this Protocol, shall be charged exclusively against contributions from the Parties.
Article 15: Signature This Protocol shall be open for signature by States and by regional economic integration organizations in Montreal on 16 September 1987, in Ottawa from 17 September 1987 to 16 January 1988, and at the United Nations Headquarters in New York from 17 January 1988 to 15 September 1988.
fletcher.tufts.edu /multi/texts/BH906.txt   (7794 words)

  
 Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol
The Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer will celebrate the 20th Anniversary of this landmark international treaty in meetings and events to be held from 12 to 21 September 2007 in the host city of Montreal, Canada.
The Multilateral Fund was established by a decision of the Second Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol (London, June 1990) and began its operation in 1991.
The main objective of the Multilateral Fund is to assist developing country parties to the Montreal Protocol whose annual per capita consumption and production of ozone depleting substances (ODS) is less than 0.3 kg to comply with the control measures of the Protocol.
www.multilateralfund.org   (903 words)

  
 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
The secretariat shall convene the first meeting of the Parties not later than one year after the date of the entry into force of this Protocol and in conjunction with a meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention, if a meeting of the latter is scheduled within that period.
This Protocol shall be open for signature by States and by regional economic integration organizations in Montreal on 16 September 1987, in Ottawa from 17 September 1987 to 16 January 1988, and at the United Nations Headquarters in New York from 17 January 1988 to 15 September 1988.
Annex III Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
www.globelaw.com /Climate/montreal.htm   (12506 words)

  
 Montreal Protocol
The fourth meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol: report and reflection.
The unsheltering sky: China, India, and the Montreal Protocol.
Montreal Protocol talks to consider exemptions from methyl bromide ban.
www.infoplease.com /ce6/sci/A0833884.html   (513 words)

  
 UNDP | Energy and Environment
Since 1987 the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer has sought to reverse past damage done to the Ozone Layer by supporting efforts to eliminate the consumption and production of ODS.
With the financial support of the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol, the Global Environment Facility and bi-lateral donors, UNDP assists developing countries and countries with economies in transition in complying with the Montreal Protocol's control measures.
The publication focuses on UNDP’s contribution to the success of the Montreal Protocol and highlights our ongoing commitment to the important work that remains to be done to protect the ozone layer.
www.undp.org /chemicals/montrealprotocol.htm   (675 words)

  
 Montreal Protocol - United Nations Industrial Development Organization
The Service Module “Montreal Protocol” comprises services in policy, strategy and programme design; institutional support; and enterprise level technical assistance.
In addition, UNIDO is introducing a new service to generate data and information on the impact that the technology transfer undertaken in the context of the Organization’s Montreal Protocol-related services have on increasing productivity, employment and export earnings.
Generation of databases on the impact of Montreal Protocol activities
www.unido.org /doc/18265   (201 words)

  
 IIR Summarizing File - Montreal Protocol   (Site not responding. Last check: )
On September 16, 1987, the Montreal Protocol took over from the Vienna Convention of March 22, 1985 where 189 countries agreed to take "appropriate measures to protect human health and the environment against adverse effects resulting or likely to result from human activities which modify or are likely to modify the Ozone Layer".
Several amendments were made to the Protocol after ratification by the various Parties of the Vienna Convention.
As of October 4, 2004, the status of ratification of the Vienna Convention, of the Montreal Protocol and of corresponding Amendments was as follows:
www.iifiir.org /2enreglementation_ozone_Montreal.htm   (569 words)

  
 ADJUSTMENTS AND AMENDMENT TO THE MONTREAL PROTOCOL ON SUBSTANCES THAT DEPLETE THE OZONE LAYER
The 9th preambular paragraph of the Protocol shall be replaced by the following: Considering the importance of promoting international co-operation in the research, development and transfer of alternative technologies relating to the control and reduction of emissions of substances that deplete the ozone layer, bearing in mind in particular the needs of developing countries, B.
Article 2, paragraph l0 (b) Paragraph 10 (b) of Article 2 of the Protocol shall be deleted, and paragraph 10 (a) of Article 2 shall become paragraph 10.
Each Party shall ensure that for the twelve-month period commencing on 1 January 1993, and in each twelve- month period thereafter, its calculated level of consumption of the controlled substances in Group I of Annex B does not exceed, annually, eighty per cent of its calculated level of consumption in 1989.
sedac.ciesin.org /entri/texts/montreal.protocol.ozone.amend.1990.html   (4501 words)

  
 CBC News Indepth: Kyoto
So with the Kyoto Protocol expiring in 2012, there's a sense of urgency when it comes to reducing the emissions that are cited as causing climate change.
That's why the United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change organized the Montreal Climate Change Conference, which was held between Nov. 28 and Dec. 9, 2005.
On Nov. 30, the Montreal conference officially adopted the rules and regulations of the Kyoto Protocol.
www.cbc.ca /news/background/kyoto   (796 words)

  
 Montreal Protocol   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The Montreal Protocol is one of the most successful environment protection agreements in the world.
Australia has ratified the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer 1985 and the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer 1987.
Australia deposited its instrument of acceptance of amendments adopted at Beijing on 3 December 1999 to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, with the United Nations Office of Legal Affairs in New York on 17 August 2005.
www.deh.gov.au /atmosphere/ozone/legislation/montp.html   (804 words)

  
 Adjustments to the Montreal Protocol Would Speed Elimination of Ozone
With leadership from the United States, the Montreal Protocol was ratified in 1987 by 27 nations.
While the Montreal Protocol already has made tremendous strides to heal the ozone shield, the United States believes more steps can be taken to reduce HCFC consumption further and achieve a total phaseout sooner than the scheduled dates.
Since the Montreal Protocol was signed in 1987, the U.S. has achieved a 90 percent reduction in the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances—ending the production and import of more than 1.7 billion pounds per year of these chemicals.
www.theozonehole.com /adjsmontrea.htm   (704 words)

  
 NASA - Goddard Space Flight Center
The 191 nations of the Montreal Protocol have selected Dr. Paul A. Newman, an atmospheric physicist in the Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Branch at Goddard Space Flight Center, as co-chair of their Scientific Assessment Panel.
The Montreal Protocol is the historic international agreement that protects the Earth’s ozone layer.
The 1987 Montreal Protocol established three panels to periodically provide updates on matters related to the ozone layer.
www.nasa.gov /centers/goddard/home   (425 words)

  
 UNDP - 20 years of the Montreal Protocol
The Montreal Protocol has been recognized globally as a success, evidence of which can be gleaned from the massive reductions in ODS use worldwide since it came into force in 1987.
In the months leading up to the 20th Anniversary celebration, UNDP will showcase activities that it has undertaking with some 100 developing countries to help them meet their targets under the Montreal Protocol.
In the month of June, activities that have assisted foam producing companies worldwide to convert to Ozone-friendly technologies and stop the use of CFCs will be in the spotlight.
www.undp.org /chemicals/20yearsmontrealprotocol   (304 words)

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