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Topic: Naive empiricism

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  Naive empiricism
Naive Empiricism is a philosophy about how one should best approach science.
Naive Empiricism refers to the belief that scientist should try to be as objective and neutral as possible when studying something.
Naive empiricism stresses the importance of relying on empirical observations about the world and not our interpretations of those observations.
www.teachtime.com /en/wikipedia/n/na/naive_empiricism.html   (326 words)

 Epistemology - Biocrawler definition:Epistemology - Biocrawler   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Naïve empiricism holds simply that our ideas and theories need to be tested against reality, and accepted or rejected on the basis of how well they correspond to the facts.
Empiricism is often confused with positivism, which places higher emphasis on ideas about reality than on experiences with reality themselves.
Objectivism rejects pure empiricism on the grounds that we are able to move beyond the level of sense-perceptions by means of objective concepts.
www.biocrawler.com /biowiki/Epistemology   (2564 words)

 The Philosophy of Science   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Empiricism is the view that knowledge derives from experience of the world.
The explication of falsification by Popper perhaps is responsible for the formulation of the two main objections to empirical positivism.
empiricism) with deductive, falsifiable reasoning, it appeared to Feyerabend that doing so is neither necessary for, nor conducive to, scientific progress.
dks.thing.net /ThePhilOfSci.html   (5590 words)

 [No title]
While mathematics and logic set the standard for what is clear, distinct, and precise, the empirical sciences deal with indistinct or vague typifications of or generalizations from sense experience.
Empirical, third-person observation is prized above all else while eidetic, consciousness-oriented observation is ignored or dogmatically held to be impossible.
It does not itself seek empirical facts about human subjectivity but is concerned with necessary conditions for the possibility of such facts.
www.nd.edu /~hps/Tieszen=Husserl.doc   (6094 words)

 FQS 6(2) Kelle: "Emergence" vs. "Forcing" of Empirical Data? A Crucial Problem of "Grounded Theory" Reconsidered
This especially refers to the critique of naive empiricism, to the concept of hypothetical or abductive inference, to the concept of empirical content or falsifiability of statements and to the concept of corroboration.
In conceptualising the process of theory generation in empirical research often a wrong alternative is established between an inductivist concept and a hypothetico-deductive (H-D) model of theory generation: according to the H-D model, favoured often by quantitative methodologists, research is seen as a process of hypothesis testing by means of experimental or quasi-experimental strategies.
Empirically grounded theory building starts by making a careful choice among a variety of concepts with diverging theoretical backgrounds after having examined their appropriateness for the investigated phenomena.
qualitative-research.net /fqs-texte/2-05/05-2-27-e.htm   (8936 words)

 The Responsive Order: A New Empiricism
The purpose of this paper is to establish a new empiricism, one that is not naive.
The assumption that empiricism requires a separate given has led many philosophers and scientists to conclude that empiricism is inherently impossible.
Although the empirical and the approach are not separable, the determination moves in both directions.
www.focusing.org /gendlin4.html   (12474 words)

 Chad Reese
Is there another way of interpreting this ‘man is the measure?’ Empiricism is a school with deep roots in philosophical thought.
If it is true that a man or woman in a delusional state, or in dreaming, can have perceptions which are false, then it seems that the definition that knowledge is the same as perception is necessarily flawed.
For as observed earlier, naïve empiricism espouses that knowledge as perception is infallible.
www.mindspring.com /~careese/theaetetus.htm   (2461 words)

 LENIN'S TOMB: Empiricism vs Truth.
Noam Chomsky characterised empiricism as a kind of superstition, a cult which had overcome rational discussion of systems, structures and so on.
With this came a change in intellectual authority - because the Aristotelians had favoured intellectual coherence over empirical validation, often at the cost of the latter, it became - in a scientistic era - a simple matter to scoff at system-building, structuralism and so forth.
The direct impact of this naive empiricism on our day to day lives is that the class war is more likely to be ideologically lost because we lack a way of conceptualising and articulating the way in which the ruling class operate.
leninology.blogspot.com /2004/10/empiricism-vs-truth.html   (603 words)

 Philosophy of science   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Empiricism is the doctrine that knowledge derives from experience of the world, in contrast to idealism, which holds that knowledge derives from ideas.
They are used to gather information through our senses, via empirical methods that many humans are capable of experiencing.
Realism or naive empiricism in the context of the philosophy of science is the belief that scientific statements are in some way about a world that exists independently of our ideas and theories about it.
www.enlightenweb.net /p/ph/philosophy_of_science.html   (2087 words)

