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Topic: Mutualism (economic theory)


In the News (Tue 23 Apr 19)

  
 Mutualism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ant-aphid mutualism: the aphids are protected against predators by the ants who cultivate the aphids for their secretions of honeydew, a food source.
Mutualisms can be lifelong interactions involving close physical and biochemical contact (known as symbiosis) such as those between plants and mycorrhizal fungi; they can also be briefer, non-symbiotic interactions, such as those between flowering plants and pollinators.
Gilles Deleuze's use of the concept of mutualism in the invention of rhizomes (in particular the mutualism between the orchid and the wasp; cf.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Mutualism   (778 words)

  
 [No title]
Mutualism can thrive only when it is rooted in culture and choice, rather than laws and coercion; it should be encouraged as far as possible, and enforced only when necessary.
Legitimate economic and political power may derive from a variety of sources; what matters is how it is used, how it is checked and how far it is dispersed.
Mutualism requires an inclusive society in which all have equal access to the means to participate in it to the full.
new-mutualism.poptel.org.uk /pamphlets/mutual1.txt   (13893 words)

  
 Mutualism - Libertarian Wiki
Mutualism is an economic theory based on the political philosophy of Pierre Joseph Proudhoun, a French anarchist, and later elaborated by Benjamin Tucker.
Mutualism is a form of individualist anarchism which is opposed to both capitalism and mandatory collective ownership.
While it is often interpreted as being anti-socialist, it has also been described as a form of socialism since it advocates a classless society.
libertarianwiki.org /Mutualism   (431 words)

  
 Top20Economics.com - Online Directory for Economics Education.
Economics is said to be normative when it recommends one choice over another, or when a subjective value judgement is made.
Economics, which focuses on measurable variables, is broadly divided into two main branches: microeconomics, which deals with individual agents, such as households and businesses, and macroeconomics, which considers the economy as a whole, in which case it considers aggregate supply and demand for money, capital and commodities.
An outgrowth of neo-classical economics is rational expectations, which differs from neo-classical economics in that it does not see a micro-economic foundation for macro-economic behavior, and it emphasizes the strategies of rational economic actors in creating macro-effects.
www.top20economics.com   (5224 words)

  
 Resources - Mutualism - A Third Way for Australia - 21 June 2000
Mutualism is the one issue in which we all have a stake.
Orthodox economics works on an assumption of decreasing returns: the more an economic resource is used, the lower the return from it.
Mutualism is at the core of its problem-solving policies, especially in tackling the curse of social exclusion.
www.brisinst.org.au /resources/latham_mark_mutual.html   (4639 words)

  
 Mutualism (economic theory) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mutualism is an economic theory or system, largely associated with Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, based on a labor theory of value which holds that in extreme laissez-faire, market competition will cause the market values (prices) of commodities and services to align with the amount of labor embodied in those things.
Mutualism can in many ways be considered "the original anarchy," since Proudhon was the first to identify himself as an anarchist.
Mutualism is something of a middle way between classical economics and socialism, with some characteristics of both.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Mutualism_(economic_theory)   (2672 words)

  
 Clarence Lee Swartz : What is Mutualism? (1927)
Nevertheless it remains a powerful exposition of the main tenets of Mutualism and a sincere plea in favour of the freedom and autonomy of the individual.
MUTUALISM — A Social System Based on Equal Freedom, Reciprocity, and the Sovereignty of the Individual Over Himself, His Affairs, and His Products; Realized Through Individual Initiative, Free Contract, Cooperation, Competition, and Voluntary Association for Defense Against the Invasive and for the Protection of Life, Liberty and Property of the Non-invasive.
It is eminently practical, and can be adopted at once in ever-widening circles of social and economic life with great advantage to those who practice it; and it is based on a logical extension of the past history of mankind: the gradual evolution of free society.
www.panarchy.org /swartz/mutualism.index.html   (290 words)

  
 Security Mutualism: Investing Stakes in a Prosperous and Stable Northeast Asia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
In this environment of mutual economic interests, China, Vietnam and, possibly in the future, North Korea—are emerging as the region's new economic frontiers, in effect creating economic zones encompassing countries with different economic and political systems at various stages of economic development.
It is clear that in Northeast Asia economic interaction and deepening economic mutualism do not in and of themselves provide security: they do not necessarily offer solutions to security issues, create mechanisms or institutions guaranteeing security, nor do they fully induce convergent conceptions of political differences and similarities.
North Korea's isolation and economic difficulties, as well as China's developing nation status, clearly illustrate the lengths to which the region must still go in order to raise the level of economic modernization on a region-wide basis.
www.brookings.edu /fp/cnaps/papers/2000_collaborative.htm   (5567 words)

