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Topic: Musical tuning


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In the News (Sun 26 May 19)

  
  NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Pythagorean tuning
Pythagorean tuning is based on a stack of perfect fifths, each tuned in the ratio 3:2, the next simplest ratio after 2:1, which is the ratio of an octave.
In music theory, the circle of fifths (or cycle of fifths) is an imaginary geometrical space that depicts relationships among the 12 equal-tempered pitch classes comprising the familiar chromatic scale.
Pythagorean tuning is a system of musical tuning in which the frequency relationships of all intervals are based on on the ratio 3:2.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Pythagorean-tuning   (2790 words)

  
 NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Minor third
In music or music theory a scale degree is an individual note of a scale, both its pitch and its diatonic function.
In music, a consonance (Latin consonare, sounding together) is a harmony, chord, or interval considered stable, as opposed to a dissonance, which is considered unstable.
It is thus either a quarter tone sharp from the major as is found in the quarter tone scale and Arab music and tuning, or a chromatic semitone larger, as found in twelve tone equal temperament, and thus enharmonically equivalent to a minor third.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Minor-third   (1957 words)

  
 Pythagorean Tuning and Medieval Polyphony - Table of Contents
Providing a simple and elegant way of generating a musical scale, this tuning system may have a special appeal for styles of harmony where fifths and fourths are the most favored intervals, as is true in the ensemble music of Chinese and related traditions, for example, as well as in medieval European polyphony.
Rather, techniques of tuning and notation interact creatively with musical style in each period, and should all be taken into consideration in understanding and recreating the music of a given age.
Section 3, on stylistic considerations, is linked in many ways to a companion article on 13th-century polyphony, and owes a special debt of gratitude to studies by Vincent Corrigan on the Notre Dame conductus repertory, and by Mark Lindley on the later 13th and 14th centuries, although any flaws or infelicities are of course mine.
www.medieval.org /emfaq/harmony/pyth.html   (766 words)

  
 BBC - Radio 4 - Out of Tune
Brian’s latest musical project is a study of church bells.
Musician David Toop argues that the combination of the piano and ‘equal temperament’ is having a stifling effect on music.
He’s developed a tuning system, “Lucy Tuning”, that’s flexible enough to encompass all musical intervals, even those of the gamelan, one of the world’s strangest instruments, demonstrated in the programme by Maria Mendonca.
www.bbc.co.uk /radio4/science/outoftune.shtml   (565 words)

  
 LucyTuning*LucyScaleDevelopments*LucyTuned Lullabies*Pi tuning*John Longitude Harrison   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
LucyTuning is a musical microtuning system derived from Pi and the writings of John "Longitude" Harrison.
Most musical academics will tell you that for all practical purposes LucyTuning is identical to 88 equal interval per ocatve or 3/10 comma meantone tuning.
Using pi as the generator for musical tunings, departs from all other microtuning systems, and resolves many of the obvious paradoxes in the traditional mathematics of musical tuning.
www.lucytune.com   (459 words)

  
 pythagorean tuning - Information from Reference.com
There are no dictionary entries for pythagorean tuning, but pythagorean, tuning are spelled correctly.
Pythagorean tuning is a system of musical tuning in which the frequency relationships
The Pythagorean Scale is known as a 3-limit tuning.
dictionary.reference.com /search?q=pythagorean%20tuning   (244 words)

  
  Tuning Fork Suppliers for Music Instruments: Piano, Guitar
John Walker tuning forks are reknowned for the superior performance demanded by choir leaders, conductors, cantors, music students and professional musicians.
Tune pianos, guitars, banjos, harps or voice with the complete confidence that comes from using this internationally recognized product.
These tuning forks are designed for music and voice training; we cannot guarantee their performance for any other uses or for metaphysical expectations.
www.indigo.com /tuning/john-walker-music-tuning-forks.html   (347 words)

