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Topic: Musical instrument classification

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  Info and facts on 'Musical instrument classification'   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The serpent (An obsolete bass cornet; resembles a snake), for example, an old instrument rarely seen nowadays, ought to be classified as a brass instrument, as a column of air is set in motion by the lips.
For example, the piano (A stringed instrument that is played by depressing keys that cause hammers to strike tuned strings and produce sounds) has strings, but they are struck by hammers, so it is not clear whether it should be classified as a string instrument, or a percussion instrument.
He was the curator of the musical instrument collection of the conservatoire in Brussels (The capital and largest city of Belgium; seat of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization), and for the 1888 catalogue of the collection divided instruments into four groups: strings, winds, drums, and other percussion.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/m/mu/musical_instrument_classification.htm   (519 words)

 Wikinfo | String instrument
There are two common ways of bringing this about: instruments such as the guitar and kora are plucked, either by a finger or thumb, or by some other device such as a plectrum; while instruments like the cello and rebec are usually played by drawing a bow across the strings.
Instruments which are normally bowed such as the violin, etc, must be bowed perpendicularly to the string, usually at a point half way between the end of the fingerboard and the bridge.
Other string instruments with a keyboard include the clavichord (where the strings are struck by tangents), and the harpsichord (where the strings are plucked by quills).
www.wikinfo.org /wiki.php?title=String_instrument   (667 words)

 Musical instrument classification   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The serpent, for example, an old instrument rarely seen nowadays, ought to be classified as a brass instrument, as a column of air is set in motion by the lips.
For this reason, keyboard instruments are often regarded as inhabiting a category of their own, including all instruments played by a keyboard, whether they have struck strings (like the piano), plucked strings (like the harpsichord) or no strings at all (like the celesta).
He was the curator of the musical instrument collection of the conservatoire in Brussels, and for the 1888 catalogue of the collection divided instruments into four groups: strings, winds, drums, and other percussion.
www.sciencedaily.com /encyclopedia/musical_instrument_classification   (593 words)

 Multi-feature Musical Instrument Sound Classifier
Nineteen musical instruments of definite pitch were used to test the system, covering the note range C3-C6 and representing the major musical instrument families and subfamilies.
Instrument families were identified with an accuracy of 90%, while individual instruments were identified with an accuracy of 70%.
Classification reliability on the other hand, provides an indication as to the confidence that can be placed on the classifier results; in other words, if a classifier gives a clarinet result for example, how often this result is correct.
pandora.nla.gov.au /pan/10054/20011007/farben.latrobe.edu.au/mikropol/volume6/kaminskyj_i/kaminskyj_i.html   (1677 words)

 Classification of instruments (from musical instrument) --  Encyclopædia Britannica
In nearly all stringed instruments the sound of the vibrating string is amplified by the use of a resonating chamber or soundboard.
Instruments such as the electric guitar that generate sound by acoustic or mechanical means but that amplify the sound electrically or...
According to the standard method of instrument classification introduced in the early 20th century, all wind instruments (that is, all instruments in which air is the primary vibrating medium for the production of sound) are called aerophones.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-53847   (874 words)

 Wind Instrument Classification
Eight instruments were used in classification, and the sound was divided into separate notes and preprocessed to obtain the fundamental frequency and relative amplitudes of its harmonics.
Because wind instruments are used, the player of the instrument has total control over the macroscopic temporal features of the note, and thus it would not be accurate to use those features in classification of the instrument alone.
The frequency spectra of notes produced by wind blown instruments have definite peaks that occur at frequencies that are multiples of the fundamental frequencies.
plaza.ufl.edu /badavis/EEL6825_Project.html   (1844 words)

In the case of musical instruments, this could mean the use of locally available materials in construction and the redesigning of the instrument to suit a new music system or artistic aesthetic.
Through this system it is possible to see that diffusionary trends can account for the populating of the musical world with thousands of variants on the original model of a specific type of musical instrument (for example, there are numerous necked-bowl lutes throughout the world).
Thus an instrument came into being that emits a sound, rich in overtones, consisting of drones, sympathetically sustained pitches and the capacity for melodic articulation as intricate as that of the human voice.
www.geocities.com /sitar_music/sitmanac.htm   (2874 words)

 Online Encyclopedia and Dictionary - Idiophone
An idiophone is any musical instrument which creates sound primarily by way of the instrument itself vibrating, without the use of strings or membranes.
It is one of the four main divisions in the original Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification, the others being membranophone, chordophone and aerophone (a fifth division, electrophone, was added in a later revision).
Idiophones are probably the oldest type of musical instrument (not counting the human voice).
fact-archive.com /encyclopedia/Idiophone   (200 words)

