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Topic: Multiple cropping

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 Strip cropping corn and grain legumes : a review
Multiple cropping systems are prevalent in many parts of the world, and alternating strips of corn and soybeans or dry beans ha ve been used by farmers in the temperate region.
Crop mixtures have been abandoned in favor of sole cropping of the two crops with the introduction of inexpensive nitrogen fertilizers and highly responsive hybrid corn.
A comparison of sole crop with the alternating single rows shows an increase in corn yields of 26 to 35 percent with the strip cropping method; soybean yields in single rows were reduced by 22 to 35 percent from the sole crop levers.
eap.mcgill.ca /MagRack/AJAA/AJAA_5.htm   (3596 words)

 Pinchinat et al. 1976
Multiple cropping is growing two or more crops in the same field in a year.
Multiple cropping is an important technique used by farmers in tropical America, and it can be part of a productive, sustainable system.
Multiple cropping is well suited to the small farmer's resources and the climate of tropical America, produces a higher profit and yield than monocropping, and is effective at pest management.
www.css.cornell.edu /courses/190/abstr/reid2.htm   (324 words)

 Andrews and Kassam 1976
Multiple cropping describes forms of cropping in which several crops are grown simultaneously, or sole crops are grown in sequence, or a combination of sole and mixed crops are grown in sequence.
Multiple cropping for food production is widespread in the developing world because it allows farmers to have a low but steady production.
Multiple cropping is found in such areas that receive from 300-1000 mm of rainfall.
www.css.cornell.edu /courses/190/abstr/reid3.htm   (327 words)

Multiple cropping, or growing one crop species more than once on the same field in a year, or growing different types (classes) of crops simultaneously or in sequence on the same piece of land in a year, is a common practice in African agriculture.
Crops such as cowpea, groundnut, beans, bambara groundnut and other leguminous crops have roots that are able to make soil nitrogen available to other plants.
This relay cropping is used when the same crop is sown or planted in small amounts, in a staggered manner over a period of time, to ensure a continuous supply of that particular crop.
www.fao.org /DOCREP/003/X3996E/x3996e36.htm   (785 words)

The yearly sequence and spatial arrangement of crops or of crops and fallow on a given area.
Yields of crop mixtures in the absence of disease
A mixture of crops which differ in their susceptibility to a series of diseases may thus produce total yields which are more consistent than those of any of the pure cultures if the various diseases are favored by different types of season.
www.eap.mcgill.ca /CSI_1.htm   (4828 words)

 Cropping Patterns
The land may be occupied by one crop during one season (mono-cropping), or by two crops (double-cropping) which may be grown in a year in sequence.
These intensive croppings may be done either in sequence or even there may be relay-cropping-one crop undersown in a standing crop.
Crops production, therefore, presents such an enormous diversity owing to differences in latitude, altitude and variability of rainfall and edaphic diversity which have presented in detail in the book.
www.krishiworld.com /html/crop_pattern1.html   (1241 words)

 Multiple cropping -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
In (The class of people engaged in growing food) agriculture, multiple cropping is the practice of growing two or more (The yield from plants in a single growing season) crops simultaneously in the same space during a single (The season during which a crop grows best) growing season.
Multiple cropping is found in many agricultural traditions.
One kind of multiple cropping is (Click link for more info and facts about intercropping) intercropping, where an additional crop is planted in the spaces available between the main crop.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/m/mu/multiple_cropping.htm   (215 words)

 Ohio Agronomy Guide, Multiple Cropping with Winter Grains   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
Multiple cropping establishes a second crop in the same season that a first crop is harvested.
A number of multiple cropping systems with the winter cereals (wheat, barley, rye, and spelt) are either commonly practiced in Ohio or have been demonstrated to be feasible with ordinary management.
Legume cover crops are also used intermittently for hay or grazing, but this would reduce their N value for a subsequent corn crop.
ohioline.osu.edu /b472/winter.html   (3692 words)

 IITA Research Guides   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
Multiple cropping with varying canopies reduces soil erosion and pest and disease incidence.
Multiple cropping with cassava is most common in the humid tropics, especially under rainfed conditions.
Multiple cropping includes various forms of farming practices where a field produces many crops simultaneously, sole crops in sequence, or a combination of both forms.
www.iita.org /info/trn_mat/irg60/irg606.html   (524 words)

 Untitled Document
Multiple cropping is the practice of planting several different crops on the same plot of land at the same time.
Multiple cropping yields different types of produce, resulting in a balanced diet for the family.
Multiple cropping can be done with annual food crops, perennial crops (such as cotton), fodder crops, and tree crops.
www.iirr.org /saem/page168-170.htm   (883 words)

 Multiple cropping zones for rain-fed crop production
In the Global AEZ crop suitability analysis, the LUTs considered refer to single cropping of sole crops, i.e., each crop is presumed to occupy the land only once a year and in pure stand.
For the definition of multiple cropping zones four types of crops are distinguished: thermophilic crops requiring warm temperatures, cryophilic crops performing best under cool and moderately cool conditions, hibernating crops, and wetland crops with specific water requirements.
Delineation of multiple cropping zones for rain-fed conditions is solely based on agro-climatic attributes calculated during AEZ analysis.
www.iiasa.ac.at /Research/LUC/GAEZ/method/c_47.htm   (440 words)

