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Topic: MtDNA

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In the News (Thu 18 Apr 19)

  Fossil Hominids: mitochondrial DNA
What makes mtDNA particularly interesting is that, unlike nuclear DNA which is equally inherited from both father and mother, mtDNA is inherited only from the mother, because all our mitochondria are descended from those in our mother's egg cell (there may be exceptions to this rule, however; see below).
The diversity of the three Neandertal mtDNA sequences (3.73%) is lower than that of chimpanzees (14.82+/-5.7%) and gorillas (18.57+/-5.26%), and similar to that of modern humans worldwide (3.43+/-1.22%).
Interestingly, the mtDNA sequences from the Vindija Neandertals, which have a less extreme Neandertal anatomy than the classic Neandertals, and are considered transitional between modern humans and classic Neandertals by some scientists, were no closer to modern humans than the rest of the Neandertal fossils.
www.talkorigins.org /faqs/homs/mtDNA.html   (2966 words)

 Interferon Decreased mtDNA Mutation Rate & Improved Liver
We have previously reported that the frequency of mtDNA mutations is markedly increased in both noncancerous and cancerous liver specimens from individuals with HCC [6], and showed that the frequency of mtDNA mutations in HCC tissue was greater than that previously described for other types of cancers [79].
The variation of the mtDNA mutations were a C deletion at nucleotide 164, a G insertion between 184 and 185, a G A transition at 207, a C insertion between 303 and 304, a C T transition at 317, 320 and 530, and a deletion of GA at 514515.
The high frequency of mtDNA mutations in the liver of patients with chronic hepatitis suggests that hepatocytes in such patients continuously undergo malignant transformation during inflammation induced by HCV infection.
www.natap.org /2005/HCV/110205_03.htm   (1766 words)

 NOVA Online | Neanderthals on Trial | Tracing Ancestry with MtDNA
The mtDNA from the sperm cell, however, is left behind, outside of the egg cell.
This means that all of the mtDNA in the cells of a person's body are copies of his or her mother's mtDNA, and all of the mother's mtDNA is a copy of her mother's, and so on.
Comparing mtDNA of these Neanderthals to mtDNA of living people from various continents, researchers have found that the Neanderthals' mtDNA is not more closely related to that of people from any one continent over another.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/nova/neanderthals/mtdna.html   (1816 words)

 mtDNA and Family Studies   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is found outside the nucleus of the cell and is thus independent of the chromosomes.
Like the y-chromosome, mtDNA is not recombined or shuffled, and it is passed more or less unchanged from mothers to their children, both males and females.
Thus mtDNA has been recovered from both Cro-Magnon and Neanderthal remains that are tens of thousands of years old, while it is currently impossible and may never be possible to recover y-chromosome DNA from such ancient samples.
www.stanford.edu /~philr/Bachman/Bachmanmtdna.html   (595 words)

 SWGDAM mtDNA Nucleotide Sequence Interpretation, April 2003
The interpretation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) nucleotide sequencing results in casework is a matter of professional judgement and expertise.
Because of the sensitivity of detection with mtDNA analysis, low levels of exogenous DNA contamination and/or background is sometimes observed.
The mtDNA profile of a reference sample and an evidence sample that cannot be excluded as potentially originating from the same source can be searched in a population database.
www.fbi.gov /hq/lab/fsc/backissu/april2003/swgdammitodna.htm   (1724 words)

 mtDNA haplogroup of L. David Roper
That is, determine CR mtDNA base pairs for a woman, her daughter, her granddaughter, her great-granddaughter and her great-great-granddaughter; surely there are existing such 6 generations of descent.
So, a full mtDNA comparison for two individuals in a female line would give a tighter comparison of their relationship than does 37 Y markers in a male line.
So, measuring the full mtDNA in order to compare two females to see if they are in the same female line might reveal that one or both are susceptible to a specific disease.
www.roperld.com /mtdna.htm   (1055 words)

