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Topic: Myelin

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In the News (Wed 19 Jun 19)

  Myelin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Myelin is made up primarily of a sphingolipid called sphingomyelin, and it is thought that the intertwining of the hydrocarbon chains of sphingomyelin serve to strengthen the myelin sheath.
The main consequence of a myelin layer (or sheath) is an increase in the speed at which impulses propagate along the myelinated fiber.
Demyelination is a loss of myelin and is the root cause of symptoms experienced by patients with diseases such as multiple sclerosis and transverse myelitis.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Myelin   (402 words)

 myelin - multiple sclerosis encyclopaedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Myelin is a collection of lipid fats and proteins that sheaths the long extensions of nerve cells (neurons) called axons.
The myelin sheath is broken at intervals called the nodes of Ranvier which are rich in sodium channels.
In Multiple Sclerosis, the myelin is destructively removed from around the axon which slows down nerve impulses in a process known as demyelination.
www.mult-sclerosis.org /myelin.html   (470 words)

 Structure of the Neuron - Myelin Sheath   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The Myelin Sheath of a neuron consists of fat-containing cells that insulate the axon from electrical activity.
The myelin sheath (a tubular case or envelope) gives the whitish appearance to the white matter of the brain.
Myelin cells are included in the category of Gail cells.
psych.athabascau.ca /html/Psych289/Biotutorials/1/myelin.shtml   (246 words)

 A Look at Myelin and Myelin-Related Disorders
Myelin is the protective sheath around axons in the nervous system, and is often referred to as 'white matter.' It acts as an insulator to the electrical signal that is conducted down the axon as a neuron fires, and can well be compared to the insulation around an electrical wire.
The Myelin Project is currently conducting research on possible myelin regrowth strategies, with the goal to either considerably slow down demyelinating diseases for which there is no cure, or restoring full function for those diseases that do have cures (5).
Since the chemical make-up of myelin is as complex as it is, and since changes in this make-up seem to lead to different kinds of results, further questions may pose themselves, such as whether the function of myelin in affecting the electrical impulse in the axon is more than merely that of an insulator.
serendip.brynmawr.edu /bb/neuro/neuro01/web1/Blumenfeld.html   (1129 words)

 myelin --  Encyclopædia Britannica
The myelin sheath is deposited by Schwann cells in layers surrounding the nerve fibres of the central and peripheral nervous systems of many organisms.
Gliomas may form in the retina of the eye, in the brain, in the heart, in the myelin sheaths of nerves (neurilemmoma), and occasionally in the sinus, where the tumour has been derived from the olfactory bulb of the brain.
In MS, the fatty myelin sheath that surrounds the nerves is progressively destroyed, thus interfering with proper nerve-signal transmission to muscles and organs (see nervous system).
www.britannica.com /eb/article-9054530   (714 words)

 The Myelin Project: Home
The film tells the real-life story of Lorenzo Odone and his parents, Augusto and Michaela, inventors of the oil and founders of The Myelin Project.
Myelin is produced by specialized cells: oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system, and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system.
Myelin sheaths wrap themselves around axons, the threadlike extensions of neurons that make up nerve fibers.
www.myelin.org   (196 words)

 Myelin Repair Foundation for Multiple Sclerosis   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Myelin is the protective insulation surrounding nerve fibers of the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord).
Myelin is often compared to insulating material around an electrical wire; loss of myelin interferes with the transmission of nerve signals.
Myelin is destroyed and replaced by scars of hardened "sclerotic" tissue.
www.myelinrepair.org /faq.html   (1230 words)

 External Components of a Neuron - Myelin Sheath   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Myelin cells are included in the category of glial cells.
The gaps (approximately 1micrometer wide) formed between myelin sheath cells long the axons are called Nodes of Ranvier.
Myelinated axons are rare in the autonomic nervous system and absent in the nervous system of invertebrates.
psych.athabascau.ca /html/Psych402/Biotutorials/2/myelin.shtml   (268 words)

 Medical Glossary - Multiple Sclerosis Society of Auckland, New Zealand
The core nerve fiber extending from a cell body which is protected by the myelin sheath.
Destruction of myelin, resulting in disruption in the flow of messages between the brain, spinal cord and other parts of the body.
Such acids are an element of myelin, but studies have shown only a very modest positive effect from the taking of evening primrose oil as an oral supplement for people with multiple sclerosis.
www.msakl.org.nz /glossary.htm   (1085 words)

 MS is AUTOIMMUNE so why isn't ALD?  Does Ahlzeimer's Have Similar Concerns?
Myelin is the layer that forms around nerves.
This is followed by destruction of myelin, the fatty covering that insulates nerve cell fibers in the brain and spinal cord.
Myelin allows for the smooth, high-speed transmission of electrochemical messages between the brain, the spinal cord, and the rest of the body.
home.gci.net /~blessing/pages/myelin.htm   (683 words)