 Introduction to IPM - Module 3 - Tools methods and tactics of IPM   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
Multiple Cropping: Multiple cropping, or multicropping, is a cropping system in which several crops are grown in succession within a season.
Crops grown outside of this optimum location are often subject to increased stress and reduced health, and are prone to pest problems.
Trap Crops: A trap crop is a crop that is grown specifically to lure pests away from the main crop.
www.aglearn.net /introIPMModule3.html   (10858 words)

 Cropping Systems
Pattern of crops taken up for a given piece of land, or sequence in which the crops are cultivated on piece of land over a fixed period and their interaction with farm resources and other farm enterprises.
Growing soil conserving and soil depleting crops in alternate strips running perpendicular to the slope of the land or to the direction of prevailing winds for the purpose of reducing erosion.
The recommended optimum plant population of the base crop is suitably combined with appropriate additional plant density of the associated crop, and there is crop intensification in both time and space dimensions.
www-unix.oit.umass.edu /~psoil791/Cropsyst.htm   (415 words)

 Relay Cropping Wheat and Soybeans, AGF-106-01
Producing a second crop allows for the increased use of machinery, labor, and land during the year and a lowering of fixed cost on a per-acre basis, resulting in a more profitable farming operation.
Because the soybean is photoperiod sensitive and matures in response to day length, it is ideally suited for multiple cropping systems where planting dates for the second crop can be variable due to weather and/or delayed wheat harvest.
However, the profitability of a multiple cropping system is more influenced by the adequacy of the water supply for the second crop than by any other factor.
ohioline.osu.edu /agf-fact/0106.html   (1495 words)

However, the multiple harvested total yields of snap beans showed significantly higher yield (1863 lbs acre) due to vetch treatment as compared to the control (411 lbs acre).
The effect of cropping system on root dry weight at -10 cm soil depth, total root fresh and dry weights were significantly highest for the herb-intercropping system.
Crop residues are the major and often the only input of carbon in farmland soils.
www.alcorn.edu /agnetalcorn/cfactor/abstract1.htm   (2845 words)

 The Cambridge World History of Food- Rice
During the Eastern Chou Dynasty (255 to 249 B.C.), rice was already the staple food crop in the middle and lower basins of the Yangtze River (Ting 1961).
Growing a green manuring crop in winter was advised in the third century.
Crop history and genetic conservation in rice — a case study.
www.cambridge.org /us/books/kiple/rice.htm   (12130 words)

 EPAT: The Structure of Landholding, Land Management, and Degradation
Boserup (1987) describes multiple cropping as a strategy to increase yields in the face of declining holdings.
Increased labor and inputs for multiple cropping may reduce investments in lower-yielding crops that are integral to the long-term vitality of the agroecosystem.
Moreover, multiple cropping usually means additional tilling and longer periods of bare soil, vulnerable to the forces of wind and water which cause erosion.
www.wisc.edu /epat/.pop-env/.land-deg/.format/.structure.html   (5050 words)

 EPAT: Entire Document as Single File for downloading and printing
Multiple objectives would also be relevant in that policy makers might be concerned with such things as: a) government budget exposure; b) income of target groups; c) agricultural production; d) export levels; e) consumer prices; f) quantity of soil conserved; g) damages due to soil erosion; and h) water quality.
The model was utilized in conjunction with the crop yield and water use results of ozone chamber experiments to forecast the agricultural sector consequences of ozone concentration variations (Adams, Hamilton and McCarl 1986).
crop residue harvest competed dramatically with harvesting of other crops and caused a crop mix alteration; namely corn acreage was reduced with wheat and soybean acreage increased, allowing fall harvest time to be freed up; 4.
www.wisc.edu /epat/.res-price/.math-prog/.entire.html   (7256 words)

 Metam-Sodium Application Via Drip Irrigation Systems   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
Changes in Florida crop production systems, particularly with respect to irrigation and multiple cropping are mandating reevaluation of nematode management strategies.
Nematode populations often increase during late season causing little or no damage to the primary fumigated crop, but are often at significant level to cause extensive damage to subsequent crops within the multiple crop sequence.
In all multiple cropping systems, holes in the plastic mulch are created during the planting process of the primary crop.
edis.ifas.ufl.edu /BODY_NG037   (1925 words)

 Bioline International Official Site (site up-dated regularly)
One major constraint to establishing response curves for multiple cropping systems is that systems management varies over time and space as farmers' objectives differ; this results in variation of the relative competitive ability of the component crop species.
Also, crop species differ in their ability to take up available nutrients and in the use efficiency of nutrients; these characteristics are much affected by environment (Lynch and White, 1992) and probably by genotype by environment interaction effects.
Alternatively, fertilizer needs for the multiple crop system could be estimated for a given planting pattern using the response equations of one or more of the component species.
www.bioline.org.br /request?cs96039   (2150 words)