 trinicenter.com - Major genomic mitochondrial lineages delineate early human expansions
Human mtDNA is a non-recombining molecule with maternal inheritance and practically haploid genetics.
The phylogenetic network of the 42 mtDNA sequences was free of reticulations when mutations 150, 152, 303i and 16519 were omitted in its construction.
Complete mtDNA were amplified in 32 overlapping fragments with primers and PCR conditions described in Table 2.
www.trinicenter.com /sciencenews/27082001.htm   (2357 words)

 mtDNA & Native American origins
To substantiate or refute the possibility that specific subsets of mtDNAs could participate in disease expression, we took advantage of the heterogeneous ethnic origin of the Cuban population and the recent identification of a number of mtDNA polymorphisms that appear to be specific for Africans, Native Americans, and Europeans.
mtDNA sequence variation was examined in 60 Native Americans (Mixtecs from the Alta, Mixtecs from the Baja, Valley Zapotecs, and Highland Mixe) from southern Mexico by PCR amplification and high-resolution restriction endonuclease analysis.
The mtDNA variation of 411 individuals from 10 aboriginal Siberian populations was analyzed in an effort to delineate the relationships between Siberian and Native American populations.
cita.chattanooga.org /mtdna.html   (4518 words)

 MtDNA Evidence   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
MtDNA is inherited through the mother, and although both son and daughter receive their mother’s mtDNA, only the daughter can pass it on to her children.
MtDNA does not recombine during cell division and because of this any changes to the sequence are caused by mutations inherited from mother to daughter.
MtDNA has confirmed the findings of relationships among Native Americans and Asians; however, it is inconclusive regarding the number of migrations, source populations, and the timing of these migrations (Eshleman et al.
www.public.asu.edu /~secain/sarah/new_page_1.htm   (361 words)

 DNA Testing Lab - mtDNA Testing   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
mtDNA testing is particularly useful for determining ancient migration and, if compared to another sample, establishing maternal genealogical lineages.
There are 2 regions of the mtDNA that are of particular interest to researchers because of their variability among the different human populations.
To characterize the HVR 1 and 2 mtDNA pattern, GeneTree sequences the mtDNA.
www.genetree.com /other/mtdnaTest.php   (504 words)

 Recovery of Neandertal mtDNA: an evaluation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
The recovery of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from the right arm bone (humerus) of the original Neandertal fossil discovered in 1856 in a cave in the Neander Valley, near Dusseldorf, Germany, has been hailed as a stunning feat of modern biochemistry.
Based upon the differences between the Neandertal mtDNA and modern human mtDNA, the evolutionary interpretation is that the Neandertal line diverged from the modern human line about 550,000 to 690,000 years ago and that the Neandertals became extinct without contributing mtDNA to modern humans.
When the age of the modern human mtDNA ancestor is estimated using the same procedure, a date of 120,000 to 150,000 years is obtained, in agreement with previous estimates.
answersingenesis.org /tj/v12/i1/mtdna.asp   (7830 words)

 Mitochondrial DNA - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Nuclear and mtDNA are thought to be of separate evolutionary origin, with the mtDNA being derived from bacteria that were engulfed by early precursors of eukaryotic cells.
In mammals, 100% of the mtDNA contribution to a zygote is inherited from the mother and this is true for most, but not all, organisms.
Human mtDNA can also be used to identify individuals, however is not a failsafe way to discriminate involvement of people at crime scenes and is no longer commonly used in court cases for this purpose.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/MtDNA   (748 words)

 DNA Testing Lab - How mtDNA is Analyzed   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
When using mtDNA to link relatives and trace ancestral relationships we are examining the maternal (or female) lineage.
This is because mtDNA is passed from the mother to all her children.
The figure on the top right, mtDNA Inheritance Pattern, shows how the mtDNA (different colors represent different mtDNA sequences) is passed from mother to all her children (males are represented by circles with arrows pointing up and to the right, and females are represented by circles with crosses pointing down).
www.genetree.com /resource/mtdna-measuring.php   (331 words)

