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Topic: Multicellular organism


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In the News (Mon 22 Jul 19)

  
  ScienceDaily: Gene Therapy Articles
Traditionally in medicine, a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another.
A tumor suppressor gene is a gene that reduces the probability that a cell in a multicellular organism will turn into a tumor cell.
A genetically modified organism (GMO) is an organism whose genetic material has been altered using techniques in genetics generally known as recombinant DNA technology.
www.sciencedaily.com /articles/health_medicine/gene_therapy   (575 words)

  
  From Single Cells to Multicellular Organisms 18
Multicellularity enables a plant, for example, to become physically large; to have roots in the ground, where one set of cells can take up water and nutrients; and to have leaves in the air, where another set of cells can efficiently capture radiant energy from the sun.
To show how it is possible to generate multicellular organisms of such size, precision, and complexity as a tree, a fly, or a mammal, however, it is necessary to consider more closely the sequence of events in development.
The evolution of large multicellular organisms depended on the ability of eucaryotic cells to express their hereditary information in many different ways and to function cooperatively in a single collective.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov /books/bv.fcgi?db=Books&rid=cell.section.61   (3950 words)

  
  Multicellular organism - Biocrawler   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Multicellular organisms are those organisms containing more than one cell, and having differentiated cells that perform specialized functions.
A group of similarly differentiated cells performing a function in a multicellular organism is known as a tissue.
Multicellular organisms can suffer from cancer when cells fail to regulate their growth within the normal program of development.
www.biocrawler.com /encyclopedia/Multicellular   (165 words)

  
 Multicellular stage
Multicellular organisms, by contrast, are just eukaryotic cells attached to one another, and since each contains all the structural causes of its own behavior, they would never be anything more than just colonies of eukaryotic cells, if multicellular organisms reproduced only by each of the cells reproducing itself.
At the multicellular level, in other words, the biological behavior guidance system is originally located within a single eukaryotic cell, and it is able to coordinate the behavior of all the eukaryotic cells making up the multicellular organisms because they are all its offspring and their behavior is coordinated from the beginning of their lives.
The plan for the behavior of every kind of cell in the mature multicellular organism must be contained among the chromosomes in the nucleus, and thus, a copy of the entire multicellular plan is bestowed on each daughter cell.
www.twow.net /ObjText/OtkCbGeRRS04A.htm   (2239 words)

  
 Multicellular Organism - NaturalResearch.org   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Multicellular organisms are organisms consisting of more than one cell, and having differentiated cells that perform specialized functions.
Therefore, the development of sexual reproduction in unicellular organisms during the Ectasian period is thought to have precipitated the development and rise of multicellular life.
Multicellular organisms also face the challenge of cancer, which occurs when cells fail to regulate their growth within the normal program of development.
www.naturalresearch.org /encyclopedia/Multicellular_organism   (586 words)

  
 Spartanburg SC | GoUpstate.com | Spartanburg Herald-Journal   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Multicellular organisms are organisms consisting of more than one cell, and having differentiated cells that perform specialized functions.
The oldest known taxonomically resolved multicellular organism is a red algae, Bangiomorpha pubescens, found fossilized in 1.2 billion year old rock from the Ectasian period of the Mesoproterozoic era.
Multicellular organisms also face the challenge of cancer, which occurs when cells fail to regulate their growth within the normal program of development.
www.goupstate.com /apps/pbcs.dll/section?category=NEWS&template=wiki&text=multicellular_organism   (506 words)

  
 Multicellular organism   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Multicellular organisms are those organisms consisting of more than one cell, and having differentiated cells that perform specialized functions.
Although some single-celled organisms, such as myxobacteria, have differentiated cells, the differentiation is less dramatic than that typically found in multicellular organisms.
More advanced still are organisms with an organ level of development, whereby groups of tissues form organs such as a primitive brain in platyhelminthes (merely a grouping of ganglion cells).
www.dejavu.org /cgi-bin/get.cgi?ver=93&url=http://articles.gourt.com/%22http%3A%2F%2Farticles.gourt.com%2F%3Farticle%3Dmulticellular   (416 words)

