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Topic: Moral philosophy

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  Moral relativism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In philosophy, Moral relativism is the position that moral or ethical propositions do not reflect absolute or universal truths but instead are relative to social, cultural, historical or personal references, and that there is no single standard by which to assess an ethical proposition's truth.
Moral relativism is not the same as moral pluralism, or value pluralism, which acknowledges the co-existence of opposing ideas and practices, but does not require that they be equally valid.
Moral relativism stands in marked contrast to moral absolutism, moral realism, and moral naturalism, which all maintain that there are moral facts, facts that can be both known and judged, whether through some process of verification or through intuition.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Moral_relativism   (1917 words)

 Ethics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ethics is the branch of axiology – one of the four major branches of philosophy, alongside metaphysics, epistemology, and logic – which attempts to understand the nature of morality; to define that which is right from that which is wrong.
In analytic philosophy, ethics is traditionally divided into three fields: Meta-ethics, Normative ethics (including value theory and the theory of conduct) and applied ethics – which is seen to be derived, top-down, from normative and thus meta-ethics.
Theories of moral conduct can be distinguished from etiquette by their concern with finding guidelines for action that are not dependent entirely on social convention.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Moral_philosophy   (2398 words)

 Hume's Moral Philosophy
Moral rationalists of the period such as Clarke (and in some moods, Hobbes and Locke) argue that moral standards or principles are requirements of reason — that is, that the very rationality of right actions is the ground of our obligation to perform them.
To hold an agent morally responsible for a bad action, it is not enough that the action be morally reprehensible; we must impute the badness of the fleeting act to the enduring agent.
Moral rationalists tend to say, first, that moral properties are discovered by reason, and also that moral goodness is in accord with reason (even that goodness consists in reasonableness) and moral evil is unreasonable.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/hume-moral   (11445 words)

 Moral Philosophy by Roger Jones
Moral philosophers want to discover how these rules are justified, and at the logical consequences of moral or ethical beliefs.
For Marx morality and ethics were part of bourgeois ideology: sets of ideas that ignored the exploitative economic arrangements of society and contributed to False Consciousness.
Slave morality is the morality of the weak.
www.philosopher.org.uk /moral.htm   (909 words)

I have said that the question is a question about Moral Philosophy; and it seems to me in fact to be a very large and general question which affects the whole of Moral Philosophy.
Moral Philosophy has, in fact, to discuss a good many different ideas; and though the I think this same question may be raised with regard to them all, I intend to pick out two, whuch seem to me particularly fundamental, and to ask it with regard to them only.
I have said that moral rules seem to consist, to a large extent, in assertions to the effect that it is always wrong to do certain actions or to refrain from doing certain others, or the equivalent assertions in terms of duty.
www.ditext.com /moore/nmp.html   (5124 words)

 Learn more about Ethics in the online encyclopedia.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
In philosophy, ethics is one of the three major traditional areas of investigation, alongside metaphysics and logic.
In analytic philosophy, ethics is traditionally divided into three fields: Metaethics, Normative ethics and applied ethics.
The view that ethics is innate and tied to a personal moral core or aesthetics is harder to relate to the formal categories above other than as a meta-ethics in itself.
www.onlineencyclopedia.org /e/et/ethics_1.html   (2072 words)

 Jacques Maritain Center: Moral Philosophy 1.2
And in general, the moral virtues can be exercised only upon occasions, as they come and go; but happiness is the light of the soul, that must burn with steady flame and uninterrupted act, and not be dependent on chance occurrences.
Philosophy deals not with individuals but with species, not with Bucephalus or Alexander, but with horse, man. It is nothing to philosophy that of a thousand seeds there germinate perhaps not ten.
Philosophy deals only with the natural order, with man as man, leaving the supernatural order, or the privileges and status of man as a child of God, to the higher science of Scholastic Theology.
www.nd.edu /Departments/Maritain/etext/moral102.htm   (5808 words)

 Kant's Moral Philosophy
Thus, at the heart of Kant's moral philosophy is a conception of reason whose reach in practical affairs goes well beyond that of a Humean ‘slave’ to the passions.
Third, in viewing virtue as a trait grounded in moral principles, and vice as principled transgression of moral law, Kant thought of himself as thoroughly rejecting what he took to be the Aristotelian view that virtue is a mean between two vices.
Morality is ‘duty’ for human beings because it is possible (and we recognize that it is possible) for our desires and interests to run counter to its demands.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/kant-moral   (11651 words)

 David Hume -- Moral Theory [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
Hume's moral theory is of lasting importance in the history of moral philosophy both for its originality and for its influence on later moral theories.
The moral agent is the person who performs an action, such as stealing a car; the receiver is the person affected by the conduct, such as the owner of the stolen car; and the moral spectator is the person who observes and, in this case, disapproves of the agent's action.
In every moral action that can be estimated by us, these two sets of feelings may be taken into account; the feelings of the agent when he meditated and willed the action; and the feelings of the spectator, or of him who calmly contemplates the action at any distance of space or time.
www.utm.edu /research/iep/h/humemora.htm   (4446 words)