 Two Crops in One Year: Doublecropping, G91-1025
Multiple cropping refers to growing two crops on the same field during the same year.
One method of multiple cropping is doublecropping, which is when one crop is grown after the first crop is harvested.
In traditional doublecrop regions, the crop sequence is usually winter wheat harvested for grain followed by no-till planting soybean into the stubble.
ianrpubs.unl.edu /fieldcrops/g1025.htm   (1871 words)

 Scott Tubbs Personal Statement
Multiple cropping is a practice that allows efficient use of land by growing more than one crop on a given area of land over the course of the year.
My proposed triple cropping system would provide an opportunity for disposal of wastes in a non-polluting manner that is also beneficial to growing crops by supplying valuable nutrients to the crops as a free fertilizer.
The additional crops grown, thanks to multiple cropping, also give farmers additional feed crops for their cattle, which saves farmers money since supplemental feeds don't have to be purchased.
www.annies.com /programs/st_statement.html   (507 words)

 Workshop Report
The surrounding lands operated by small, often resource-limited farmers are characterized by crop and animal diversity, multiple species systems where different niches are occupied by different crops for different purposes, limited or no mechanization for land preparation and crop culture, and a near absence of chemical fertilizer or pesticide inputs.
And crops with different depths of rooting can tap different strata of the soil volume-some deep rooted crops can actually perform as "nutrient pumps" which tap growth factors form lower strata and bring them toward the surface where they can be absorbed by crops with shallower root systems.
However, we can site reasons for which a multiple cropping system may be more susceptible to attack: (1) reduced cultivation and greater shading due to the presence of associated species, (2) associated crops serve as alternate hosts, and (3) crop residues from one crop may serve as a source of inoculum for the others.
www.rodaleinstitute.org /education/regenerative/workshop/research.html   (3759 words)

 TECHNICAL PAPER #26   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
Multiple cropping, simply defined, is the growing of two or more
crops than there is in a sole planting of identical plants.
Multiple cropping places heavy demands on the soil and cannot be
sleekfreak.ath.cx:81 /3wdev/VITAHTML/SUBLEV/EN1/CROPMULT.HTM   (2251 words)

 Integrated Management Of Slopeland Orchards In Asia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
Multiple cropping, on the other hand, is closer to the traditional farming system.
The main purpose of multiple cropping is to reduce the level of risk.
The traditional mixture of crops is retained, with annual crops being grown between contour plantings of leguminous shrubs, fruit trees or grasses.
www.agnet.org /library/article/ac1997c.html   (1954 words)

 AllRefer.com - hydroponics (Agriculture, General) - Encyclopedia
Hydroponics has been used for over a century as a research technique, but not until 1929 were experiments conducted solely to determine its feasibility for growing commercial crops.
There are now hydroponic home gardens and commercial cropping operations in the United States and many other countries.
Under hydroponics, plants can be grown closer together than in the field, thereby increasing yields, and multiple cropping (the growing of several crops in the same tank) can be practiced.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/H/hydropon.html   (285 words)

 Efficiency Of Nitrogen Fertilization On Upland Crops Grown In Multiple Cropping Systems In Taiwan   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
Because of the nature of the crops as well as for the purpose of obtaining high yields, upland crops are often given higher rates of N than they require.
With vegetable cropping in which a lot of organic manure has been used, much residual N is in the manure itself as well as the crop residues.
Adopting an appropriate cropping system in combination with soil testing, measuring the residual N after upland cropping, and adjusting the application of fertilizer-N for the subsequent crop, may increase the efficiency of absorption and consequently of the production system.
www.agnet.org /library/abstract/eb343.html   (393 words)

 Summary of report: Polyculture Production Principles, Benefits and Risks of Multiple Cropping Land Management Systems ...
An extensive literature review of over 250 articles and books was conducted over a wide range of literature in subjects pertinent to polyculture: multiple cropping, permaculture, agroforestry, and intercropping in traditional peasant agriculture and current industrial production.
After establishing working definitions of polyculture terms and their evolution through time, it was shown that they all contribute to the basic study of polyculture: the interaction of crop components in time and space.
The substantial interest in tree crop based polycultures indicated this area to have perhaps the greatest potential in realising polyculture benefits.
www.rirdc.gov.au /reports/ORG/01-34sum.html   (1409 words)

 OUTGROWING THE EARTH: The Food Security Challenge in an Age of Falling Water Tables and Rising Temperatures Chapter 4 ...
One obvious approach is to increase the amount of multiple cropping—growing more than one crop on a field per year.
Devising economic incentives to sustain multiple cropping in some countries and expand it in others could help buy time to stabilize world population size.
One of the keys to exploiting this lies in reorienting agricultural research programs to develop facilitating technologies such as earlier maturing crops and farm practices that will accelerate the harvesting of the first crop and the planting of the second one.
www.earth-policy.org /Books/Out/Ote4_5.htm   (926 words)

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