  
 Multicellular stage, Animals
For organisms to be alive, it is the choice between growing and reproducing, whereas for living organisms to be animals, it is the choice between eating a particular object and not.
Organisms can evolve only in regions where there is a supply of free energy, and as we have seen, there is a region-wise geometrical structure about the thermodynamic flow of matter from potential energy through kinetic energy (and radiation) toward evenly distributed heat that constitute free (or usable) energy.
Multicellular animals direct behavior at other objects by the contraction of muscle cells located where the muscles are needed to change the body’s shape, and neurons generate behavior by controlling the relevant muscles.
www.twow.net /ObjText/OtkCbGeRRS04B.htm   (5002 words)

  
 multicellular organism
The development of multicellular organisms is accompanied by cellular specialization and division of labour; cells become efficient in one process and are dependent upon other cells for the necessities of life.
Specialization in single-celled organisms exists at the subcellular level; i.e., the basic functions that are divided among the cells, tissues, and organs of the multicellular organism are collected within one cell.
Unicellular organisms are sometimes grouped together and classified as the kingdom Protista.
www.santafe.edu /~dirk/welcome/multicell.html   (88 words)

  
 Man and Multicellular Organism
Many unicellular organisms may be regarded as either animals or plants and are therefore included in their respective systems by zoologists and botanists alike.
Multicellular organisms are divided according to their main structural characteristics into a further filing system of categories (phyla, classes, orders, families, etc.).
Where multicellular organisms were concerned, the way had been paved for this development among the learners when their central nervous system increasingly assumed the task of creating behavioral formulas.
www.hans-hass.de /Englisch/Human_Animal/2_14_Man_and_Multicellular_Organism.html   (3266 words)

  
 MULTICELLULAR INFORMATION SYSTEMS
The development of multicellular organisms starts with the division of a single cell, whereby each daughter cell obtains the same genetic information.
Multicellular organisms are confronted with an extra cellular but also an environment of the cells within the body.
Multicellular organisms have to defend themselves against microorganisms, viruses and foreign intruding substances.
www.digitalbiology.info /6_multicellular.php   (869 words)

  
 CellMap.info: Death, Aging, Rejuvenation (Part 2)
For multicellular organisms, there is a parental organism that ages and eventually dies after next generation is born.
But "mutant" for a multicellular organism imply that the mutation happened when the organism had only one cell (the stage of fertilized oocyte for example).
Immortal multicellular organisms, even if they existed in the past, were quickly wiped out by accidents and overgrown by mortal multicellular organisms.
cellmap.info /News/41372-Death,-Aging,-Rejuvenation-(Part-2).asp   (1575 words)

  
 Multicellular organism - ArticleWorld   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The multicellular organisms are also considered as the more complex life-forms in existence.
A tissue is defined as a group of similarly differentiated cells that perform a function.
There are however multicellular organisms that do not function even at this level.
www.articleworld.org /index.php?title=Multicellular_organism&printable=yes   (279 words)

  
 Multicellular Organism || Books and Information about Cancer and Cancer Treatments
Multicellular organisms are those organisms containing more than one cell, and having differentiated cells that perform specialised functions.
The overall spatial organization of differentiated cells is studied as anatomy.
Multicellular organisms can suffer from cancer which occurs when one of its cells fails to regulate its growth within the normal program of development.
www.cancertreatmentbooks.com /Cancer/Multicellular_organism.html   (176 words)

  
 Death, Aging, Rejuvenation (Part 2) - free article courtesy of ArticleCity.com
For multicellular organisms, there is a parental organism that ages and eventually dies after next generation is born.
Multicellular organism supposedly has several control mechanisms to prevent excessive growth and division, to kill an extra cell.
Immortal multicellular organisms, even if they existed in the past, were quickly wiped out by accidents and overgrown by mortal multicellular organisms.
www.articlecity.com /articles/health/article_629.shtml   (1584 words)

  
 A conversation with Steve Burbeck about multicellular computing
I guess the answer is yes, because the earliest kind of multicellular organisms weren't specialized in the sense of one single sperm and egg getting together and creating an organism in which every cell in the organism has the same DNA.
And that is that multicellular systems, real multicellular organisms, have this thing called programmed cell death, or apoptosis, although apoptosis is odd because in Greek it would be apotosis, but the biologists mostly seem to pronounce the "t".
Multicellular organisms, you get your full complement of DNA when the egg is fertilized, end of story, no versioning.
weblog.infoworld.com /udell/gems/ju_burbeck.html   (4599 words)