 Myelin and Brain Development Section   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
He became Chief of the Myelin and Brain Development Section in 1977 and Chief of the Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology in 1991.
MAG is selectively localized in periaxonal Schwann cell and oligodendroglial membranes of myelin sheaths where it functions in glia-axon interactions.
MAG is important for a signaling pathway from Schwann cells to axons in the PNS that is essential for the normal maintenance of myelinated axons.
intra.ninds.nih.gov /Lab.asp?Org_ID=28   (581 words)

 British Trust for the Myelin Project - Objectives - introduction.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Myelin, the white matter insulating the nerves, allows the conduction of impulses from one part of the body to another.
Backed by the families and friends of people battling the many myelin diseases, we focus public and scientific attention on the single problem common to all these diseases.
When the myelin sheath is damaged, the results can be devastating.
www.myelinprobritish.demon.co.uk /geninfo/objectives.htm   (627 words)

 Scientists restore crucial myelin in brains of mice
Scientists for the first time have restored a crucial substance known as myelin in a widespread area of an animal's brain, opening the door toward new ways to improve treatment of an assortment of "demyelinating" diseases as well as the side effects of such common conditions as high blood pressure and heart disease.
The work focuses on myelin, the fatty substance that covers nearly all the nerve cells in our bodies — like insulation wrapped around a wire — and helps signals in the nervous system go from one point to another.
In addition, cerebral palsy is largely caused by a myelin problem in infants born prematurely.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2004-01/uorm-src011304.php   (1141 words)

 Biology of Oligodendrocyte and Myelin in the Mammalian Central Nervous System -- Baumann and Pham-Dinh 81 (2): 871 -- ...
Myelination occurs on an asynchronous mode, with individual oligodendrocytes maturing independently within a cluster of adjacent oligodendrocytes, suggesting an interaction between axon maturation and oligodendrocyte differentiation.
The compact myelin is formed by the apposition of the external faces of the membrane of the myelinating cell, forming the "double intraperiodic line"; the apposition of the internal faces followed by the extrusion of the cytoplasm, form the "major dense line." The myelin proteins are schematically described; they differ between PNS and CNS.
Myelin is the essential constituent of white matter in the CNS which contains ~40-50% myelin on a dry weight basis.
physrev.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/81/2/871   (10051 words)

 Pfam 18.0 : Myelin_MBP   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The myelin sheath is a multi-layered membrane, unique to the nervous system, that functions as an insulator to greatly increase the velocity of axonal impulse conduction MEDLINE:2435734.
Myelin basic protein (MBP) MEDLINE:1710177, MEDLINE:1710279 is a hydrophilic protein that may function to maintain the correct structure of myelin, interacting with the lipids in the myelin membrane by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions.
In mammals various forms of MBP exist which are produced by the alternative splicing of a single gene; these forms differ by the presence or the absence of short (10 to 20 residues) peptides in various internal locations in the sequence.
pfam.wustl.edu /cgi-bin/getdesc?acc=PF01669   (144 words)

 The Myelin Project: What does the future have in store for MS patients
The completion of the Myelin Project will be beneficial to all persons possessing demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis.
MS is a disease that destroys myelin and causes poor conduction of nerve impulses among axons.
For example, in transplanting myelin into the damaged areas of the CNS "concerns [have] risen by persons with long-term MS that some, or even all, of their nerve axons may not have survived over the long period of time of inactivity due to long-standing damage" (1, 1997).
www.texarkanacollege.edu /~mstorey/piazza.html   (861 words)

 Scientists Discover Key to Myelin Production - Health and Medical Information produced by doctors - MedicineNet.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
myelin, the fatty insulation around nerve cells that ensures swift and efficient communication throughout the nervous system.
Using a sophisticated system for growing nerve cells in laboratory dishes, the team identified a gene called neuregulin as the myelin signal, lead researcher Dr. James L. Salzer, a professor of cell biology and neurology at, said in a prepared statement.
If so, it may one day be possible to enhance or fix damaged spinal cords and tracts of brain that have lost their myelin due to injury or disease.
www.medicinenet.com /script/main/art.asp?articlekey=53221   (316 words)

 National MS Society | Sourcebook: Myelin   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Myelin is present in both the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS), but it is only the destruction of CNS myelin that produces the symptoms of MS.
Myelin prevents the current from leaking out of the nerve at inappropriate points and decreases the electrical resistance of the nerve.
As scientists are working to stimulate myelin repair, they are also focusing their attention on several properties of myelin that work to inhibit this repair.
www.nationalmssociety.org /Sourcebook-Myelin.asp   (736 words)

