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Topic: Multicast

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  Multicast: From Theory to Practice | Linux Journal
Multicast addresses are class D addresses: those starting with the first three bits set to 1 and the fourth set to 0.
If you are using multicast tunnels or your applications are separated by multicast routers, you can run the program on both ends by increasing the value of the TTL field until the two programs ``see'' each other.
Joining a multicast group only tells the IP and data link layers (which in some cases explicitly tells the hardware) to accept multicast datagrams destined to that group; it is not a per-process membership, but a per-host membership.
www.linuxjournal.com /article/3041   (2304 words)

  Multicast - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Multicast is sometimes also used to refer to a multiplexed broadcast, although that is a very different thing and should not be confused.
Multicast is the delivery of information to a group of destinations simultaneously using the most efficient strategy to deliver the messages over each link of the network only once and only create copies when the links to the destinations split.
The word "Multicast" is typically used to refer to IP Multicast, which is a delivery method in IP networks for efficiently sending datagrams to multiple receivers at the same time on networks by way of a multicast destination address.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Multicast   (544 words)

 IP Multicast - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
While IP multicast has seen some success in each of these areas, IP multicast is not widely deployed and is generally not available as a service for the average end user.
However, in multicast routing, the source address (which is a simple unicast address) is used to determine which direction is upstream (the source of the multicast traffic).
Multicast, by its very nature, is not a connection-oriented mechanism, so protocols such as TCP, which allows for retransmission of missing packets, are not appropriate.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/IP_Multicast   (1819 words)

 [No title]
A more sophisticated Multicast DNS client is aware that having received one response is not necessarily an indication that it might not receive others, and has the ability to retransmit its query an appropriate number of times at appropriate intervals until it is satisfied with the collection of responses it has gathered.
Multicast DNS and Power Management Many modern network devices have the ability to go into a low-power mode where only a small part of the Ethernet hardware remains powered, and the device can be woken up by sending a specially formatted Ethernet frame which the device's power-management hardware recognizes.
Multicast DNS Messages carried by UDP may be up to the IP MTU of the physical interface, less the space required for the IP header (20 bytes for IPv4; 40 bytes for IPv6) and the UDP header (8 bytes).
files.multicastdns.org /draft-cheshire-dnsext-multicastdns.txt   (17966 words)

 RFC 1112 (rfc1112) - Host extensions for IP multicasting   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-27)
A multicast datagram is delivered to all members of its destination host group with the same "best-efforts" reliability as regular unicast IP datagrams, i.e., the datagram is not guaranteed to arrive intact at all members of the destination group or in the same order relative to other datagrams.
Those IP multicast addresses that are not reserved for permanent groups are available for dynamic assignment to transient groups which exist only as long as they have members.
For a network that supports broadcast but not multicast, such as the Experimental Ethernet, all IP host group addresses may be mapped to a single local broadcast address (at the cost of increased overhead on all local hosts).
www.faqs.org /rfcs/rfc1112.html   (4862 words)

 Multicast FAQ File
In multicasting, one packet is sent from a source and is replicated as needed in the network to reach as many end-users as necessary.
Multicasting is the most economical technique for sending a packet stream (which could be audio, video, or data) from one location to many other locations on the Internet simultaneously.
The original multicast proposal was for dense mode, where all possible receivers are assumed to want multicast traffic initially and so multicast traffic is flooded throughout the network until receivers specifically request to leave the multicast group and stop receiving the traffic (i.e., are "pruned").
www.multicasttech.com /faq   (4567 words)

 Multicast over TCP/IP HOWTO
Multicast is currently an active area of research and, at the time of writing, many of the "standards" are merely drafts.
Multicast is much like radio or TV in the sense that only those who have tuned their receivers (by selecting a particular frequency they are interested on) receive the information.
Depending on the underlying hardware, multicast datagrams are filtered by the hardware or by the IP layer (and, in some cases, by both).
www.ibiblio.org /pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/other-formats/html_single/Multicast-HOWTO.html   (8659 words)