  
 UCMP Glossary: Life history
The gametophyte is multicellular and mitotically produces gametes.
In organisms with an alternation of generations, the products of meiosis are caled spores.
The sporophyte is multicellular and develops from a zygote.
www.ucmp.berkeley.edu /glossary/glossary_6.html   (858 words)

  
 Class 800: MULTICELLULAR LIVING ORGANISMS AND UNMODIFIED PARTS THEREOF AND RELATED PROCESSES / U.S. Patent ...
This is the class for living multicellular organisms (nonhuman animals and plants) and separated or severed parts thereof that have not undergone any modification or treatment subsequent to their separation.
Living multicellular organisms and living products: (a) derived from traditional or conventional breeding techniques; (b) derived from grafting processes; (c) derived from tissue culture techniques; and/or (d) derived from techniques which change the genetic makeup or affect the progeny of multicellular organisms.
This class includes products obtained by modifications of multicellular living organisms and separated or severed parts thereof wherein the organism or part thereof is permanently changed (i.e., by genetic manipulation, by mutation, by cell fusion, or by tissue culture) so that subsequent progeny or offspring are likewise affected.
www.uspto.gov /web/offices/ac/ido/oeip/taf/def/800.htm   (5807 words)

  
 Apoptosis -- a key property of multicellular organisms
Perhaps the least obvious of the four principles of multicellular systems is apoptosis (sometimes spelled aptosis or apotosis), also known as Programmed Cell Death.
Simply put, the principle is that, for the health of the organism, all of its cells must be prepared to suicide.
This principle, unlike the other three principles of multicellularity, seems to fly in the face of many of our assumptions about how to build robust computing systems, i.e., protect every computer at all cost.
evolutionofcomputing.org /Multicellular/Apoptosis.html   (1169 words)

  
 8B. Structural Hierarchy
Suppose a mutation occurs in such a single-celled organism and this causes or encourages this cell to form a stable partnership or colony with other identical cells giving rise to an increase in the survivability of the cells involved.
But the change from the simple multicellular organisms to the complex and differentiated cell assemblies we see in advanced animals today seems to be no less of a change.
With the transition from the individual organism to the social group we see in the newly created structure, as with the other structural transitions, an increase in size, space and complexity (this will be shown in figure 8.15 in the next section).
users.skynet.be /huw/c8b.htm   (1952 words)

  
 Life's Big Instruction Book: Getting Organized
Multicellular organisms are distinguished from unicellular organisms not only by the number of cells they have, but by their complexity.
Multicellular life forms make different tissues and organs through the intertwined processes of development and differentiation.
This means that even though all the factories in a multicellular organism have a copy of the same Instruction Book, they carry out a different set of Instructions from it, and make a different set of workers.
home.comcast.net /~lifebook/cells.html   (935 words)

  
 Multicellular Life as Metaphor for Multicellular Computing
The behavior of the whole organism is determined as much by interaction with the extracellular matrix as by direct interaction between the cells.
Programmed cell death (apoptosis) - Every healthy cell is prepared to commit suicide in the interest of the organism as a whole.
We are recapitulating the evolution from single-cell to multi-cell organisms.
evolutionofcomputing.org   (1053 words)

  
 Multicellular organism - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This is the case for most animals and plants that can be seen (without the use of a microscope).
If both are present, the organism is a hermaphrodite.
Cancer occurs when certain cells of a tissue are unable to regulate their growth, and grow in an uncontrollable manner.
simple.wikipedia.org /wiki/Multicellular_organism   (176 words)

  
 ExploreLearning.com
A multicellular organism develops from a single zygote, and its phenotype depends on its genotype, which is established at fertilization.
Genes are a set of instructions encoded in the DNA sequence of each organism that specify the sequence of amino acids in proteins characteristic of that organism.
Organisms have a variety of mechanisms to combat disease.
www.explorelearning.com /View/correlations/States/CA/CA_S_BIO.html   (780 words)

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