 Studi Galileiani
Where a method is assumed to be fixed, of course, it is not long before its advocates claim that their investigations are therefore neutral and use their “method” as a rhetorical tool to deny recognition and support to alternative ideas not following it.
Some theorists responded by appealing to higher-level regularities, but this led to a regress problem because resorting to a presumed regularity of a different order to explain which of several possible regularities was the correct one led to the same question on the new level, and so on.
Much like theory-ladenness, this may seem obvious with the benefit of hindsight but it is important to remember that at the time some philosophers of science and New Archaeologists with them were contending that the sciences could avoid the arbitrary and in particular solve the demarcation problem, or how to separate science and non-science.
www.galilean-library.org /blog   (7836 words)

 abscj031.htm   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The perceived surge in punitiveness is widely believed to account for the rise in the prison population.
The concept of punitiveness, however, is under-theorised and many of the explanations which are centred around this concept either gravitate towards naive empiricism or rampant idealism.
In this paper the concept of punitiveness is examined and it is argued that it provides a superficially plausable point of references for explaining recent changes in crime control but is ultimately a less significant factor than is often suggested.
www.asc41.com /www/2004/abscj031.htm   (83 words)

 Feyerabend and Method
Unfortunately, Copernicanism was of equal empirical content to its rival (see Kuhn, 1985 and Swerdlow, 1973) and was incompatible with the Aristotelianism of the day.
Since Lakatos' methodology was careful to incorporate the lessons of the failure of falsificationism, his classification of research programmes as progressive if they demonstrate excess empirical content that has been confirmed (and degenerating for the converse) was far better equipped to survive problematic episodes in the history of science.
Indeed, Lakatos accepted that a new theory would initially show a loss in empirical content as it took time to become established, and that ad hoc measures are acceptable insofar as they help the theory avoid falsification and thus give it more time to develop.
www.galilean-library.org /feyerabend.html   (2079 words)

 Kinach Grounded Theory as Scientific Method: Haig-Inspired Reflections on Educational Research Methodology
Haig begins his defense of GS by shielding them from the accusation that grounded theory is naive Baconian induction.
Haig thus confirms that as early as the sixties, GS held to the philosophy-of-science view that observation is theory-laden.
Having laid to rest the claim that grounded theory is naive empiricism, Haig next distinguishes between abduction and induction as two types of inference.
www.ed.uiuc.edu /EPS/PES-yearbook/95_docs/kinach.html   (1413 words)

 Epistemology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Having acknowledged some of the problems with pure rationalism and naive empiricism we now need to discuss epistemological theories which take a more critical view of 'reality'.
This is the idea that one begins with one's own experience of the world (as in naive empiricism), yet this is then assessed according to various 'criteria' within one's worldview.
The deductive version of inferential empiricism called Critical Interpretation, begins with certain deductions about what should be the case if X applies and then assesses the adequacy of this belief on the basis of one's experience in the world (E.g.
www.faithnet.org.uk /Philosophy/epistemology.htm   (2021 words)

 Exposing yourself: Reflexivity, anthropology, and film - J Ruby
The naive empiricism which pervaded our society and dominated nineteenth-century social science is being eroded.
By naive empiricist, I simply mean someone who 'tends to believe that the world "out there" is isomorphic in every respect with the image the detached observer will form of it' (Nash and Wintrob 1972:529).
If one assumes that there is an objectively meaningful world which can be empirically verified and that meaning inherently resides in phenomena, then the scientist's role is to discover it, not impose his interpretation on it, or if he does, to clearly separate his interpretation from the data.
astro.temple.edu /~ruby/ruby/exposing.html   (10144 words)

 Objectivist philosophy Objectivist philosophy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Rand rejected this view: she thought that logic and mathematics were merely the most general sciences about empirical reality.
Radical Empiricism holds that our knowledge is essentially nothing more than the sum of our experiences.
Empiricism is generally regarded as being at the heart of the modern
dks.thing.net /Objectivist_philosophy.html   (11401 words)

 British Medical Journal: Narrative based medicine in an evidence based world   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
In a widely quoted riposte to critics who accused them of naive empiricism, Sackett and colleagues claimed that "the practice of evidence based medicine means integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available external clinical evidence....
Similarly (but for different reasons), the "truths" established by the empirical observation of populations in randomised trials and cohort studies cannot be mechanistically applied to individual patients (whose behaviour is irremediably contextual and idiosyncratic) or episodes of illness.
In large research trials the individual participant's unique and multidimensional experience is expressed as (say) a single dot on a scatter plot to which we apply mathematical tools to produce a story about the sample as a whole.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m0999/is_7179_318/ai_53984544   (833 words)

 Imaginative Generalization as Epogoge
Much of the contemporary interpretations of science based on paradigm shifts and the incommensurability of rival theories are founded on the presumed invalidity of the inductive movement.
In particular, he repudiates both a naive verificationism and the corresponding belief in pure or uninterpreted observation of independent facts.
On the other hand, although he shares with contemporary epistemologists the view that all observation is "theory-laden," he does not thereby conclude that induction should simply be discarded to the junk heap of worn out ideas.
www.religion-online.org /showarticle.asp?title=2758   (5754 words)

 empiricism - OneLook Dictionary Search
Empiricism : The Ism Book A Field Guide to the Nomenclature of Philosophy [home, info]
Phrases that include empiricism: british empiricism, scientific empiricism, logical empiricism, empiricism british, naive empiricism, more...
Words similar to empiricism: empiricist, sensationalism, empiricist philosophy, more...
www.onelook.com /cgi-bin/cgiwrap/bware/dofind.cgi?word=empiricism   (320 words)