 Musical instrument classification - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks
The frequency of the wave generated is related to the length of the column of air and the shape of the instrument, while the tone quality of the sound generated is affected by the construction of the instrument and method of tone production.
The shape and material of the part of the instrument to be struck and the shape of the resonating cavity, if any, determine the sound of the instrument.
All classes of instruments save the electronic are mentioned in ancient sources, such as Egyptian inscriptions and the Bible, and probably predate recorded history.
en.wikibooks.org /wiki/Musical_instrument_classification   (372 words)

 Electronic musical instrument - Patent 6194648
An electronic musical instrument as recited in claim 18, wherein the electronic musical instrument is capable of reproducing the musical tones assigned to the second operator in response to the operation of the second operator.
An electronic musical instrument as recited in claim 18, wherein after assigning the musical tones assigned to the second operator to the selected at least one other first operator, the musical tones assigned to the second operator are canceled.
Further, due to the potentially random cancellation of musical tone assignments to the operators, the musical tones are not assigned to the plurality of operators in a series and thus, the assignment of the musical tones to the plurality of operators becomes scattered and is not necessarily sequential.
www.freepatentsonline.com /6194648.html   (11149 words)

 MSN Encarta - Drum (musical instrument)
Drum (musical instrument), musical instrument consisting of one or two stretched membranes, called heads, held taut across a bowl-shaped or tubular frame, called a shell, and sounded by percussion; that is, by striking the instrument with the hands or with sticks.
The musical use of drums varies from simple timekeeping to the carrying of complex rhythms and counterrhythms.
Some instruments called drums, such as the steel drums of the Caribbean, are unrelated to the membranophones; these instruments are made entirely of resonant solid material and are thus classified as idiophones.
encarta.msn.com /encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761570843   (781 words)

 Aerophone   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
An aerophone is any musical instrument which produces sound primarily by causing a body of to vibrate without the use of strings membranes and without the vibration of the itself adding considerably to the sound.
It one of the four main classes (class of instruments in the original Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification.
This class almost all the instruments generally called wind instruments in the west such as the flute the oboe and the trumpet.
www.freeglossary.com /Aerophone   (422 words)

 Langeleik Definition / Langeleik Research   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The Langeleik is a traditional stringedA string instrument (also "stringed instrument") is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings.
In principle, anything that somehow produces sound can serve as a musical instrument, but the expression is reserved generally to items that have that specific purpose.
The instrument has one melody string, like a monochord, but it has additional bourdon strings (or drone strings), usually 7 or 8 on modern instruments, but older ones had fewer, most often 4 bourdon strings.
www.elresearch.com /Langeleik   (198 words)

 Curt Sachs Biography
He was one of the founders of modern organology (the study of musical instruments), and is probably best remembered today for co-authoring the Sachs-Hornbostel scheme of musical instrument classification with Erich von Hornbostel.
He wrote books on rhythm, dance and musical instruments, with his The History of Musical Instruments (1942), a comprehensive survey of musical instruments worldwide throughout history, seen as one of the most important.
The American Musical Instrument Society has a "Curt Sachs Award", which it gives each year to individuals for their contributions to organology.
www.biographybase.com /biography/Sachs_Curt.html   (382 words)

 Arnold Myers : Research on Brass Musical Instrument Taxonomy
The project is original research into the identification and classification of brasswind instruments, based on a detailed comparison of internal measurements of instruments and mouthpieces, historical performance traditions and perceived behaviour of the instruments in use.
It is a common belief that the difference between one kind of brass musical instrument and another kind is largely a function of bore profile in instrument and mouthpiece.
Finally, the research is investigating the possibility of the further invention in the field of brass instrument design: whether or not the profusion of new instrument patterns in the 19th century exhausted all the possible viable bore profiles, or whether a distinct new type of brass instrument could be made.
www.ph.ed.ac.uk /~am/research.html   (1247 words)

 History of Musical Instruments Classification Systems
The first classification systems for musical instruments are similar in that they only cover a single era and one civilization.
The oldest known system of musical instrument classification was based on the materials that made the sounds of instruments.
He divided instruments into three groups: solid-body resonating instruments, including idiophones; chordophones; and the membranophones of other vibrating air instruments covering all the aerophone instruments.
www.virtualmuseum.ca /Exhibitions/Instruments/Anglais/classement_en.html   (328 words)