  
  Musical tuning: Definition and Links by Encyclopedian.com
Car tuning is the use of technology applied to car passangers,...used to tune musical instruments, although electronic tuners also exist, and, of course,...
Musical tuning is the system used to define which tones, or pitches, to use when playing music.
Pythagorean tuning, in which the ratios of the frequencies between all notes are all multiples of 3:2 - A harmonized C major scale in Pythagorean tuning (.ogg format, 93.8KB)
www.encyclopedian.com /mu/Musical-tuning.html   (677 words)

  
  Musical tuning
Musical tuning is the system used to define which tones, or pitcheses, to use when playing music.
It is impossible to tune the twelve-note chromatic scale so that all intervals are perfect; many different methods with their own various compromises have thus been put forward.
For instance, William Sethares shows that the tunings of Balinese gamelans are related to the inharmonic spectra or timbre of their metallophones and the harmonic spectra of stringed instruments such as the rebab, just as just intonation and twelve tone equal temperament are related to the spectra or timbre of harmonic instruments alone.
www.xasa.com /wiki/en/wikipedia/m/mu/musical_tuning.html   (995 words)

  
 Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > Musical tuning
Musical tuning is the system used to define which tones, or pitches, to use when playing music.
Pythagorean tuning, in which the ratios of the frequencies between all notes are all multiples of 3:2 - A harmonized C major scale in Pythagorean tuning (.ogg format, 93.8KB)
Meantone temperament, a system of tuning which averages out pairs of ratios used for the same interval (such as 9:8 and 10:9), thus making it possible to tune keyboard instruments.
www.kids.net.au /encyclopedia-wiki/mu/Musical_tuning   (585 words)

  
 ipedia.com: Musical tuning Article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Musical tuning is the system used to define which tones, or pitcheses, to use when playing music.
Just intonation, in which the ratios of the frequencies between all notes are based on relatively low whole numbers, such as 3:2, 5:4 or 7:4; or in which all pitches are based on the harmonic series, which are all whole number multiples of a single tone.
For instance, William Sethares shows that the tunings of Balinese gamelans are related to the inharmonic spectra or timbre of their metallophones and the harmonic spectra of stringed instruments such as the rebab, just as just intonation and twelve tone equal temperament are related to the spectra or timbre of harmonic instruments alone.
www.ipedia.com /musical_tuning.html   (1032 words)

  
 musical_tuning - The Wordbook Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Tuning is the process of producing or preparing to produce a certain pitch in relation to another, usually matched at the unison but often at some other interval relationship.
A tuning fork or electronic tuning device may be used as a reference pitch, though in ensemble rehearsals often a piano is used (as its pitch cannot be adjusted for each rehearsal).
The strings of a guitar are normally tuned to fourths (excepting the G and B strings in standard tuning), as are the strings of the bass guitar and double bass.
www.thewordbook.com /musical_tuning   (2240 words)

  
 Pythagoras [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
Now the function of the Limit is usually illustrated from the arts of music and medicine, and we have seen how important these two arts were for Pythagoreans, so it is natural to infer that the key to its meaning is to be found in them.
Similar to musical intervals, in medicine there are opposites, such as the hot and the cold, the wet and the dry, and it is the business of the physician to produce a proper 'blend' of these in the human body.
Musical tuning and health are alike means arising from the application of Limit to the Unlimited.
www.utm.edu /research/iep/p/pythagor.htm   (906 words)

  
 Tuning Systems   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
But a careful hearing of the music, or a look at the physics of the sound waves involved, reveals that equal-temperament pitches are not based on the harmonics physically produced by any musical sound.
In order to feature these favored intervals, a tuning tradition may: use scales in which the notes are not equally spaced; avoid any notes or intervals which don't work with a particular tuning; change the tuning of some notes when the key or mode changes; or any combination of these techniques.
In Western music, the tuning systems that have been invented and widely used that directly address this problem are the various temperaments, in which the tuning of notes is "tempered" slightly from pure intervals.
cnx.org /content/m11639/latest   (4736 words)

  
 The Keyboard Tuning of Domenico Scarlatti
In open tunings, such as those based on the meantone system, A flat is not the same pitch as its enharmonic G sharp; in circular tunings they are the same.
The tuning preferences of Domenico Scarlatti are particularly uncertain, since he was born and trained in Italy, but spent most of his career in Portugal and Spain, and did all of his significant composing while under strong Spanish influence.
The paper discusses a quantitative method for the study of historical keyboard instrument tunings that is based on a measure of the perceived dissonance of the intervals in a tuning and their frequency of occurrence in the compositions of Domenico Scarlatti.
www.sankey.ws /consonance.html   (1562 words)

