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Topic: Multics

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  Multics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Multics was an early operating system that implemented a single level store for data access, discarding the clear distinction between files (called segments in Multics) and process memory.
Multics also supported extremely aggressive on-line reconfiguration; CPUs, memory banks, disk drives, etc. could all be added and removed while the system continued operating; being added into service, or removed from it, as required.
Multics was also notable for its early emphasis on computer security by design, and Multics was possibly the very first operating system to be designed as a secure system from the ground up.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Multics   (1812 words)

 MULTICS - Definition   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Multics was the only general-purpose system to be awarded a B2 security rating by the NSA.
One of the former Multics developers from Bell Labs was Ken Thompson, a circumstance which led directly to the birth of Unix.
The Jargon file 3.0.0 claims that on some versions of Multics one was required to enter a password to log out but James J. Lippard , who was a Multics developer in Phoenix, believes this to be an urban legend.
www.hyperdictionary.com /dictionary/Multics   (321 words)

 jargon, node: Multics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Multics was very innovative for its time --- among other things, it introduced the idea of treating all devices uniformly as special files.
All the members but GE eventually pulled out after determining that second-system effect had bloated Multics to the point of practical unusability (the `lean' predecessor in question was CTSS).
One of the developers left in the lurch by the project's breakup was Ken Thompson, a circumstance which led directly to the birth of Unix.
www.jargon.net /jargonfile/m/Multics.html   (153 words)

 Multics History (monthly posting)
Multics on Cyber 180 study (85) There was a brief exploration (by the Multics Development Center) in early 1985 of porting Multics to the relatively new CDC mainframe hardware.
Multics on Sequent (or other Intel 386/486) (85-87) Both as part of my "Multics Company" and Tague's project, there was some work devoted to porting Multics to the Intel architecture, specifically to the big Sequent multiprocessors.
Multics on DPS90 Honeywell Bull (or whatever it was called by then) explored the possibility of running Multics in emulation on the DPS90 mainframe.
web.mit.edu /afs/net/user/srz/www/multics-history.html   (2846 words)

 Multics Glossary   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
ALM Assembly Language for Multics, which was supposed...
COBOL The Multics COBOL compiler was done at...
prelinker (1) The Multics supervisor is pre-linked statically...
www.au.multicians.org /mgloss.html   (4017 words)

 Multics General Information and FAQ
Multics was written in the PL/I language, which was, in 1965, a new proposal by IBM.
The most important Multics influences were writing the operating system in a high-level language, the single-level storage system, and an emphasis on security, although rings were not present on the last generation of S-1 machine.
Multics may be said to have contributed more than just the ideas for virtual memory organization and other specific capabilities.
www.multicians.org /general.html   (2392 words)

 Multics History
The Project MAC members of the Multics development team were mostly on the fifth floor of the Tech Square Alpha building.
Multics released the first commercial relational database, the Multics Relational Data Store, implemented by Jim Weeldreyer and Oris Friesen of Honeywell Phoenix and released in June 1976.
Multics received the B2 Orange Book rating from the NCSC in August 1985, the culmination of a long effort.
www.multicians.org /history.html   (4228 words)

Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) is a mainframe timesharing operating system begun in 1965 and used until 2000.
Multics began as a research project and was an important influence on operating system development.
The history of Multics, from 1963 to 2000.
www.multicians.org   (689 words)

 Multics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
However, it had a powerful impact in the computer field, due to its many novel and valuable ideas; in particular, the Unix system (produced by Bell Labs personnel who had worked on Multics), the GNU project and the much later Linux kernel, are in part descended from Multics.
Multics was especially interesting for deliberately discarding a clear distinction between files (called segments in Multics) and process memory.
V. Vyssotsky, F. Corbató, R. Graham, Structure of the Multics Supervisor (AFIPS 1965) describes the basic internal structure of the Multics kernel.
www.yotor.com /wiki/en/mu/Multics.htm   (1780 words)