 Untitled Document   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
They who maintain the existence of a moral sense ; of innate maxims; of a natural conscience ; that the love of virtue and hatred of vice are instinctive ; or the perception of right and wrong intuitive (all which are only different ways of expressing the same opinion) ; affirm that lie would.
Add to this, that where a woman's maintenance depends upon her character., (as it does, in a great measure, with those who are to support themselves by service,) little sometimes is left to the forsaken sufferer, but to starve for want of employment, or to have recourse to prostitution for food and raiment.
As a woman collects her virtue into this point, the loss of her chastity is generally the destruction of her moral principle; and this consequence is to be apprehended, whether the criminal intercourse be discovered or not.
www.mtholyoke.edu /courses/srachoot/Darwin/moralphilosophy2.html   (3652 words)

 Ethics [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
A third area of moral psychology focuses on whether there is a distinctly female approach to ethics that is grounded in the psychological differences between men and women.
According to many feminist philosophers, traditional morality is male-centered since it is modeled after practices that have been traditionally male-dominated, such as acquiring property, engaging in business contracts, and governing societies.
Moral issues, by contrast, concern more universally obligatory practices, such as our duty to avoid lying, and are not confined to individual societies.
www.utm.edu /research/iep/e/ethics.htm   (6475 words)

 Hobbes's Moral and Political Philosophy
Hobbes's moral philosophy has been less influential than his political philosophy, in part because that theory is too ambiguous to have garnered any general consensus as to its content.
Probably not, since, as feminist critics among others have noted, children are by Hobbes's theory assumed to have undertaken an obligation of obedience to their parents in exchange for nurturing, and so the primitive units in the state of nature will include families ordered by internal obligations, as well as individuals.
The secondary literature on Hobbes's moral and political philosophy (not to speak of his entire body of work) is vast, appearing across many disciplines and in many languages.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/hobbes-moral   (3028 words)

 Online Guide to Ethics and Moral Philosophy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Moral goodness and happiness are achieved, if at all, by replicating that perfect rationality in oneself, and by finding out and enacting one's own assigned role in the cosmic scheme of thingsÉThe leading figures in classical, or early, Stoicism are the school's first three heads: Zeno of Citium, Cleanthes and Chrysippus...
One favoured model compared philosophy to an orchard in which logic was the protective outer wall, physics the soil and trees, and ethics the fruit.
It is from this that moral qualities filter down to individuals and their actions, as a measure of their cooperation with or obstruction of the rational world plan.
caae.phil.cmu.edu /Cavalier/80130/part1/sect2/texts/R_Stoicism.html   (5454 words)

 Guardian Unlimited | The Guardian | No contest
Mainstream philosophy is going through one of its periodic spasms of public interest - only yesterday a letter in the Financial Times referred to "excessively optimistic Thomist elements".
Kant's moral philosophy remains hugely influential - such as his categorical imperative - while his work on aesthetics still carries great weight.
He is, in philosophy terms, both Elvis and the Beatles rolled into one.
www.guardian.co.uk /leaders/story/0,3604,1504112,00.html   (331 words)

 [No title]
ETHICS and MORALITY come from the Greek, ethikos and the Latin equivalent moralis, referring to custom, but morality sometimes is used to refer to what one does (or standards held as a result of custom), whereas ethics often is restricted to the philosophical study of morality.
What is morally valuable is that which produces the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number of people, happiness being determined by reference to the presence of pleasure and the absence of pain.
Moral norms are to be found in practice; practice is not to be justified (or condemned) by absolute moral principles, because there are none." NOTE THAT THIS IS ETHICAL RELATIVISM.
websyte.com /alan/hiethics.htm   (3352 words)

 Ethics_moral_philosophy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The essays deal with such central topics as freedom of the will, moral responsibility, the concept of a person, the structure of the will, the nature of action, the constitution of the self, and the theory of personal ideals.
By focusing on the distinctive nature of human freedom, Professor Frankfurt is ale to explore fundamental problems of what it is to be a person and of what one should care about in life.
It begins with "Alternative Possibilities and Moral Responsibility," the most important essay on the conditions of moral responsibility in the second half of the twentieth...
books.mysic.com /Ethics_Moral_Philosophy   (1259 words)

 Online Guide to Ethics and Moral Philosophy
It is helpful to see Bentham's moral philosophy in the context of his political philosophy, his attempt to find a rational approach to law and legislative action.
But in matters of "private morality" such as sexual preference and private behavior, Bentham felt that is was not at all useful to involve the legislature.
Now it is an unquestionable fact that those who are equally acquainted with and equally capable of appreciating and enjoying both do give a most marked preference to the manner of existence which employs their higher faculties.
caae.phil.cmu.edu /Cavalier/80130/part1/sect4/BenandMill.html   (813 words)