 Myelin Repair Foundation for Multiple Sclerosis
The Myelin Repair Foundation was formed to develop palliative myelin repair treatments and leverage recent myelin related scientific breakthroughs.
These highly respected scientists are focused on developing new drug targets — by 2009 — that would allow remyelination (myelin repair) in MS patients.
The foundation's goal is to raise $25 million to complete the myelin repair research plan by 2009.
www.myelinrepair.org   (315 words)

 FuturePundit: Stem Cell Therapy Replaces Missing Myelin In Mouse Brains
Each is caused by a specific inherited biochemical defect in the metabolism of myelin proteolipids that results in abnormal accumulation of a metabolite in brain tissue.
The normal development of myelin sheaths is impaired in children born with certain inherited diseases, such as Tay-Sachs disease, Niemann-Pick disease, Gaucher's disease, and Hurler's syndrome.
My son's paediatric neurologist explained that my son's loss of myelin is in fact the result of neuronal loss which occurred during the period of asphyxia he suffered at birth.
www.futurepundit.com /archives/001901.html   (2581 words)

 World of MS - MS - The Disease - Demyelination   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Demyelination is the term used for a loss of myelin, a substance in the white matter that insulates nerve endings.
Myelin helps the nerves receive and interpret messages from the brain at maximum speed.
When nerve endings lose this substance they can not function properly, leading to patches of scarring, or ‘sclerosis’, occurring where nerve endings have lost myelin.
www.msif.org /en/ms_the_disease/demyelination.html   (136 words)

 Clinical and Analytical Evaluation of an Enzyme Immunoassay for Myelin Basic Protein in Cerebrospinal Fluid -- Ohta et ...
Jacque C, Delassalle A, Rancurel G, Raoul M, Lesourd B, Legrand J-C. Myelin basic protein in CSF and blood: relationship between its presence and the occurrence of a destructive process in the brains of encephalitic patients.
Myelin basic protein in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with brain tumors.
Radioimmunoassay of human myelin basic protein in tissue extract, cerebrospinal fluid and serum and its clinical application to patients with head injury.
www.clinchem.org /cgi/content/full/46/9/1326   (2418 words)

 The Myelin Project: June 2004 Progress Report
The Myelin Project is extending its coverage of the leukodystrophies.
Although these cells do not normally make myelin, they are able to do so when transplanted to areas of demyelination in the brain or spinal cord, as shown by Dr. Franklin’s previous work in rats.
As you know, The Myelin Project is based on a spirit of private initiative—most of our funds are contributed from families struck by one myelin disease or another.
www.myelin.org /06072004.htm   (3667 words)

 Small Angle X-Ray Scattering from Lipid-Bound Myelin Basic Protein in Solution -- Haas et al. 86 (1): 455 -- ...
Expression of a myelin basic protein gene in transgenic mice: correlation of the dismyelinating phenotype.
Myelin basic protein ability to organize lipid bilayers: structural transitions in bilayers of lysophosphatidylcholine micelles.
Stoffel, W. The myelin membrane of the central nervous system—essential macromolecular structure and function.
www.biophysj.org /cgi/content/full/86/1/455   (3428 words)

 Myelin   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Myelin is an insulating layer that forms around nerves.
The purpose of the myelin sheath is to allow rapid and efficient transmission of impulses along the nerve cells.
If the myelin is damaged, the impulses are disrupted.
www.healthscout.com /ency/1/002261.html   (152 words)

 Adrenoleukodystrophy and Myelin: Where's the Connection?
According to the fact sheet put out by the National Institute of Health in Bethesda, MD in 1997, "ALD is a rare, genetic disorder characterized by the breakdown or loss of the myelin sheath surrounding nerve cells in the brain and progressive dysfunction of the adrenal gland" (1).
The myelin coating along the axons of neurons allows impulses to "jump" more quickly along the length of the axon (9).
Their goal is to accelerate research on myelin repair and they have set up a Work Group from among the top international laboratories specializing in myelin repair.
serendip.brynmawr.edu /bb/neuro/neuro99/web3/Kirbyglatkowski.html   (1767 words)

 Progesterone Synthesized by Schwann Cells during Myelin Formation Regulates Neuronal Gene Expression -- Chan et al. 11 ...
Myelin synthesis can be induced in cocultures of Schwann cells and DRG neurons.
The neurosteroid progesterone increases the expression of myelin proteins (MBP and CNPase) in rat oligodendrocytes in primary culture.
Notterpek, L., Snipes, G.J., and Shooter, E.M. Temporal expression pattern of peripheral myelin protein 22 during in vivo and in vitro myelination.
www.molbiolcell.org /cgi/content/full/11/7/2283   (5671 words)

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