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Topic: Mughal Emperors

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In the News (Sat 20 Apr 19)

  SAN DIEGO MUSEUM of ART | The Binney Collection: South Asian Miniature Paintings   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
During the first two centuries of Mughal rule, from 1526 to the beginning of the 18th century, Mughal emperors (with roots in Central Asia and the Islamic faith) forged a well-administered and centrally controlled state in largely Hindu India.
Later Mughal patrons continued to favor the hallmark of early Mughal style—engagement with the visible world—however, the visible world was no longer a reflection of Mughal dominion, but rather a record of its demise.
The gap between the sense of entitlement of Mughal rulers and their actual circumstances is most evident in portraiture, as artists struggled to give the imperial presence its former glory, resorting in some cases to allegory and in others to mere nostalgia.
www.sdmart.org /exhibition-binney-later.html   (497 words)

 Mughal. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
Mughal expansion continued under Akbar’s son Jahangir and under his grandson Shah Jahan, who built many architectural marvels at Delhi and at Agra (including the Taj Mahal).
Aurangzeb, expanded Mughal territory to its greatest extent, but at the same time the empire suffered the blows of major Hindu revolts.
Many features of the Mughal administrative system were adopted by Great Britain in ruling India, but the most lasting achievements of the Mughals were in art and architecture (see Mughal art and architecture).
www.bartleby.com /65/mu/Mughal.html   (304 words)

 Akbar mughal emperors
Mughals ruled the subcontinent for three centuries and left an indelible mark on its culture and society.
Mughal Emperors are well known all over the world for their golden rule over the Sub-continent, which lasted for over three centuries.
Bahadur Shah Zafar was the last Mughal emperor who ascended the throne in 1837 and was forced to leave in 1857 after the famous war of independence in which British imprisoned Bahadur Shah in a fort and from thereon became real ruler of the Sub-continent till 1947.
ks.essortment.com /akbarmughal_rlfs.htm   (1022 words)

 List of Mughal emperors - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The actual title of the Mughal emperor was Badshah (or, in Persian, Padshah).
The Great Mughals, the first six emperors, are often referred to just by one name, which was, in each case, a title they took as Emperor (Padishah).
February 14, 1483 in Andijan (Ferghana Valley), founder of Mughal Dynasty, ruler from 1526-1530, d.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Mughal_Emperors   (202 words)

 Mughal art and architecture. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
Mughal monuments are found chiefly in N India, but there are also many remains in Pakistan.
In architecture the first great Mughal monument was the mausoleum to Humayun, erected during the reign of Akbar (1556–1605).
It was Shah Jahan (1628–58) who perfected Mughal architecture and erected at Agra its most noble and famous building, the tomb of his favorite wife, which is known as the Taj Mahal.
www.bartleby.com /65/mu/Mughalar.html   (671 words)

 Mughal Miniature Painting - An Alternative Source of History
As such, the Mughal art is the mirror wherein one discovers not so much the Mughal world as the world of Mughal days, the world of nature, the world of commercial activities, the world of social courtesies, merriment, pastime, warfare and what not.
Historical data reports Mughal victory over Mandu, the capital of Malwa, and presenting to emperor Akbar the war booty, including some dancers, but it is only the artist of Akbar's court who sees and records that the dancing girls wore European costume and were perhaps of European origin.
After he ascended as the Emperor of Hindustan, he inspired his artists to develop their own individual styles, traits and talent and each to have a specialized area, Abu Hasan the court scenes and official portraits, Mansur nature study and history, Daulat all kinds of portraits and so on.
www.hindupaintings.com /article/mughal   (4620 words)

 Mughal on Encyclopedia.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
Akbar, the son of Humayun and the greatest of the Mughal emperors, reestablished Mughal power in India.
A new interpretation of Mughal decorative painting is proposed
It was built in 1540s by Sher Shah Suri, and subsequently extended and developed by the Mughal Emperor Akbar.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/M/Mughal.asp   (648 words)