 Cann, et. al.: Mitochondrial DNA and Human Evolution
This maternal and haploid inheritance means that mtDNA is more sensitive than nuclear DNA to severe reductions in the number of individuals in a population of organisms".
MtDNA was highly purified from 145 placentas and two cell lines, HeLa and GM 3043, derived from a Black American and an aboriginal South African (!Kung), respectively.
The mtDNA data tell us nothing of the contributions to this transformation by the genetic and cultural traits of males and females whose mtDNA became extinct.
www.artsci.wustl.edu /~landc/html/cann   (3006 words)

 What follows is an extracted from the Family Tree DNA's "Facts & Genes" Newsletter (11 Sept
The mtDNA test may also be used for genealogical purposes.
The mtDNA test can be taken by males and females.
The mtDNA you inherit from your mother, came from her mother, who inherited
www.davidkfaux.org /SHETLANDmtDNAUNDERSTANDINGRESULTS.htm   (1155 words)

 Rearrangements of Human Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA): New Insights into the Regulation of mtDNA Copy Number and Gene ...
The duplicated mtDNA (Dup-mtDNA) is composed of a full-length wild-type mtDNA (WT-mtDNA; thick arc) into which a subgenomic segment of wild-type mtDNA (i.e., the duplicated region) has been inserted (thin arc).
The dots were quantitated, and the amount of mtDNA in the various lines was calculated using the standard curve drawn from the HeLa cell data (D).
King, M.P. Use of ethidium bromide to manipulate ratio of mutated and wild-type mitochondrial DNA in cultured cells.
www.molbiolcell.org /cgi/content/full/11/4/1471   (8071 words)

 Genetics and Genealogy: Y Polymorphism and mtDNA Analyses
This method involves the analysis of DNA found in the mitochondria, not the nuclear DNA of the nucleus of the body's cells (thus not the 23 pairs).
I would like to be able to test genetically myself and LIVING members of other clans with the same or variant surname to see if we are related, and to find out how long ago our most recent common ancestor lived.
Actually, no, because the women whom you have traced using the mtDNA analysis were not the ones married to the males you traced in the y polymorphism analysis.
www.duerinck.com /genetic.html   (1275 words)

 Mitochondria 2
In mammals, 99.99% of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is inherited from the mother.
If the fusion is with yeast that are petite and yeast that are not, a certain percentage of the daughter cells will be "petite".
Mutations in mammalian mtDNA do cause diseases, because there is such a short sequence and very heavy information content in the sequence.
cellbio.utmb.edu /cellbio/mitoch2.htm   (1233 words)

 The Emerging Limbs and Twigs of the East Asian mtDNA Tree -- Kivisild et al. 19 (10): 1737 -- Molecular Biology and ...
All mtDNA sequences from those publications are shown except for the partial B sequence Oz1 MERFF (the variant sites of which are nearly all covered by the Yon sequence) and the European complete mtDNA sequences.
The haplogroup is to be understood as a monophyletic clade in
The age of mtDNA clades is calculated (along the tree indicated by unbroken lines) according to Forster et al.
mbe.oxfordjournals.org /cgi/content/full/19/10/1737   (5711 words)

 Modulation of mitochondrial transcription in response to mtDNA depletion and repletion in HeLa cells -- Seidel-Rogol ...
A cross-reacting, non-mitochondrial protein (indicated by a filled arrowhead) that is not affected by EB treatment serves as a convenient estimate of the amount of protein loaded in each lane.
Radiolabeled DNA size markers (M) were run with the samples and the numbers to the left of the figure indicate their length in nucleotides.
Time points during mtDNA depletion–repletion are indicated in (A) and (B) in the same manner as in Figure 1.
nar.oxfordjournals.org /cgi/content/full/30/9/1929   (4215 words)

 LabCorp - Forensic Services - mtDNA
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing is becoming a powerful tool for identifying hairs without roots and human remains.
The mitochondrial genome is 16,569 base pairs in length, circular, and of known sequences.* The analysis of mtDNA, therefore, is possible by examination of the exact sequence.
Additionally, mtDNA has three characteristics that are forensically significant.
www.labcorp.com /fid/mtdna.html   (143 words)