  
 The Collectivist Tradition
Its principal advocates were Michael Bakunin and James Guillaume, but the real credit for the theory of collectivism should go to the workers belonging to the International, who took the various socialist and trade union economic ideas of the time and modified them in light of their own experience.
Some sort of workable economic program had to be agreed upon by the labor movement, which had broad appeal to the various socialist and labor groupings that made up the International, without locking everyone into something they might regret later.
The main contribution of the collectivists to anarchist economics was their attempt to anticipate many of the problems which would be encountered during the revolutionary transition from capitalism to stateless communism, and their emphasis on the need for finding a balance between ultimate goals and day-to-day realities.
www.syndicalist.org /theory/bakunin_collectivism.shtml   (3568 words)

  
 GEO: Solidarity Economics
Economics is about understanding this competition and all that it entails: money, markets, prices, stocks and bonds, supplies and demands, employment, investment, profit, the world of companies, capital, and finance.
Economic space that is not occupied by the Capitalist Market, we are told, is occupied by the State.
The project of solidarity economics is to water these seeds—to identify and expand the spaces of solidarity that already exist and, in the process, create new and larger ones.
www.geo.coop /SolidarityEconomicsEthanMiller.htm   (6807 words)

  
 EMERGING FROM ENLIGHTENMENT DARKNESS: MUTUALISM -- A THEORY OF HUMANE INDIVIDUALITY
This mutualism suffusing human development is the third aspect of human nature that must be understood in order to see clearly the unwholesomeness in the American ways of living.
Just as mutualism suggests the necessity of formal harmonizing institutions in a complex society, it also suggests the utter impossibility of determining the behavior of men by subjecting them to an environment calculated to compel them to be virtuous.
The compact theory of association, implemented as a basis for political governance, is another of the errors that is a source of the noxious unwholesomeness in human affairs today.
www.fortunecity.com /millennium/aylesbury/901/emerging.html   (11156 words)

  
 Ecological Footprint -- Revisiting Carrying Capacity: Area-Based Indicators of Sustainability
A fundamental question for ecological economics is whether remaining stocks of natural capital are adequate to sustain the anticipated load of the human economy into the next century.
Economic analysis is based on the circular flow of exchange value (money flows) through the economy, not on physical flows and transformations.
In theory, shifting to more energy- and material-efficient technologies should enable a defined environment to support a given population at a higher material standard, or a higher population at the same material standard, thereby seeming to increase carrying capacity.
dieoff.com /page110.htm   (6312 words)

  
 Pierre-Joseph Proudhon - Anarchopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
The central part of his plan was the establishment of a bank to provide credit at a very low rate of interest and the issuing "exchange notes" that would circulate in lieu of money based on gold.
He adopted the term mutualism for his brand of anarchism, which involved control of the means of production by the workers.
The state would be abolished; instead, society would be organized by a federation of "free communes" (a commune is a local municipality in French).
eng.anarchopedia.org /Pierre-Joseph_Proudhon   (2503 words)

  
 Cooperative - CounterCulture - A Wikia wiki
Economic benefits are distributed proportionally according to each member's level of economic interest in the cooperative, for instance by a dividend on sales or purchases.
In the European Union and in large regions of America, cooperatives, with associations, foundations and mutual funds are considered parts of the Social economy.
This collective effort was at the origin of many of Britain's building societies, which however developed into "permanent" mutual savings and loan organisations, a term which persisted in some of their names (such as the former Leeds Permanent).
counterculture.wikia.com /wiki/Cooperative   (2537 words)

  
 Market Anarchism
The so-called "Keynesian revolution" in capitalist economics was not the beginning of the state's role in the economy, just an attempt to better play that role in hopes of making a more smooth running system and to stave off its collapse.
We are not talking about economic individualism, self-employment or family businesses (which as long as they don't employ non-family members, are not capitalist).
The workers must be in a condition of economic desperation for them to be willing to give up an equal voice in the management of their daily affairs and accept a boss.
www.syndicalist.org /theory/market_anarchism.shtml   (1189 words)

  
 Libertarian Socialism -- A Contradiction, or a Plausible Principle?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
It was believed that such favoritism caused the great economic and social problems of their day (go to the search engine Google and search for Anarchist Archives for more information).
It is defined as an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs through a jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprise.
Mutualism recommends voluntary association such as guilds, trade unions, community associations, and cooperatives as the remedies for any deficiencies in markets.
www.progress.org /2003/libsoc01.htm   (818 words)

  
 Community Yellow Pages   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
Economic arrangements are one of the main areas of disagreement for anarchists.
, published in 1840), he expounded an economic theory based on a labor theory of value, which states that the actual price of a thing (or the "true cost") is the amount of labor that was undertaken to produce it.
Neo-classical economics takes a subjective theory of value and considers prices to be based on marginal utility.
www.cardsiworld.com /wiki3-Anarchist   (6228 words)