According to naive empiricism, scientific inquiry is driven by the need to organize observation reports in such a way that we may make predictions about future observations.
What we seek to codify depends (internally) on where we can most easily elicit strong empirical generalizations and (externally) on which sorts of phenomena it would be most valuable to be able to predict.
So, for example, what made the retrograde motion of the planets problematic was not so much that it was unexpected (after all the retrograde motion is periodic and predictable) but that it conflicted with the theory that the motions of the unchanging celestial bodies should be circular.
www.indiana.edu /~koertge/PopLecII.html   (5455 words)

 Veregin   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
According to some critics, the most important change wrought by these technologies is the ascendance of a new geospatial "science" focused on the goal of producing ultimately truthful and objective representations of the external environment.
This goal is seen as a byproduct of the new technological means, with its appeals to neo-positivism, reductionism, instrumentalist thinking and naive empiricism in which "reality" is taken as a given (Pickles, 1995; Sheppard and Poiker, 1995).
Most significantly, perhaps, members of this community are seen as unwilling or unable to accept the role that social and institutional values play in the representation of features in geospatial databases.
www.geo.wvu.edu /i19/papers/veregin.html   (1918 words)

 Ramanuja [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
Ramanuja holds a position that is similar to naïve empiricism.
According to naïve empiricism, the only knowledge that one can have is knowledge that one has gained by one's own experience.
Unlike some proponents of naïve empiricism, Ramanuja does not think that it suffices to intermittently have an acquaintance with objects of knowledge.
www.iep.utm.edu /r/ramanuja.htm   (7956 words)

 Organization Studies: Critique in the name of what? Postmodernism and critical approaches to organization
As Rorty puts it, the mind is not the mirror of nature, there are no privileged representations and what we call truth is no more than a name for a historically located practice of justification (1979).
Any student of interpretive social science from the 1960s onwards learnt the critique of naive empiricism and the game of exposing the hidden ideological position, semiotic code or hermeneutic closure.
The contemporary version of this relativist social constructionism is postmodernism, a position that is premised on continually exposing the contradictions at the heart of any grand narrative claims to foundations for truth (Lyotard 1984).
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m4339/is_n4_v16/ai_17430136   (1309 words)

 Response to letter on Andrea Dworkin obituary: Political economy and gender oppression: a non-Liberal strategy against ...
Whether it is exchange at the marketplace called "shopping" or exchange between workers and capitalists called "wages," Marxism repeats over and over again that the individual consent to the exchange conceals the coercion of labor out of labor-power.
The whole difference between Liberalism/naive empiricism and Marxism is that Marxism looks underneath social relations.
Both commonly discussed components of rape are thus part of the discussion of class that Marx already detailed--force and consent.
www.etext.org /Politics/MIM/gender/fpegender041805.html   (1824 words)

 Objective Graphics
It’s a pity that Karl Popper, who clarified a number of things, carried his hostility to the “bucket theory of the mind” and to naïve empiricism so far he would probably not have understood that bottomless information buckets can be very useful.
Can we look beyond the social arrangements which allow the technology of empirical enquiry to exist, and examine some of those ideas which, if they have not actually furthered, have at least accompanied its rise?
After Marshall McLuhan's extravagances it has become harder than it should be to argue the less apocalyptic connections between technology and other areas of life and thought.
www.culturecult.com /film/objectivegraphics.htm   (5538 words)

 Dialog 5 ROund 3
Actually, naive empiricism refers to the belief that percepts share all the properties of their corresponding existents (for instance, that when you look at them from a plane, people really are small like ants).
So ironically, it seems he is the one who is the “naive empiricist” here, at least in his assumptions.
Or perhaps he simply assumed I was a naive empiricist and is now asking what he thinks are clever leading questions.
home.earthlink.net /~gbl111/dialog_5_round_3.htm   (2811 words)

 Bednarik, A taphonomy of palaeoart
While subsequent writers differ in many details with McCarthy, it is true that the surviving earlier petroglyphs are consistently deeply carved, usually linear and fully patinated, whilst the more recent petroglyphs are often shallow and not fully repatinated.
Here a chronological sequence of techniques has been invented on the basis of empirical evidence which is largely the result of taphonomic processes.
It would not be fair to disparage past empirical interpretation attempts of Pleistocene art without offering an alternative.
cogweb.ucla.edu /ep/Art/Bednarik_94.html   (3687 words)

 Time and Supervenience   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
One approach, which appears to be shared by Smith and Tooley, is to regard modern frame-dependent views of simultaneity as resulting from the limitations in our verification procedures, which are of necessity affected by the limitations of the signal speed of light.
This empirical limitation is thought to mask an underlying "metaphysical" simultaneity which is absolute.
Apart from the familiar limitations posed by our physical environment, we generally think of ourselves as "free." Of course, this kind of naive empiricism has not often proved convincing among philosophers, who have been quick to propose various arguments to show that, even if not experienced, deterministic constraints might still be real.
members.aol.com /pendletonz/time_supervenience.html   (9326 words)

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