 Electrophone - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
An electrophone is any musical instrument which produces sound primarily by electrical means.
It is usually considered one of five main categories in the Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification (though it is not actually present in the scheme published in 1914).
Any instrument which produces sound purely by electric means is an electrophone, but the term was not originally applied to instruments where electricity was only used to amplify a sound produced by conventional measures (so that the electric guitar, for example, would have been classified as a chordophone, not electrophone).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Electrophone   (206 words)

 Keyboard instruments (from musical instrument) --  Encyclopædia Britannica
The principle of the keyboard has been used successfully to control bells (the carillon), plucked and struck stringed instruments (the piano and harpsichord), and wind instruments (the organ, the accordion, and the harmonium).
Long before the appearance of the first stringed keyboard instruments in the 14th century, the keyboard was developed and applied to the organ.
In nearly all cases in Western music the keys correspond to consecutive notes in the chromatic scale, and they run from the bass at the left to the treble at the right.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-53851?tocId=53851   (827 words)

 Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Musical instrument classification
There are also problems with classifying certain keyboard instruments.
Western instruments are also often classified by their range in comparison with other instruments in the same family.
Some instruments fall into more than one category: for example, the cello may be considered either tenor or bass, depending on how its music fits into the ensemble, and the trombone may be alto, tenor, or bass.
www.reference.com /browse/wiki/Musical_instrument_classification   (726 words)

 Bibliography   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Musical instrument classification and duet analysis employing music information retrieval techniques.
Timbre cues and the identification of musical instruments.
Instrument identification in solo and ensemble music using independent subspace analysis.
www.ece.uvic.ca /~yli/Research/survey/node5.html   (574 words)

 The Classical Free-Reed, Inc. Taxonomy of Musical Instruments
The aeolian harp, a musical instrument played by the wind, can be convincingly classified as a free-reed instrument, although it is customarily categorized as a chordophone.
The instrument, named after Aeolus, the Greek god of wind, is made of a wooden sound box loosely strung with ten or twelve gut strings varying in thickness and elasticity, usually tuned in unison.
This instrument is extremely hard to classify exactly, since, depending on the shape of the cavity created between the thumbs, the grass reed can be proved to be both beating and free, or neither.
www.ksanti.net /free-reed/description/taxonomy.html   (1825 words)

 Sachs Hornbostel Instrument Classification System
The Sachs-Hornbostel System was created in 1914 to categorise musical instruments into logical family groupings based on the nature of the initial vibrating body.
Idiophones: instruments that are constructed of solid material that vibrates by virtue of their own inherent rigidity such as claves or marimba bars.
Many of the instruments rely on more than one of these categories for their overall sound, however the system at this highest level refers only to the initial vibrating mechanism.
www.drumdojo.com /useful/sachshornbostel.htm   (309 words)

 [No title]
Kartomi thinks highly of a classification system published in 1980 which is intended to include all of the historical, current, tribal, folk and concert instruments of India, while excluding “contemporary foreign” instruments such as keyboards.
They classify their musical ensembles based on concepts that are related to “cosmological thought, kinship groupings, components of the family, social organization, and even village or town planning” (p.
The instrument may be given a personal name, the names of its parts may be related to the society’s social structure, and it may be verbally addressed in performance.
members.aol.com /ethnodox/reviews/1-4g_OnConcepts.htm   (1048 words)

 Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Erich von Hornbostel
Erich Moritz von Hornbostel (February 25, 1877 - November 28, 1935) was an Austrian ethnomusicologist and scholar of music.
He is remembered for his pioneering work in the field of ethnomusicology, and for the Sachs-Hornbostel system of musical instrument classification which he co-authored with Curt Sachs.
He saw the musical tunings used by various cultural groups as an essential element in determining their music's character, and did much work in comparing different tunings.
www.reference.com /browse/wiki/Erich_von_Hornbostel   (327 words)

 Organology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
It embraces study of instruments' history used in different cultures technical aspects of instruments produce sound and musical instrument classification.
For much of the 18th and 19th centuries little work was done on Explorers returned to Europe with instruments from cultures however so that by the end the 19th century some musical instrument collections quite large.
One of the most important organologists of 20th century was Curt Sachs who as well as writing Real-Lexicon der Musikinstrumente (1913) and The History of Musical Instruments (1942) devised with Erich von Hornbostel the Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of instrument classification published in This remains the most common classification scheme by organologists today despite some criticism.
www.freeglossary.com /Organology   (352 words)

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