  
 The KLI Theory Lab - keywords - altruism
Keywords: altruism • evolutionary ethics • selfish gene theory.
Khalil, E.L. Beyond self-interest and altruism: A reconstruction of Adam Smith's theory of human conduct.
Keywords: altruism • evolutionary economics • innate learning patterns • preference theory.
www.kli.ac.at /theorylab/Keyword/A/altruism.html   (651 words)

  
 Anarchism - {{ᏏᏖᎾᎺ}}   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
Mutualism ᎨᏒᎢ ᏗᏕᎶᏆᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᏂᎦᏘᎴᎩ ᎾᏍᎩ ᎤᎪᏗᏗ ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏅᎯ ᎬᏙᏗ Pierre-ᏧᏳᎪᏗᎭ Proudhon, ᎯᎠ ᎢᎬᏱ ᎤᏯᏅᏛ ᎤᏩᏒᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎠᎴ ᎤᏤᎵ atogiyadv ᏓᏂᎦᏘᎴᎬ.
Proudhon ᎤᏤᎵ mutualism ᎠᏰᎲ ᎡᏆ ᎾᏓᏛᏂᏌᏁᎲ ᎭᏫᎾᏗᏢ ᏴᏩᏁᎬ individualist ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᏂᎦᏘᎴᎩ,
individualist ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᏂᎦᏘᎴᎩ, anarcho-ᎤᎾᎵᎪᏒ, anarcho-syndicalism, anarcho-capitalism, mutualism, ᏧᎾᏁᎸᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᏂᎦᏘᎴᎩ, anarcha-feminism, ᎢᏤ ᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᏂᎦᏘᎴᎩ, ᎠᏲᏍᏙᏗ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᏂᎦᏘᎴᎩ, ᎬᎿᎨ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᏂᎦᏘᎴᎩ, ᎨᏛᎢ-ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᏂᎦᏘᎴᎩ, ᎨᏛᎢ-ᎠᎦᏍᎦᏂ ᎠᏰᎵ ᏗᏂᎦᏘᎴᎩ
www.wikigadugi.org /wiki/Anarchism   (6432 words)

  
 Summarizing Participatory Economics  For purposes of exploration and debate with  Libertarian Municipalism
One of the least appealing elements of your theory, in my eyes, is its postulation of an integrated economy on the scale of the existing United States.
Parecon accepts this aspect of current economic reality, while social ecology would like to alter it in the direction of regional and local economies, as far as basic production is concerned, without falling into a myopic insistence on reduced scale or self-reliance for its own sake.
I think you harbor these suspicions toward social ecology because we haven't yet produced a detailed economic vision, but that is not at all the same thing as simply wishing away difficult economic questions.
www.zmag.org /reply2staudal.htm   (3761 words)

  
 Alibris: Mutualism
With clarity, wit, and vivid examples from his extensive work with couples in crisis, Dr. Derman takes an unequivocal stance for the sameness and equality of both partners in any relationship, encouraging couples to accept and expose the unacceptable thoughts, feelings, and desires that come between them.
Alan Gewirth extends his fundamental principle of equal and universal human rights, the Principle of Generic Consistency, into the arena of social and political philosophy, exploring its implications for both social and economic rights.
Symbiotic relationships between living things are constantly at work on Earth, from the largest animals to organisms too small to see with the naked eye, "Parasites and Partners look to introduce these unique relationships to readers in grades 5-7, complex biological concepts, relationships, and life cycles are explained throughout with clear text...
www.alibris.com /search/books/subject/Mutualism   (857 words)

  
 Nicholas A. Friedenberg research and application
Let no one forget, neither the ecologists nor the people who need their skills, that an industrial world, in both economic and social terms, is managed by metrics familiar to ecological theory.
Many of the keywords are the same: productivity, diversity, competition, diversification, adaptation, extinction, mutualism, top-down, bottom-up, disturbance, stability, portfolio effects.
People need writers accustomed to complex, technical issues.
www.archidictus.org /theory/overview.html   (188 words)

  
 Anarchism - Avoo - Ask Us A Question - Anarchism is the name of a political philosophy or a group of doctrines and ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
I am not a Communist, because Communism concentrates and swallows up in itself for the benefit of the State all the forces of society, because it inevitably leads to the concentration of property in the hands of the State."
^ Daniel Guerin, Anarchism: From Theory to Practice (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1970).
^ Greene, William B., "Communism versus Mutualism," Socialistic, Communistic, Mutualistic and Financial Fragments.
www.millvalleycaus.com /topic/Anarchism   (7589 words)

  
 A Mutualist FAQ
When it is updated, it will also include a large amount of historical information provided by Shawn P. Wilbur.
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MUTUALISM AND THE COOPERATIVE MOVEMENT?
WHAT ARE SOME OF THE CRITICISMS OF MUTUALISM, AND HOW DO WE ANSWER THEM?
mutualist.org /id23.html   (126 words)

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