 Control region mtDNA variants: Longevity, climatic adaptation, and a forensic conundrum -- Coskun et al. 100 (5): 2174 ...
MtDNA rearrangement mutations accumulate exponentially with age in postmitotic tissues, with the inflection point generally
A surprising aspect of these age-related CR mtDNA mutants is their tissue specificity.
This same logic could explain the excess of mtDNA CR mutants recently reported in cancer cells (9, 10).
www.pnas.org /cgi/content/full/100/5/2174   (2759 words)

 mtDNA Mitochondrial DNA   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
If you are a Foster descendant or spouse, female or male, with any surname, then you can test your mtDNA through the Foster project at a special rate.
To join the mtDNA part of the Foster Surname Project, Click Here.
mtDNA is passed from mother to children; however only daughters pass it on to their children.
www.fosterdna.org /mtdna.htm   (273 words)

 Using mtDNA in Genealogy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Obtain a sample from the KNOWN daughter of Couple #1.
We now have the mtDNA "signature" of the wife in Couple 1.
Her mtDNA can be compared to that of a known daughter.
www.hometown.aol.com /awnrdc/mtDNA.html   (379 words)

 Duerinck Surname DNA Project mtDNA Test Results
Note: It has always been assumed that mtDNA is inherited by sons and daughters only from the mother.
As you can see from the HVRI mtDNA certificate from Family Tree DNA, I differ from the Cambridge Reference Sequence (CRS) at 16093C and 16221T.
While there are over 16,500 base pairs of genetic mtDNA material, it is easier to take a small area, such as the hyper variable control region 1 (HVR-1), and compare our results to it.
www.duerinck.com /mtDNA.html   (744 words)

 A3243G - Jargon - mtDNA
Human mtDNA is a circular DNA molecule, approximately 16,500 in size.
Therefore a typical cell could have up to a thousand copies of mtDNA compared to the one copy of the Nuclear DNA.
Although I don't have any medical qualifications, as a sufferer of Diabetes, Deafness and Tinnitus caused by the A3243G mtDNA defect, I do have a very keen interest in the subject.
www.a3243g.com /jargon_mtdna.asp   (108 words)

 HvrBase++: mtDNA database   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
We present here the mtDNA collection originally mentioned in Compilation of human mtDNA control region sequences by Oliva Handt, Sonja Meyer and Arndt von Haeseler (Nucleic Acids Research, 1998, Vol.
See also the update HvrBase: Compilation of mtDNA control region sequences from primates (submitted to Nucleic Acids Research, click on link to download PDF file of article).
HvrBase++ is a compilation of human and ape mtDNA control region, mitochondrial genomes and nDNA sequences.
www.hvrbase.org   (280 words)

 MtDNA Test Results Log
Josephine died in 1862 and is buried in the Ebenezer Cemetery, Preston, WI.
Comments: My oldest known direct line maternal ancestor was Maria Giuseppa Buccino, who must have been a gypsy and must have been born in the early 1800's as her daughter, my great-grandmother, also known as a gypsy, was born in 1868 or 1869 and died on May 16, 1913 in Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Comments: I was curious about my paternal grandmother's mtDNA, so I asked one of her direct female descendants if she would be willing to be tested.
www.kerchner.com /cgi-kerchner/mtdna.cgi   (13879 words)

 Neanderthal mtDNA
Inadequate use of Hybridization to analyse DNA in Neanderthal Fossils (2001): E.M. Geigl responds to apparent deficiencies in Scholz et al's work (see preceeding article).
Absence of regional affinities of Neandertal DNA with living humans does not reject multiregional evolution.
Nuclear and mitochondrial genetic variation in the Yanomamö: A test case for ancient DNA studies of prehistoric populations (February 2002):
www.geocities.com /CapeCanaveral/Launchpad/3917/mtdna.html   (403 words)

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