 Mughal architecture --¬† Encyclop√¶dia Britannica
Indian building style that flourished under the patronage of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan (reigned 1628–58); its crowning achievement is the magnificent mausoleum at Agra, the Taj Mahal (q.v.).
Shah Jahan was the Mughal emperor of India from 1628 until 1658.
The Mughals were an Islamic dynasty that ruled large parts of India from the early 16th century until the middle of the 18th.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-9054154?tocId=9054154   (946 words)

 The British Museum: Newsroom   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
Mughal coins are among the splendours of the British Museum collection.
This display and 'The Mughals adorned' in the John Addis Islamic gallery coincide with the exhibition of Mughal jewellery from the al-Sabah collection 'Treasury of the World: Jewelled Arts of India in the Age of the Mughals'.
Coinage is used to examine the origin of the great Mughal leaders, the spread of their empire, and the different currency and dating systems that were used.
www.thebritishmuseum.ac.uk /newsroom/archive2001/struck.htm   (399 words)

 The Legacy of Islamic Empires and their Arts
Under the Mughals, India was the heart of a great Islamic empire and a prolific center of Islamic culture and learning.
According to historian Gavin Hambly, the Mughals provided the setting for a brilliant court and a vigorous cultural life which was equal to Isfahan under the Safavid Shahs or Istanbul under the Ottoman Sultans.
The Mughal state was well aware of the declamatory power of architecture and used it as a means of self-representation and an instrument of royalty, write scholars Sheila Blair and Jonathan Bloom (1994).
www.islamicart.com /library/empires/india   (377 words)

 Mughal History - Babur, Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir, Ahahjahan   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
Although the first two Timurid emperors and many of their noblemen were recent migrants to the subcontinent, the dynasty and the empire itself became indisputably Indian.
The Mughal empire was founded by Zahir-ud-din Muhammed, called commonly as Babur (Tiger), a chaghatai Turkish ruler, who invaded India several times from his capital at Kabul before winning a decisive vietory, In 1526 at the battle of Panipat Babur’s army defeated the army of Sultan Ibrahim Lodi.
During his reign the Mughal empire reached its territorial climarx, stretching from Kashmir in the north to Jinji in the South, from the Hindukush in the west to Chittagong in the east.
www.ignca.nic.in /agra037.htm   (3170 words)

 The Islamic World to 1600: The Rise of the Great Islamic Empires (The Mughal Empire: Akbar)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
The Mughal Empire was finally consolidated as one of the Islamic world's three Great Empires by Humayun's son, Akbar, who was a strong ruler like his contemporaries, Suleyman I in the Ottoman Empire and Abbas I in the Safavid Empire.
In 1586 he took the province of Kashmir, which would remain a favourite place of future Mughal emperors, and which today is the source of conflict between Muslim Pakistan and Hindu India, both of which claim jurisdiction over Kashmir.
By 1595 the Mughal Empire covered the entire Hindustan plain, from the Indus in the west, to the Ganges in the east, and the Hindu Kush and Himalaya Mountains in the north.
www.ucalgary.ca /applied_history/tutor/islam/empires/mughals/akbar.html   (921 words)

 Indian Painting in the Classroom: The Rajput, Mughal, and Deccani Courts of North India   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
Thus, the Mughal court was a fascinating combination of Persian etiquette that the Mughals aspired to, the Central Asian conventions that they were used to, and Hindu traditions that were brought to the court by the new courtiers and wives.
With the arrival of the Mughals and subsequent establishment of their empire, Rajput kings came increasingly under the powerful cultural and military sway of the Mughals.
The Mughal rulers extended their power by conquest, but in what is now Rajasthan, rulers were allowed to keep their territory in exchange for rendering obedience to the Mughal emperor and serving in his army.
www.askasia.org /teachers/Instructional_Resources/Power_Desire/courts.htm   (628 words)