 Internet Protocol (IP) Multicast
Multicast packets are replicated in the network by Cisco routers enabled with Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM) and other supporting multicast protocols resulting in the most efficient delivery of data to multiple receivers possible.
Multicast routers must listen to all multicast traffic for every group because the IGMP control messages are also sent as multicast traffic.
The simplest form of a multicast distribution tree is a source tree whose root is the source of the multicast tree and whose branches form a spanning tree through the network to the receivers.
www.cisco.com /univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/ito_doc/ipmulti.htm   (4753 words)

 What is multicast? - a definition from Whatis.com - see also: multicasting
Multicast is supported through wireless data networks as part of the Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) technology.
Multicast is also used for programming on the MBone, a system that allows users at high-bandwidth points on the Internet to receive live video and sound programming.
In addition to using a specific high-bandwidth subset of the Internet, Mbone multicast also uses a protocol that allows signals to be encapsulated as TCP/IP packet when passing through parts of the Internet that can not handle the multicast protocol directly.
searchnetworking.techtarget.com /sDefinition/0,,sid7_gci212610,00.html   (227 words)

 ITworld.com - IP Multicast audio primer
IP Multicast is a bandwidth-efficient method for broadcasting data, in particular streaming audio and video, across a network.
But with IP Multicast, a single stream is sent from the server across the network that serves all users who want to receive the broadcast.
The work is done by IP Multicast enabled routers, which send one stream to each router connected to it.
www.itworld.com /Net/3383/NWWipmscript/pfindex.html   (801 words)

Multicast is a pattern in progress, assuming it's a pattern at all.
Multicast is very close to Observer, but the distinction is subtle.
Multicast focuses on the information that's passed between sender and receiver: its extensibility and type-safety.
www.research.ibm.com /designpatterns/pubs/multicast.html   (3045 words)

 Protocol Independent Multicast
This characteristic lead the Internet community to investigate multicast routing architectures that efficiently establish distribution trees across wide-area internets, where many groups are sparsely represented and where bandwidth is not uniformly plentiful due to the distances and multiple administrations traversed.
Efficiency is evaluated in terms of the state, control message processing, and data packet processing required across the entire network in order to deliver data packets to the members of the group.
Multicast Routing in Dense and Sparse Modes: Simulation Study of Tradeofs and Dynamics.
netweb.usc.edu /pim   (454 words)

 Multicast   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-27)
Multicast is a term for describing multiple hosts communicating with each other within functional groups.
These multicast groups can be used for teleconferencing, or other multiple peer applications.
We are experimenting with multicast network protocols, and working to reduce the amount of network bandwidth needed for multicast.
www.eecis.udel.edu /~millslab/multicast/multicast.html   (323 words)

 NLANR/DAST : Multicast Beacon v1.3
The NLANR/DAST Multicast Beacon is a multicast diagnostic tool written in Perl which uses the RTP protocol (RFC3550) to provide useful statistics and diagnostic information about a given multicast group's connectivity characteristics.
Multicast is a way of distributing IP packets to a set of machines which have expressed an interest in receiving them.
Multicast performance measurement is usually straight-forward, as illustrated in RFC3550 (Real-time Transport Protocol).
dast.nlanr.net /Projects/Beacon   (3001 words)

 IP Multicast Standards Initiative
IP Multicast is prone to a percentage of data (or packet) loss.
Their best effort to date was originally called PGM, which stood for "Pretty Good Multicast." Unfortunately, they have a separate group working on the Security and Reliability of the IP Multicast transmissions.
As long as (udp) IP Multicast protocols were built into the interdomain routing infrastructure, they assumed that sooner or later somebody would solve the reliability issues.
www.ipmulticast.com   (701 words)

 [No title]
Loosely speaking, multicast is a scheme for using ip addresses through to send the same data to several machines simultaneously.
You need a multicast capable router, maybe Cisco or Proteon, or a system such as Sun or SGI running mrouted.
Linux Multicast FAQ by Andrew Daviel 17-May-1995 updated 7-Dec-1995 http://andrew.triumf.ca/~andrew This list is compiled from information on the mbone@isi.edu mailing list and the comp.os.linux.networking newsgroup, plus the product of some web surfing.
andrew.triumf.ca /pub/linux/multicast-FAQ   (724 words)