 Writing tutor for Introductory Moral Philosophy Courses
Many of the classic texts in philosophy are carefully framed pieces of prose where the author is attempting to achieve a result that is aesthetically pleasing within an identifiable literary style.
Your first forays into philosophy, however, are not aimed at the craft of writing.
The goals of this class are oriented toward the conceptual or analytical part of philosophy.
www.williams.edu /philosophy/fourth_layer/faculty_pages/jcruz/moraltutor   (296 words)

Immanuel Kant was born in the East Prussian city of Königsberg, studied at its university, and worked there as a tutor and professor for more than forty years, never travelling more than fifty miles from home.
Although his outward life was one of legendary calm and regularity, Kant's intellectual work easily justified his own claim to have effected a Copernican revolution in philosophy.
From his analysis of the operation of the human will, Kant derived the necessity of a perfectly universalizable moral law, expressed in a categorical imperative that must be regarded as binding upon every agent.
www.philosophypages.com /ph/kant.htm   (746 words)

 Amazon.co.uk: Books: Moral Philosophy (OPUS S.)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
In this new and enlarged edition of a standard introduction to moral philosophy, Professor Raphael shows in clear and simple language the connections between abstract ethics and practical problems in law, government, medicine, and the social sciences in general.
This second edition enlarges the relation of moral philosophy to other concerns, with two new chapters: one on ethics and evolution, the other on medical ethics.
No one who has read this book is likely to think that moral philosophy is irrelevant.
www.amazon.co.uk /exec/obidos/ASIN/0192892460   (360 words)

 Glossary of Terms: Et
Ethical politics differs from fundamentalism because its aim is to develop principles and imperatives which express new ways of acting and emerging social relations, whereas fundamantalism promotes outmoded ethical principles from the past in order to “turn back the clock” and re-establish old ways of living.
Ethics is the study and practice of how people must live and is concerned with morality and rights.
The foundation of right in bourgeois society is property (see Hegel’s Philosophy of Right for a systematic exposition of this view); even if the only property you own is your labour-power, to be a human being in bourgeois society is to be a property-owner.
www2.cddc.vt.edu /marxists/glossary/terms/e/t.htm   (1362 words)

 Amazon.com: Books: Lectures on the History of Moral Philosophy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
This volume draws together the final version of Rawls\\rquote lecture notes on the history of modern moral philosophy; it offers probing discussions of Hume, Leibniz, Kant, and Hegel and of the four basic types of moral reasoning--perfectionism, utilitarianism, intuitionism, and Kantian constructivism.
One can see why John Rawls rejuvenated interest in moral philosophy -- this book is not only a beautifully written, but also a well organized collection of lectures on moral philosophy.
Utilitarianism, constructivism, intuitionism and perfectionism are all studied carefully as the various moral philosophies produced by these thinkers.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0674004426?v=glance   (707 words)

 USATODAY.com - Bioethics hits a crossroads   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The nuts-and-bolts issues of patient rights are a cornerstone of bioethics in medical practice, says bioethicist Jonathan Moreno of the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, and past president of the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities.
But with more than 40 million people lacking health insurance, drug companies under fire for withholding safety information and medical costs threatening to bankrupt the health care system, "they have the bully pulpit on bioethics and they are not using it," he says.
In a written summary of his views presented at the council's recent meeting, Kass suggested that politics is behind the criticism.
www.usatoday.com /news/health/2005-09-28-bioethics_x.htm   (1381 words)

 Philosophy Overview   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Philosophy complains that Custom has hoodwinked us, from the first; that we do everything by Custom, even Believe by it; that our very Axioms, let us boast of Free-thinking as we may, are often simply such Beliefs as we have never heard questioned.
Nay, what is Philosophy throughout but a continual battle with Custom; an ever-renewed effort to transcend the sphere of blind Custom, and so become Transcendental?
Adam Smith, Dugald Stewart, and Thomas Reid and Emotionalist Moral Theory
www.victorianweb.org /philosophy/philov.html   (105 words)

 ETHICAL PHILOSOPHY SELECTOR SELECTSMART.com philosophers Aquinas Aristotle Ayn Rand Cynics David Hume Epicureans ...
When you’re finished answering the questions, press "Select Philosophy" to generate your customized match of ethical philosophers/philosophies.
c) Sort of, society doesn't have to coerce a person to find morality, but the interest/rights of others in society must conveyed to a person in order for that person to determine right from wrong.
c) No, there is a consistent morality that applies to all, but their methods may differ greatly.
selectsmart.com /PHILOSOPHY   (968 words)

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