 Iterations: An interdisciplinary journal of software history   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
A trivial but revealing contrast is that Multics used a standard set of command switches between different utility programs, whereas the options supplied to UNIX commands depend on the whims of their many authors, a confusing and time-wasting situation.
Multics was coherent and rational, where UNIX is chaotic and whimsical.
Indeed, Multics stands as an interesting contrast to the better known travails of Frederick P. Brooks and the IBM OS/360 team, whose experiences were chronicled in the classic Mythical Man-Month (Addison-Wesley, 1995) and thereby emerged as a ubiquitous fable in the new field of software engineering.
www.cbi.umn.edu /iterations/haigh.html   (3680 words)

 Remembering Multics :: osViews | osOpinion :: Tech Opinions for the People, by the People   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Multics is an acronym for "Multiplexed Information and Computing Service." It was a timesharing operating system which began its life as far back as 1965.
The Multics OS was developed to allow multiple users to run several tasks concurrently on one processor, or in parallel on many processors.
Multics was myth for mee when I was in faculty.
www.osviews.com /modules.php?op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=276&mode=thread&order=0&thold=-1   (1243 words)

 Multics Virtual Memory - Tutorial and Reflections
Multics itself never used the generality implicit in the pairing scheme; it paired the registers early in initialization and left them that way forever.
Multics maps segments directly onto files and directories, so that "opening a file" means "creating an association" between a segment number and the file.
Multics had a tendency to canonicalize the pathname to an object by concatenating all of the primary names together.
ftp.stratus.com /vos/multics/pg/mvm.html   (10148 words)

 Multics FAQ (monthly posting)
The URL is http://www.mit.edu:8001/afs/net/user/srz/www/multics.html A5) Paul Green's Multics archive table of contents is at ftp://ftp.stratus.com/pub/vos/multics/multics.html It lists his Multics Virtual Memory paper, as well as examples of Multics PL/I programs.
A6) There is a large set of Multics Web pages available at http://www.best.com/~thvv/multics.html including hypertext versions of the FAQ files, the 250K Multics Glossary, papers, stories, and pictures of Multicians and 6180s.
Multics ran on special expensive CPU hardware which provided a segmented, paged, ring-structured virtual memory.
www.mit.edu:8001 /afs/net/user/srz/www/multics-faq.html   (588 words)

 Multics - a Whatis.com definition - see also: Multiplexed Information and Computing Service   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) was a mainframe time-sharing operating system that was developed in the 1963-1969 period through the collaboration of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), General Electric (GE), and Bell Labs.
Multics was the first or one of the first operating systems that used page-segmented storage.
Multics is name of the Web page for the alt.os.multics Usenet newsgroup.
search390.techtarget.com /sDefinition/0,,sid10_gci213556,00.html   (274 words)

 The Amber Operating System - May 1984   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Multics and the S-1 have special hardware to detect address references that fall outside the bounds of a segment.
Multics was the source of many design studies, most of which were done as graduate student theses.
Some of the Multics specific simulation routines were rewritten so testing could continue, but by and large, aside from the code generator the movement of Amber development to the Vax was not a major effort.
www.mit.edu /%7Ecbf/thesis.htm   (11099 words)

 Starting June 17, 2004
Multics was a major OS project started in 1965, which influenced many operating systems since, most notably Unix.
The Multics development community, and all installations, had access to the source, most of which was written in PL/I. It was a precursor to the Open Source movement (and included some of their founding members).
The "right" way to do Atom would be to use the XML::Atom CPAN library which is not in most Perl installations, and I didn't want to make the installation process more complicated by requiring that, especially not for a specification that is still "pre-draft".
danbricklin.com /log/2004_06_17.htm   (1446 words)

 Open Directory - Computers: Software: Operating Systems: Mainframe: Multics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Multics Psalm - A humorous prayer well-known to veteran Multicians.
Multics Repository - A collection of applications written in PL/1, exec_com and other languagues, plus papers and other documentation [ftp].
Risks Digest: The End of the Multics Era - Article by Peter G. Neumann on the decommissioning of the last Multics system at the Canadian Department of National Defence in October 2000.
dmoz.org /Computers/Software/Operating_Systems/Mainframe/Multics   (354 words)

 Early Unix history and evolution   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Multics has a rather general IO redirection mechanism [3] embodying named IO streams that can be dynamically redirected to various devices, files, and even through special stream-processing modules.
Even in the version of Multics we were familiar with a decade ago, there existed a command that switched subsequent output normally destined for the terminal to a file, and another command to reattach output to the terminal.
Not only were coroutines well-known already, but their embodiment as Multics spliceable IO modules required that the modules be specially coded in such a way that they could be used for no other purpose.
cm.bell-labs.com /cm/cs/who/dmr/hist.html   (6213 words)