 The Great Mughal Emperors of India 1526 - 1707
One of the secrets of the success of the greatest of the Mughal Emperors like Akbar was their religious tolerance, and indeed their enthusiasm for embracing all the religious groups within their domains.
It was here in Humayun's Tomb that the last of the Mughal Emperors, Bahadur Shah II, was hunted down and taken prisoner by a certain Lieutenant Hodson during the Indian Mutiny in 1857, a prelude to direct rule of India by the British from 1858.
The greatest of the Mughal Emperors, Akbar, was born in exile and ascended the throne at the age of 13 after his father's short restoration.
www.paradoxplace.com /Insights/Civilizations/Mughals/Mughals.htm   (1856 words)

 Indian Painting in the Classroom: Kings and Princes of the Courts of India   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
The Mughal emperors established an elaborate court that attested to the diversity of their cultural influences and their power in the subcontinent.
It was in the hall of public audience that the emperor conducted public affairs of state.
Mughal emperors, partly to secure the loyalty of their new subjects, claimed semi-divine status that raised them above all others.
www.askasia.org /teachers/Instructional_Resources/FEATURES/Power_Desire/court_men.htm   (675 words)

 Society and Culture in Mughal Empire
Mughal emperors tried to convert Hindus, Hindu men married Muslim women and converted them and very few accepted any religion besides their own.
Women of course were not treated equally, but the Mughals brought the Indian society closer to the equality of men and women than they had ever been before.
It is obvious that the Mughals treasured presious stones (2) because the interior of the Taj Mahal, and of other amazing creations, is inlaid with geometirc patterns of beautiful fl and colored stones, gold and other valuable stones.(3) Lal Qila, the Red Fort, is another breathtaking structure built in 1639 by Shan Jahan.
sun.menloschool.org /~sportman/westernstudies/first/1718/2000/gblock/mughal/societyandculture.html   (705 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
The Mughals' consciousness of their Central Asian roots and the prominence of Persian and Central Asian culture at their courts are an important chapter in the history of the Silk Road.
The founder of the Mughal dynasty, Babur, was a descendant of both the Mongol Chingisids and the Timurids.
The firm establishment of Mughal rule in India was really the work of his grandson, Akbar (1556-1605), arguably the greatest of the Mughal emperors.
depts.washington.edu /uwch/silkroad/exhibit/mughals/essay.html   (843 words)

 The Mughals
Akbar, the third Mughal Emperor, was considered to be the greatest of the Mughals.
The decline of the empire began with the sixth emperor, Aurangzeb, whose repressive zeal is said to have weakened the foundations of the empire.
The word mughal is a Persian variation of the word mongol and clearly chosen by Babur to emphasize his ancestry.
www.umdnj.edu /~humayun/mughals.html   (462 words)

 The Tribune...Saturday Plus Head
The real object of his mission was to conclude a commercial treaty with the Mughal ruler, Jahangir — an exceedingly difficult task owing to the intrigues of the rival parties and the misgivings of the imperial court.
At the time of his arrival the English factors were, as he said in a desperate case — "threatened by the Portuguese, plundered by the local officials and in the imminent danger of expulsion".
When the Emperor became dead-drunk, the lights were put out and the drunken courtiers would go away to their homes.
www.tribuneindia.com /1999/99jan09/saturday/head3.htm   (2070 words)

 the Mughal dynasty
Third in the line of Mughal rulers, Akbar defeated the Afghans and firmly established Mughal supremacy in northern India, bringing the empire to the height of its power and wealth.
The Mughal emperors used the arts and architecture to express their imperial prestige.
The idea of 'the grand Mughal' spawned all kinds of myths of unfathomable, unimaginable wealth that Europeans associated with the east.
www.pbs.org /treasuresoftheworld/taj_mahal/tlevel_1/t1_mughal.html   (674 words)