 Multicast DNS
Multicast DNS is a way of using familiar DNS programming interfaces, packet formats and operating semantics, in a small network where no conventional DNS server has been installed.
Multicast DNS is a joint effort by participants of the IETF Zero Configuration Networking (zeroconf) and DNS Extensions (dnsext) working groups.
How to make Mac OS X do dot-local lookups using both multicast and unicast queries, for compatibility on networks where the local administrator wants to have a private internal unicast DNS domain and wants it to be called "local" as well.
www.multicastdns.org   (455 words)

 [No title]
The multicast addresses are in the range through
The range of addresses between and, inclusive, is reserved for the use of routing protocols and other low-level topology discovery or maintenance protocols, such as gateway discovery and group membership reporting.
Note that when used on an Ethernet or IEEE 802 network, the 23 low-order bits of the IP Multicast address are placed in the low-order 23 bits of the Ethernet or IEEE 802 net multicast address
www.iana.org /assignments/multicast-addresses   (507 words)

 Wired News: Multicast Ruling Muddies Waters
Using such "multicast" streams, broadcast stations could split their channel slots into several channels -- potentially creating a mini-cable system within a cable system.
Although the NAB has argued that mandated multicasting is vital to the health of free over-the-air TV programming and could even accelerate the digital TV transition, FCC Chairman Michael Powell said the FCC simply lacks the authority to mandate multicasting on cable systems.
While Thursday's multicast item passed by a unanimous vote, some FCC commissioners slammed the agency for voting on the item before it had clarified broadcasters' public-interest obligations in the digital age.
www.wired.com /news/digiwood/0,1412,66567,00.html   (759 words)

 End System Multicast
End System Multicast (ESM) is a revolutionary peer-to-peer media streaming technology that lets you view and broadcast live streaming media.
Using ESM Web Viewer, you can tune into ESM streams right now from the comfort of your Web browser.
You can broadcast video over ESM from behind any typical cable or DSL connection.
esm.cs.cmu.edu   (239 words)

 Multicast Workshop at University of Oregon
Each team will have a mix of 3 routers and over the course of the workshop teams will configure their own network, inter-connect with the other teams, and then attach to the UO/Internet2 connected network.
It is our expectation that, after having experienced one workshop as a student, an attendee will be able to engineer multicast networks within his/her campus or gigaPoP, to explain multicast engineering concepts to peers, and, in some cases, to help teach or facilitate future multicast workshops.
SSM (Source Specific Multicast) utilizes a subset of PIM's functionality to guaranty source-only trees in the 232/8 range.
multicast.internet2.edu /workshops/workshop-oregon-200206.shtml   (387 words)

 ESnet's Multicast
From there, ESnet multicast migrated to Dense Mode PIM running natively on backbone routers.
A current Multicast topology can be found here.
ESnet manages it’s own Multicast Beacon Server to show up to the minute multicast connectivity within ESnet and help diagnose problems when they arise.
www.es.net /hypertext/welcome/pr/multicast.html   (168 words)

 Reliable Multicast Transport (rmt) Charter
The purpose of this WG is to standardize reliable multicast transport.
multicast for additional scenarios beyond the one-to-many transport of
The use of Forward Error Correction in Reliable Multicast (RFC 3453) (46853 bytes)
www.ietf.org /html.charters/rmt-charter.html   (795 words)

 Ethernet Codes: Multicast (including Broadcast) Addresses
Since any vendor with a vendor block, can use that for a unique multicast (group) address block, you may want to also check the vendor page if you don't find what you are looking for here.
Others, not so marked, are normal reports (may be ] [ seen on either).
Vitalink DLS and non DLS Multicast 09-00-7C-02-00-05 8080?
www.cavebear.com /CaveBear/Ethernet/multicast.html   (789 words)

 Session 1: Reliable Multicast Protocols   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-27)
these pages are from the morning session on reliable multicast protocols held at the ACM SIGCOMM Multicast Workshop, August 27, 1996, Stanford University, Stanford CA.
The five items above were the slides presented in the morning session, which focussed specificall on reliable multicast.
MiMaze -- a distributed game using the MBone, C. Diot and M. Ammar.
gaia.cs.umass.edu /sigcomm_mcast   (138 words)

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