 Slashdot | The Last Multics System Decommissioned
Multics could run with Classified, Secret, and Top-Secret information (and programs) all co-resident, and without a lower-classification program being able to access higher-classification information.
No modern operating system works this way; the set of systems that replaced the Multics group that I worked on was *3* separate Unix networks, one for each security classification.
In general, Multics achieved its goals, though the cost was too high.
slashdot.org /articles/00/11/13/066228.shtml   (1137 words)

 Multics Bibliography (monthly posting)
Part VI consists of Chapters 18 through 26 of the manual and provides guidelines for the system administrator on how to manage Multics as a secure system.
Multics Design Document Series The Multics Design Document series, specifically produced for the B2 effort, includes some documents written for the project.
Others were existing manuals that were found to be adequate for the evaluation but were to eventually be re-written for consistency.
www.mit.edu:8001 /people/srz/multics-bibliography.html   (4208 words)

 Seattle Weekly - tech: Multics and Mr. Rogers
Multics, on the other hand, became a rarity, flourishing briefly in military, banking, and automotive settings but eventually relegated to a few small installations, such as the last one, located at a Nova Scotian outpost of the Canadian Department of National Defence.
Many computer professionals disliked the system because of its noncommercial ways and Multics' gentle but firm way of disallowing any add-on feature or instruction that wasn't both well constructed and design-consistent with the basic system ("Multicious," as the faithful say).
In his e-mail to the remaining Multics faithful, Neumann noted that these eight goals are still relevant today and still not as widely observed as they ought to be.
www.seattleweekly.com /features/0047/kiss-gunn.shtml   (507 words)

 Multics Home page
Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) was a timesharing operating system begun in 1965 and still in use today.
Transactions in the Live_Coverage forum meeting, recording the last minutes of MIT Multics.
Paul Green has a repository of Multics programs and papers, and a paper on Multics Virtual Memory.
web.mit.edu /afs/net/user/srz/www/multics.html   (158 words)

 The Creation of the UNIX* Operating System: Before Multics there was chaos, and afterwards, too
If a business upgraded to a bigger, more powerful computer, the old operating system probably wouldn't work on the new computer, and often the company's data had to be entered -- again -- into the new machine.
To try to develop a convenient, interactive, useable computer system that could support many users, a group of computer scientists from Bell Labs and GE in 1965 joined an effort underway at MIT on what was called the Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) mainframe timesharing system.
Over time, hope was replaced by frustration as the group effort initially failed to produce an economically useful system.
www.bell-labs.com /history/unix/chaos.html   (231 words)

The Multics machine in this line was the Honeywell 6180, an improvement over the 645 in many areas.
Subsequent Multics machines used the same processor architecture, with various master-mode-only tweaks to accommodate I/O evolution.
If you follow the Multics links page to the History of Bull, you'll find a French view of the subsequent history, and some information on John Couleur's disastrous "New System Architecture" which wasted many millions on features that were never used by GCOS and which caused the demise of Multics.
ed-thelen.org /comp-hist/honeywell-DPS8.html   (440 words)

 Multics Relational Data Store (MRDS)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
As its name implies, MRDS ran on the Multics operating system, and its implementation took advantage of Multics mechanisms for security and virtual memory-based storage.
When MRDS was released in June 1976, it was actually marketed as one of two components of a package called the Multics Data Base Manager (MDBM).
The other component was the Multics Integrated Data Store (MIDS), which was a CODASYL database implemented as a layer on top of MRDS.
www.mcjones.org /System_R/mrds.html   (455 words)

 History of UNIX and Linux
Bell Labs was adopting third generation computer equipment and decided to join forces with General Electric and MIT to create Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service).
When Multics was withdrawn Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie needed to rewrite an operating system in order to play space travel on another smaller machine (a DEC PDP-7 [Programmed Data Processor 4K memory for user programs).
The result was a system which a punning colleague called UNICS (UNiplexed Information and Computing Service)--an 'emasculated Multics'.
www.computerhope.com /history/unix.htm   (582 words)

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