  
 Tunings - Permutation lattice graph showing open and closed musical temperaments   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Common musical temperaments are based on the frequency ratio of the octave, 2/1, and of the musical fifth, nominally 3/2.
On a conventional musical keyboard, all of the musical fifths in the mean-tone temperament are the same except for one, the so-called "wolf fifth." Within the range of musical key signatures in which the wolf fifth (and related wolf thirds and sixths) can be avoided, the mean-tone temperament sounds more harmonious than 12-tone equal temperament.
Musical fifths near the center of the series of 71 are of more interest, because these fifths are accessible on smaller keyboards and/or with less hand motion.
www.bikexprt.com /tunings/tunings3.htm   (2368 words)

  
 The Mathematics of Tuning Musical Instruments
Finally, a method of tuning musical instruments had been devised which allowed playing pieces in all 12 major and all 12 minor scales on the same instrument without retuning.
In musical terms, we hear 7 intervals, and the first five are octave, fifth, fourth, major third, and minor third.
The third in equal tuning is also quite different from the pure third; therefore the musical characteristics of the major triad in equal temperament are quite different from pure tuning.
arpam.free.fr /neuwirth.html   (2809 words)

  
 Fidelio Article - Foundations of Tuning
I want to demonstrate why, from a scientific standpoint, no musical tuning is acceptable which is not based on a pitch value for middle C of 256Hz (cycles per second), corresponding to A no higher than 432Hz.
Helmholtz's basic fallacy—still taught in most music conservatories and universities today—was to claim that the scientific basis of music is to be found in the properties of vibrating, inert bodies, such as strings, tuning forks, pipes, and membranes.
Historically, all musical instruments were designed and developed to imitate the human voice as closely as possible in its nonlinear characteristics.
www.schillerinstitute.org /fid_91-96/fid_911_jbt_tune.html   (3639 words)

  
 Tuning
Tuning may be done by aurally testing to the two pitches in question and adjusting the incorrect one until it sounds the same as (or in the correct relation to) the desired pitch.
or electronic tuning device may used as a reference pitch, though often a piano is used.
may be used to check at a unison the tuning of strings which are not tuned to the unison.
www.mp3.fm /Tuning.htm   (352 words)

  
 Contact
The history of musical tuning systems revolves principally around the search for ways of dealing with the fundamental insolubility of the problem of musical pitch.
The reason that this equation describes the fundamental problem of musical pitch is that the ratio 3/2 represents the musical interval of the perfect fifth (the interval between the second and third harmonics), and the ratio 2/l (the interval between the first and second harmonics) represents the musical interval of the octave.
If we are to devise a fixed tuning scheme for musical instruments, we must essentially find a reasonably small number of pitches that will allow a variety of harmonious combinations.
tomscarff.tripod.com /music/musical_tuning_history.htm   (162 words)

  
 Schiller Institute Verdi Tuning-- brief history
The first explicit reference to the tuning of middle C at 256 oscillations per second was probably made by a contemporary of J.S. Bach.
Regarding composers, all ``early music'' scholars agree that Mozart tuned at precisely at C=256, as his A was in the range of A=427-430.
France consequently passed a law in 1859 establishing A at 435, the lowest of the ranges of pitches (from A=434 to A=456) then in common use in France, and the highest possible pitch at which the soprano register shifts may be maintained close to their disposition at C=256.
www.schillerinstitute.org /music/rev_tuning_hist.html   (905 words)

  
 tuning - Search Results - MSN Encarta   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Tuning Systems, Musical, theoretical or practical systems for determining the correct tuning for the intervals of a scale.
Melody, the organized succession of musical tones of given pitches and durations.
- musical intonation: the degree to which musical instruments or the voices of a choir are adjusted to a norm
encarta.msn.com /tuning.html   (154 words)

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