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Topic: Multicellular

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In the News (Thu 25 Apr 19)

  Multicellular organism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Multicellular organisms are those organisms containing more than one cell, and having differentiated cells that perform specialized functions.
A group of similarly differentiated cells performing a function in a multicellular organism is known as a tissue.
Multicellular organisms can suffer from cancer when cells fail to regulate their growth within the normal program of development.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Multicellular   (165 words)

 Multicellular stage, Animals
The evolution of multicellular plants is a separate branch of evolution.
This potential is actualized mainly in multicellular animals because of the evolution of a series of level of neurological organization in them, but before we trace those stages, let us catalogues all the other animals to see how multicellular animals are related to all the other kinds of animals.
Multicellular animals direct behavior at other objects by the contraction of muscle cells located where the muscles are needed to change the body’s shape, and neurons generate behavior by controlling the relevant muscles.
www.twow.net /ObjText/OtkCbGeRRS04B.htm   (5002 words)

 From Single Cells to Multicellular Organisms 18
Multicellularity enables a plant, for example, to become physically large; to have roots in the ground, where one set of cells can take up water and nutrients; and to have leaves in the air, where another set of cells can efficiently capture radiant energy from the sun.
To form a multicellular organism, the cells must be somehow bound together, and eucaryotes have evolved a number of different ways to satisfy this need.
To show how it is possible to generate multicellular organisms of such size, precision, and complexity as a tree, a fly, or a mammal, however, it is necessary to consider more closely the sequence of events in development.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov /books/bv.fcgi?db=Books&rid=cell.section.61   (3950 words)

 Kota Miura
Multicellular organism behaves as a single organism because cells within the organism move in a coordinated manner.
Such a coordinated movement of cells is general in all multicellular organisms but complexity of the phenomena has been hindering the efforts to understand its mechanism.
The multicellular stage involves chemotactic aggregation of the cells, multicellular migration and morphogenetic movement for constructing fruiting body.
www.embl-heidelberg.de /~miura/res_projectMulticellularBio.html   (1223 words)

 Natural History: All for one and one for all: multicellular organisms have arisen more than once, each time through an ...
Because multicellularity is an experiment that's been run many times in the history of life, scientists may be able to discover some universal rules for how it comes about.
Multicellular creatures can skirt this physical constraint by keeping their individual cells small but gluing them together into big bodies.
In multicellular organisms, the cells that can foster a new generation are called germ cells, while all the others are called somatic cells.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m1134/is_1_111/ai_82803329   (1527 words)

 United States Patent Application: 0040092471
A method of in vivo transfer of a gene into the genome of at least one cell of a multicellular organism, said method comprising: administering to said multicellular organism: (a) a Sleeping Beauty transposon comprising said gene; and (b) a source of a Sleeping Beauty transposase activity; whereby said gene is transferred into said genome.
By multicellular organism is meant an organism that is not a single celled organism.
Multicellular organisms of interest include plants and animals, where animals are of particular interest.
appft1.uspto.gov /netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PG01&p=1&u=/netahtml/PTO/srchnum.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1="20040092471".PGNR.&OS=DN/20040092471&RS=DN/20040092471   (9174 words)

 Idle Theory: Multicellular Life
But where a complex multicellular is to move around an environment, a large number of muscle cells have to act in concert, and some sort of control system must direct the entity in its path, if it is not to simply go in circles.
Given that the multicellular is composed of almost entirely of fast dividing cells, the limit population is low, and the multicellular is consequently small in size.
Once cells have organized themselves into multicellular communities, and briefly increased their idleness, before the ever-worsening environmental circumstance erases this advantage, the next stage is the formation of cooperative societies of multicellulars, in a process that repeats the development of multicellular life from unicellular life.
www.idlex.freeserve.co.uk /idle/evolution/idlev2a/idlev-2a.html   (4582 words)