 Mughals in Pakistan
The Muslim rulers of the Indian sub-continent, the Mughals, were the last powerful descendants of the Mongols.
When the Mughal emperors followed Babar one after the other, they choose Lahore as their main urban centre.
The third Mughal emperor, Akbar, transferred his capital from Agra to Lahore and laid the foundation for a typical Mughal citadel.
www.yespakistan.com /people/mughals.asp   (723 words)

 Taj Mahal - A Tribute to Beauty
Agra, once the capital of the Mughal Empire during the 16th and early 18th centuries, is one and a half hours by express train from New Delhi.
It was built by the fifth Mughal emperor, Shah Jahan in 1631 in memory of his second wife, Mumtaz Mahal, a Muslim Persian princess.
When Mumtaz Mahal was still alive, she extracted four promises from the emperor: first, that he build the Taj; second, that he should marry again; third, that he be kind to their children; and fourth, that he visit the tomb on her death anniversary.
www.angelfire.com /in/myindia/tajmahal.html   (760 words)

 Mughal Miniatures   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
Mughal paintings were a unique blend of Indian, Persian and Islamic styles that flourished in India during the reign of the Mughal emperors from the 16th to 18th centuries.
Mughal paintings were lively and realistic and showed increasing naturalism with illustrated animal fables, detailed landscape backgrounds and elements of individual portraiture.
Despite a brief revival during the reign of Muhammad Shah (1719-48), Mughal painting continued to decline, and the creative activity ceased during the reign of Shah Alam II (1759-1806).
www.chennaionline.com /artscene/history/mughal.asp   (459 words)

 Design: Text   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
Babur, founder of the Mughal empire, invaded India in the sixteenth century.
However, the Mughal emperors were accustomed to heavy wool carpets woven in Persia and Turkestan.
The Mughal emperors were intensely interested in nature, and their affinity for flowers is evident in their carpets.
www.metmuseum.org /explore/Flowers/HTM/des_rgt6.htm   (1969 words)

 Kos Minars, Delhi and Agra Highway, Mughal Emperors, Grand Trunk Road, Mughal Milestones
The Kos Minars are the milestones made by the Mughal emperors between 1556 to 1707 AD.
The Kos Minars measures over 30 ft and were once erected by the Mughals marking their royal route from Agra to Ajmer via Jaipur in the west, from Agra to Lahore via Delhi in the north and from Agra to Mandu via Shivpuri in the south.
Those were the days when the Mughal emperors traveled on elephant back, in a royal entourage that included more than a thousand people consisting of bodyguards, personal retainers, tent erectors, cooks, foot soldiers and cavalry.
www.indiaprofile.com /monuments-temples/kosminars.htm   (780 words)

 Imperial Elegance - Chinese Ceramics from Asia Society's Rockefeller Collection
The Mughal emperor Shah Jahan (reigned 1627—1658), who is famous for building the Taj Mahal, was a great patron of the arts and a collector of ceramics.
It is possible that the emperors had the ceramics inscribed as marks of ownership or that they had been inscribed as gifts from their Persian or Turkish counterparts.
It is not clear why Mughal emperors had certain pieces such as this platter inscribed with their names, but it is possible that the names were engraved as marks of ownership or lineage.
www.asiasociety.org /arts/imperialelegance/beyondchina.html   (342 words)

 Stephen Markel: Correlating Paintings of Indian Decorative Objects
Not only are turban ornaments worn by the emperors in these paintings, but they are also typically represented as being held or handed down to their ruling progeny as a manifest symbol of their descendants’ hereditary right to rule.
The different types of turban ornaments represented in these and other Mughal portraits are significant in demonstrating not only that the Mughal painters and patrons were aware of the historical and symbolic variances, but also that the paintings are an important source for the study of the development of the jewelry forms and their use.
Much of the glassware shown in early Mughal paintings can be attributed on stylistic grounds to Venice, which was the leader in the international glass trade through the middle of the seventeenth century.
www.asianart.com /articles/markel   (4028 words)

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