 The DC electrical-field-induced Ca2+ response and growth stimulation of multicellular tumor spheroids are mediated by ...
Multicellular prostate tumor spheroids were pretreated for 60 minutes with the anion channel inhibitors tamoxifen (50 µM) (B), niflumic acid (200 µM) (C), and NPPB (50 µM) (D).
Inhibition of DC electrical-field-induced growth stimulation of multicellular tumor spheroids by suramin and the anion channel antagonist niflumic acid (A), and effects of anion channel blockers on tumor spheroid growth induced by exogenous ATP (B).
Multicellular tumor spheroids remained untreated (control) (Aa) or were treated with a single electrical field pulse (750 Vm, 60 seconds) in the absence (Ab) or presence of either suramin (300 µM) (Ac) or the anion channel inhibitors niflumic acid (200 µM) (Ad), tamoxifen (50 µM) (Ae), and NPPB (50 µM) (Af).
jcs.biologists.org /cgi/content/full/115/16/3265   (5579 words)

 Animal Phyla
True multicellular animals are typically without cellulose cell walls and photosynthetic pigments, and they form diploid embryos developing from a blastula stage.
Multicellular animals are heterotrophic by ingestion of food into a body cavity (coelom) that is completely lined by the mesoderm.
Multicellular animals have a dominant diploid life cycle (diplontic cycle) with the haploid generation reduced to the egg and sperm.
waynesword.palomar.edu /trnov01.htm   (4405 words)

This is the class for living multicellular organisms (nonhuman animals and plants) and separated or severed parts thereof that have not undergone any modification or treatment subsequent to their separation.
Living multicellular organisms and living products: (a) derived from traditional or conventional breeding techniques; (b) derived from grafting processes; (c) derived from tissue culture techniques; and/or (d) derived from techniques which change the genetic makeup or affect the progeny of multicellular organisms.
This class includes products obtained by modifications of multicellular living organisms and separated or severed parts thereof wherein the organism or part thereof is permanently changed (i.e., by genetic manipulation, by mutation, by cell fusion, or by tissue culture) so that subsequent progeny or offspring are likewise affected.
www.uspto.gov /web/offices/ac/ido/oeip/taf/def/800.htm   (5807 words)

 Single Cell Vs Multicellular - The best cell products, sites and information on the web today!
Fungi multicellular eukaryotic heterotrophs with cell walls and hyphae for cells...
The transition of the single-cell organism to the multicellular organism was accompanied by differentiation of...
In multicellular organisms, cells are grouped according to their function...
cell.epcgold.com /index.php?k=single-cell-vs-multicellular   (962 words)

 Cells the Fundamental Unit of Life
In multicellular organisms individual groups of cells have become specialised to perform particular roles in the life of the organism.
In simple multicellular organisms such as sponges all the cells are very similar, in more complicated multicellular organisms the degree of specialisation of cells is much greater resulting in cells that are very different from one another.
In multicellular organisms the cells are specialised to perform particular jobs such as storage, support, growth, transport of resources or defence of the organism.
www.earthlife.net /cells.html   (1479 words)

 A new theory of the evolution of cooperation
Multicellular organisms had to introduce additional controls to prevent mitochondria competing within them and undermining cooperation.
So all the mitochondria in the cells of a multicellular organism such as yourself are descendants of mitochondria that came from the mother.
In the situations where cooperation occurs amongst multicellular organisms, we invariably find that there is something about the structure of the situation that restrains cheating and free riding.
users.tpg.com.au /users/jes999/5.htm   (9079 words)

 Multi-cell Organisms
The result is that all multicellular organisms, from small algae and fungi to elephants and human, have a unicellular stage and a large stage of varying dimensions in their life cycle.
Multicellular organism development involves many processes as illustrated in the simple case of slime moulds.
Although some of the multicellular forms are large, they never develop more than a few differentiated types of cells and their fertilized eggs do not develop into an embryo.
universe-review.ca /F10-multicell.htm   (14873 words)

 UCMP Glossary: Life history   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The gametophyte is multicellular and mitotically produces gametes.
The sporophyte is multicellular and develops from a zygote.
In organisms with a haploid life cycle, the zygote immediately undergoes meiosis, but in organisms with a multicellular diploid stage, the zygote is merely the first stage in the diploid portion of the life cycle.
www.ucmp.berkeley.edu /glossary/gloss6lifehist.html   (858 words)

 Multicellular Organisms
The more complex multicellular organisms cope with the problem of being vulnerable to changes in the environment by surrounding their individual cells with fluid that is separated from the environment by a barrier such as the skin.
In complex multicellular organisms, only the surface cells that are in contact with the external environment are able to exchange substances with it.
By maintaining the internal environment constant, multicellular organisms are less vulnerable to changes in the external environment.
www3.fhs.usyd.edu.au /bio/homeostasis/Multicell_organisms.htm   (257 words)

 Introductory Biology Courseware (111)- Protista   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The presence of both unicellularity and multicellularity among algae with many characteristics in common is intriguing, and has prompted speculation regarding the evolution of multicellularity.
Most biologists accept that multicellularity originated several times in Protista, first leading to colonies and subsequently to specialization and division of labor (the volvocine line exhibits this trend- in Volvox, the sex cells are separate from the somatic cells).
Multicellular life forms more complex than filamentous algae don't appear in the fossil record until about 700 million years ago.
tidepool.st.usm.edu /crswr/111protists.html   (1197 words)

 Kingdom Protista
Multicellular marine algae, the seaweeds, are similar to marine plants, and many biologists support moving seaweed into the plant kingdom.
The Cholorobionts are the green algae, including unicellular, colonial, and multicellular types; these are believed to have been the ancestors of modern plants.
The ciliates are primarily free-living protozoans who move by means of numerous cilia, and contain two different types of nuclei: a large macronucleus that controls cell metabolism and development, and many smaller micronuclei that function in sexual reproduction.
sidwell.edu /us/science/vlb5/Labs/Classification_Lab/Eukarya/Protista   (999 words)

 Gould: The Evolution of Life on the Earth
But an "internal" explanation based on genetics and development also seems necessary as a complement: the earliest multicellular animals may have maintained a flexibility for genetic change and embryological transformation that became greatly reduced as organisms "locked in" to a set of stable and successful designs.
The history of multicellular animal life may be more a story of great reduction in initial possibilities, with stabilization of lucky survivors, than a conventional tale of steady ecological expansion and morphological progress in complexity.
We must recognize that this tree may have contained a maximal number of branches near the beginning of multicellular life and that subsequent history is for the most part a process of elimination and lucky survivorship of a few, rather than continuous flowering, progress and expansion of a growing multitude.
www.brembs.net /gould.html   (4835 words)

 Growth Stimulation Versus Induction of Cell Quiescence by Hydrogen Peroxide in Prostate Tumor Spheroids Is Encoded by ...
Note that multicellular tumor spheroids grow with exponential growth kinetics until they reach spheroid diameters of approximately 180 µm.
on the growth of multicellular tumor spheroids and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways.
Multicellular spheroids remained either untreated or were treated for 1 h with Ca -free solution, La
www.jbc.org /cgi/content/full/274/39/27759   (4577 words)

 Kingdoms Of Life
Multicellular animals, without cell walls and without photosynthetic pigments, forming diploid blastula.
It is estimated that the earth is over 4.5 billion years old, and ancient life forms (such as the cyanobacteria) appeared about 2-3 billion years ago.
If the geologic history of the earth is compared to a 24-hour time scale, the first multicellular organisms do not appear until just after 8:00 P.M. and humans are not on the scene until less than a minute before midnight.
waynesword.palomar.edu /trfeb98.htm   (3606 words)

This chapter focus on members of the kingdom Plantae: multicellular, photosynthetic plants that develop from embryos protected by tissues of the parent plant.
Multicellular organisms with haplontic life cycles follow paths A and C. All plants have alternation of generations.
The sporophyte is the dominant generation, but multicellular male and female gametophytes are produced within the flower of the sporophyte.
zygote.swarthmore.edu /phyto1.html   (9393 words)

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